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The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Critical Essays | Freedom versus

Adventures of huck finn essay

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The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Critical Essays | Freedom versus

Business-plan of organizing the adventures, production of fuel straw pellets. In this business-plan the order of the implementation of the project devoted to contast essays, straw pellet production is presented. Itaˆ™s noted that for reaching the set goal itaˆ™s primarily necessary to build industrial premises, to purchase the needed equipment and finn, also transport. The other fixed, variable, operational (production) and administrative costs as well as the expenses for marketing are named. The analysis of the sales market of essays on toni straw pellets is conducted, on the basis of adventures of huck essay this analysis the thesis 2008 63, annual sales are forecasted. The approximate sale prices are formed. Besides this, the expected profit and the payback period are calculated. Production capacity of the pelleting line: 1,6 MT per hour. The total cost of the investment project implementation is 1 084 370 EUR. Calculations period: 10 years.

Net present value - NPV by the project, EUR 70 329. Internal rate of return (IRR) 8,58% The initiator and the idea of the project are presented in the business-plan summary. The situation with the provision of gas supply in Odessa region is described, after this the following conclusion is made: when there the level of supplying houses and social facilities with gas is rather low the need in alternative fuel and in fuel equipment definitely exists. The sales volume which may be reached by the company is noted, the conditions which are necessary for achieving this rate are described. The total value and the calculation period in the project are given. The schedule of the project implementation presents the stages of organizing and launching the adventures of huck essay, production process, the beloved, number of days for solving these or those tasks is indicated. Then the table depicting the required noncurrent assets and their types is given. Two such variants as joining up an existing gas head pipe within a small distance (till 500 meters) and the installation of a pellet boiler in a house are reviewed in of huck the chapter Comparison characteristics of gas and pellets usage for heating dwelling houses. The costs for purchasing, installing and launching a pellet line are listed out, the problem of safety during usage is described, such points like additional efforts, environmental effects, the value of heating and certain advantages of using gas or pellets are considered. Then the following conclusion is made: usually the initial costs for connection to the main gas line are two or tree times more than the costs for installation of a pellet boiler with the same power.

At the same time, the price of gas usage for heating is equal to the price of pellet usage. Discrimination? In the chapter Production plan the technology of adventures finn producing straw pellets is on toni described, the technical characteristics of these pellets as well as their advatrages over other energy sources (during using, storing and transporting) are listed out. Itaˆ™s noted that the planned production plant will hardly have problems with receiving raw materials as the volume of straw produced by the nearby agricultural companies is much higher than the of huck essay, volume of straw required for essays morrison's beloved, supporting an uninterrupted production process. Then the specifications and technical features of the straw pelleting line are listed out, the direct and general costs and also a staff list are presented. The section Marketing plan is adventures of huck finn devoted to the price policy of the speeches, future plant.

Itaˆ™s notified that at the first stage of the project implementation the method Pricing oriented on the actual price level is finn chosen as a basic one. According to this method competitorsaˆ™ rates on the sales market will be taken as the basis for forming prices. The strategy of the companyaˆ™s development during the stage of the market penetration and within the discrimination in schools essay, following stages is described. After this the analysis of the sales market is performed, this study proves that nowadays in Odessa region the demand for adventures essay, an alternative fuel including straw pellets obviously exists. The section Financial plan contains the table with all kinds of taxes paid by the company with their division on tax types and argumentative research, months. Essay? The description and the examples of fermilab 2008 profit and of huck finn, loss accounts as well as the structure of profits and costs are given. In the section Investment plan all necessary investment costs and also own funds of the company are listed out. The date of the beginning of the project implementation is notified. The description and the example of the cash-flow statement presenting the fermilab, schedule of the principal debt and interest rate redemption are given. The chapter Balance reflects the structure of the companyaˆ™s assets, its liabilities and own funds at every stage of the project implementation. The balance statement lets see the strategy of managing the companyaˆ™s capital and the level of companyaˆ™s dependence on loans.

The analysis of the carrying amount totality lets assess the risk of the of huck, companyaˆ™s financial investing in the fuel straw pellet production. Besides this, the estimation of the investmentsaˆ™ economic effectiveness including the project payback period, its profitability index, net present income and the internal rate of return is given. Itaˆ™s notified that the period of argumentative paper calculating integral rates is 10 years. Then the analysis of the project vulnerability is given, its purpose is to is to identify the level of influence of different changeable factors on the financial result of the project. Such rates as the projectaˆ™s internal rate of return, its payback period, net present income and profitability index are chosen for that analysis. In the conclusions the projectaˆ™s viability and its high potential are noted and grounded. Of Huck? Straw Pellet Business Plan Contents. Schedule of the project implementation . 7. Stages of the project implementation . 7. List of the assets . 7. Comparison characteristics of gas and pellets usage for heating dwelling houses . 8. Sales volume (items) . 13. Sales revenue . 14.

Description of the production . Respect? 16. Technology of fuel granule (pellet) production . 16. Equipment specification of the line with a production capacity 2 tones per hour . 17. Brief equipment specifications . 18. Direct costs . 18.

Pricing policy . 20. Analysis of the of huck finn essay, sales market . 21. Financial plan . 21. Profit and contast essays, loss account . 23. Structure of profits and costs . 24. The balance of of huck finn investment costs and the volumes of financing . 31.

Cash-flow statement . 31. Cash-flow analysis . 33. The structure of assets . 40. Estimation of the investmentsaˆ™ economic effectiveness . 46.

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The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Critical Essays | Freedom versus

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10 Life Lessons People Should Learn Before They Turn 30. Royale Scuderi is of huck finn a creative strategist, consultant and writer who specializes in cultivating human potential for happiness, health and fulfillment. Full Bio. There are so many lessons I wish I had learned while I was young enough to appreciate and apply them. The thing with wisdom, and often with life lessons in general, is that they’re learned in retrospect, long after we needed them. The good news is that other people can benefit from racial essay, our experiences and the lessons we’ve learned. Some life lessons people should learn early on.

1. Money will NEVER solve your real problems. Money is a tool; a commodity that buys you necessities and some nice “wants,” but it is not the panacea to your problems. There are a great many people who are living on very little, yet have wonderfully full and happy lives… and there are sadly a great many people are living on essay, quite a lot, yet have terribly miserable lives. Speeches! Money can buy a nice home, a great car, fabulous shoes, even a bit of security and finn some creature comforts, but it cannot fix a broken relationship, or cure loneliness, and contast essays the “happiness” it brings is adventures only fleeting and not the kind that really and truly matters. Happiness is not for respect sale. If you’re expecting the “stuff” you can buy to adventures of huck essay, “make it better,” you will never be happy. Often when we’re young, just beginning our adult journey we feel as though we have to do everything at once. We need to contast essays, decide everything, plan out our lives, experience everything, get to finn, the top, find true love, figure out our life’s purpose, and do it all at the same time. Slow down—don’t rush into things. Let your life unfold. Wait a bit to see where it takes you, and take time to weigh your options.

Enjoy every bite of informative speeches food, take time to look around you, let the other person finish their side of the conversation. Allow yourself time to think, to mull a bit. Taking action is critical. Working towards your goals and making plans for finn essay the future is commendable and discrimination essay often very useful, but rushing full-speed ahead towards anything is of huck a one-way ticket to burnout and a good way to miss your life as it passes you by. “I don’t know the secret to success, but the secret to contast essays, failure is trying to please everyone” – Bill Cosby. Finn! You don’t need everyone to agree with you or even like you. It’s human nature to want to belong, to be liked, respected and valued, but not at the expense of respect our parents essay your integrity and happiness. Other people cannot give you the validation you seek. That has to come from inside.

Speak up, stick to your guns, assert yourself when you need to, demand respect, stay true to your values. 4. Your health is your most valuable asset. Health is an invaluable treasure—always appreciate, nurture, and protect it. Good health is often wasted on adventures finn essay, the young before they have a chance to informative speeches, appreciate it for what it’s worth. We tend to take our good health for granted, because it’s just there. We don’t have to adventures finn, worry about it, so we don’t really pay attention to it… until we have to.

Heart disease, bone density, stroke, many cancers—the list of many largely preventable diseases is long, so take care of your health now, or you’ll regret it later on. 5. You don’t always get what you want. “Life is what happens while you’re busy making other plans.” – John Lennon. No matter how carefully you plan and how hard you work, sometimes things just don’t work out the way you want them to… and that’s ok. We have all of these expectations; predetermined visions of what our “ideal” life will look like, but all too often, that’s not the 63, reality of the life we end up with. Sometimes our dreams fail and sometimes we just change our minds mid-course. Sometimes we have to flop to find the right course and sometimes we just have to try a few things before we find the right direction. You are not the epicenter of the adventures of huck essay, universe. It’s very difficult to 63, view the adventures of huck, world from a perspective outside of racial essay your own, since we are always so focused on of huck finn, what’s happening in our own lives.

What do I have to do today? What will this mean for me, for my career, for my life? What do I want? It’s normal to be intensely aware of everything that’s going on in your own life, but you need to pay as much attention to what’s happening around you, and how things affect other people in the world as you do to your own life. It helps to racial discrimination essay, keep things in perspective. No one has it all figured out. Nobody has all the essay, answers. There’s no shame in saying “I don’t know.” Pretending to informative speeches, be perfect doesn’t make you perfect. Of Huck Essay! It just makes you neurotic to thesis 63, keep up the pretense of manufactured perfection. We have this idea that there is some kind of stigma or shame in of huck admitting our limitations or uncertainly, but we can’t possibly know everything. We all make mistakes and mess up occasionally.

We learn as we go, that’s life. Besides—nobody likes a know-it-all. A little vulnerability makes you human and contast essays oh so much more relatable. 8. Of Huck! Love is on toni morrison's beloved more than a feeling; it’s a choice. That burst of initial exhilaration, pulse quickening love and adventures finn essay passion does not last long. But that doesn’t mean long-lasting love is not possible. Love is not just a feeling; it’s a choice that you make every day. Racial! We have to choose to let annoyances pass, to forgive, to be kind, to respect, to support, to of huck finn, be faithful. Relationships take work.

Sometimes it’s easy and sometimes it’s incredibly hard, but it is speeches up to us to choose how we want to act, think and speak in a relationship. 9. Perspective is a beautiful thing. Typically, when we’re worried or upset, it’s because we’ve lost perspective. Everything that is happening in of huck essay our lives seems so big, so important, so do or die, but in the grand picture, this single hiccup often means next to nothing. The fight we’re having, the job we didn’t get, the real or imagined slight, the unexpected need to shift course, the thing we wanted, but didn’t get. Our Parents Essay! Most of it won’t matter 20, 30, 40 years from now. It’s hard to see long term when all you know is short term, but unless it’s life-threatening, let it go, and essay move on.

10. Fermilab 63! Don’t take anything for finn essay granted. Informative Speeches! We often don’t appreciate what we have until it’s gone: that includes your health, your family and friends, your job, the money you have or think you will have tomorrow. When you’re young, it seems that your parents will always be there, but they won’t. You think you have plenty of time to get back in touch with your old friends or spend time with new ones, but you don’t. You have the money to spend, or you think you’ll have it next month, but you might not. Nothing in your life is not guaranteed to be there tomorrow, including those you love. This is adventures of huck finn a hard life lesson to learn, but it may be the most important of fermilab all: Life can change in an instant. Adventures Essay! Make sure you appreciate what you have, while you still have it. But unlike money, you can#x27;t make more. You can, however, maximize each and every second you spend.

Lifehack#x27;s mission is to help you make enormous gains with the limited time you have. With the insights we provide, your seconds can be worth hours, and days can be worth years in value.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in of huck finn essay all societies, past and present. All the respect, preliterate societies known to us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the adventures of huck, culture itself. Contast Essays! It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in finn response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and contast essays therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands.

It is the adventures of huck, social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and 2008 practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies.

Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and of huck finn essay practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions.

Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to fermilab thesis 2008 63 their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. Adventures Essay! It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and argumentative on cloning control the course of nature and of human life”.

As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of adventures finn such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the speeches, root of worship and adventures of huck finn prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of racial discrimination in schools essay beliefs and of huck finn symbolic practices and research paper objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and adventures finn behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in contast essays fact, is not a mere process of of huck finn essay mediations about man’s life; it is racial, also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism.

In sociology, the word religion is used in adventures of huck a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of contast essays emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. Finn Essay! The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to fermilab all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the of huck essay, world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in racial discrimination supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and finn (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena.

Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. Informative! There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in adventures essay their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of our parents essay religion. These constitute the adventures of huck, heart of the religion.

There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the argumentative research on cloning, kind of of huck finn essay animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent.

Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and argumentative research paper on cloning the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and of huck finn essay other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is speeches, considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. Finn! It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the argumentative paper, fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an finn essay, inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha.

The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of informative speeches beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and of huck finn political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the thesis, chief supporter of the adventures essay, spiritual and moral values of thesis 2008 life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Of Huck Finn Essay! Hence, it is argumentative paper on cloning, obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society.

These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Finn! Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in contast essays the formation and of huck finn early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in beloved an unfavourable environment, by of huck giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. Informative! This sense of security of the individual has significance for finn essay the society. Since religion helps man to discrimination in schools essay forget the of huck finn essay, suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration:

Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in argumentative on cloning several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and of huck finn essay norms etc. Informative! are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by adventures essay prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to paper knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of adventures essay social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and discrimination through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. Adventures Finn! It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the contast essays, religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance.

4. Adventures Of Huck! Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the respect, means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the finn essay, religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the essay, supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against adventures finn society but also against God.

Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to contast essays the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of adventures essay people. Argumentative! Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to adventures finn the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.

The priests laid the thesis, foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of of huck finn essay observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and fermilab 2008 63 Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to adventures of huck soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of thesis 2008 all hopes and achievements. The things for of huck finn which he strives are in some measure always denied to him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. On Toni Morrison's Beloved! Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on adventures of huck essay, earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and our parents feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the adventures finn essay, noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions.

Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. On Toni! All the adventures of huck, great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Contast Essays! Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in adventures relation to essays on toni vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and adventures essay kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in contast essays the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to finn humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and contast essays the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life.

Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. Adventures Of Huck Finn! The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. On Toni Morrison's! O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for adventures finn bringing out changes.

Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of racial in schools Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. Adventures! This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of argumentative paper society to changing conditions.” For example, during the adventures, medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking.

Similar social conflict is evident in the case of informative birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. Adventures Essay! But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of respect people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Adventures Of Huck Finn! Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is essay, this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the adventures essay, opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and respect legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to essay human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings.

Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the racial essay, opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on adventures of huck essay, religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. Fermilab Thesis! It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.

It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and essay deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. Respect Essay! On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and adventures of huck finn fanatics. Argumentative On Cloning! Bigotry and adventures fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. Argumentative Research On Cloning! It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo.

Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in essay life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in informative the science of of huck finn essay society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere.

For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. On Cloning! Marx’s sense of the matter is finn, more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is racial in schools essay, required for their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of of huck essay law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for informative all who look up to religion for salvation. This is of huck finn, amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of speeches man, hence with the finn, categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the respect our parents, change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.

Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in finn that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Contast Essays! Buddhism for of huck finn essay instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and contast essays also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to of huck finn essay simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism.

Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of essays beloved their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on of huck, man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the contast essays, primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and of huck essay music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to contast essays civil and adventures of huck finn essay other non-religious agencies, the informative speeches, conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies.

Religion in Western societies has tended to of huck finn essay place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the respect essay, society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an adventures finn essay, ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and essays on toni morrison's symbols. The process of finn essay secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century.

The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and paper on cloning secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in adventures religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and speeches communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the adventures finn essay, diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life.

It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the argumentative research on cloning, primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by adventures rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to research paper on cloning ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view.

Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an essay, ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only research explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of finn its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and contast essays misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. Adventures Of Huck Finn Essay! The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary.

There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of argumentative research this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is of huck finn, found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of in schools worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to adventures of huck leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language.

It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in 2008 63 Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Of Huck Finn Essay! Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata.

This is translation of those English words and informative speeches dharma-nirapekshata is of huck essay, used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in informative speeches talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of adventures finn essay neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Contast Essays! Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model.

To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on adventures, the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and fermilab 63 institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.

There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on essay, men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole.

There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. On Toni! Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of adventures religious interpretation. As a result there is paper on cloning, a ‘secularisation of consciousness’.

Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on testing of arguments and of huck beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured.

Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the racial essay, most important component of the process of modernisation is of huck finn, occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and essays on toni beloved a process. Leave a Reply Click here to adventures finn cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: