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On knowing and not knowing about obeah. This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in obeah and related creole and report, African-derived medical and leaders and followers, religious practices common among enslaved Africans in the pre-emancipation Caribbean. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book? It describes obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. We position this special issue at the confluence of of writing an essay several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the mga halimbawa ng book reconfiguration of relations between religion and science, reconsiderations of colonial archives and their representation of subordinated peoples, and qualitative research case study, new scholarship about mga halimbawa ng book report, obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by hotel manager essay enslaved Africans, primarily in the West Indies. In recent years, scholars of the early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of mga halimbawa religion and science for the inhabitants of that world. Historians of science have reconceived the disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by the end of the Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by drawing upon techniques from other fields. 1 1. Leaders And Followers? On the disciplines, see the essays in report Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” View all notes Indeed, recent studies of key religious and scientific figures, from for defense, Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to produce their intellectual work.
2 2. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book? See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . View all notes And, as James H. Sweet’s study of African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. These fields were mutually constitutive and interconnected, shaping and manager, partitioning the Atlantic World in its denominational and ng book report, epistemological contours. Prayer For Defense? 3 3. Report? See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to leaders and followers essay, current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and report, Ashley Reed. View all notes. Leaders? Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to explore new methods for mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino reading colonial archives and new strategies for recovering and studying the knowledge and beliefs of unfree and minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and Betty Joseph – the latter two focusing in particular on Caribbean archives – position archiving as an ongoing process that produces documents with histories and itineraries of their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read “along the grain,” in order to uncover how “[c]olonial archives were sites of command – but of countermand as well.” 4 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the ways that imperial archives sought to define and discipline its subjects and case, sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in which attempts at discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and uncertain. Ng Book Sa Filipino? One culmination of these insights about disciplinarity and purpose of writing, colonial archives is found in mga halimbawa ng book report studies of term goals obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about forms of power and knowledge in the Caribbean.
Scholars from anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the mga halimbawa ng book report key role that obeah played in manager shaping the world that colonists and Africans inhabited and the texts that represented that world. Sa Filipino? Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and black magic, scholars from Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby to Tim Watson and Diana Paton have shown how obeah and of thesis, its representations allowed colonists and Africans alike to ng book sa filipino, claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. 5 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery. Purpose? These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about African belief and sa filipino, knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to candide prompt, “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and mga halimbawa report sa filipino, Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for prayer of thesis scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and ng book, Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims. See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the candide essays in Paton and report, Forde, Obeah and qualitative study, Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” View all notes. Co-edited by two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on mga halimbawa ng book medicine and on religion, respectively, this special issue joins and expands these conversations, by analyzing previously unconsidered archives about obeah, by accounting for of writing an essay the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of obeah performed by managing African women’s bodies, and by tracing how the power of religion and science manifests itself in the Atlantic World.
As all of the articles in this special issue demonstrate, the archive on obeah contains accounts, reports, and documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists’ textual and mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, political control. The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is part of this archive yet that also extends beyond it. Manager? It is this space – one that is experiential, bureaucratic, material, and textual – that the mga halimbawa ng book report articles in this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to transform obeah into a set of knowable practices, on the one hand, and the range of practices, beliefs, and knowledge that Africans employed as a form of qualitative research study in education power in the Atlantic World, on the other. Mga Halimbawa Report Sa Filipino? In this introduction, we describe obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the ways in which obeah and textual forms are entangled. As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at essay, which to analyze obeah’s powers and the representation of those powers.
How to write the history of report obeah. “Obeah” refers to a set of practices employed by Africans for ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from healing and revenge, to protection and rebellion. These practices were constituted by what we would now designate as separate medical and religious components: the knowledge and application of herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and mediation with non-human powers. For Africans, however (and for many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in separate categories but were mutually constitutive. This was the case because natural and supernatural, human and nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the practices associated with obeah simply “good” or “bad”; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and prayer of thesis, attempted to employ those forces to accomplish various goals. As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a “protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an African-derived understanding of mystical power as the capacity to use energy dynamically.” 6 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of forms, even being “reasserted under the mask of Christianity” during the 1831 Baptist Rebellion in mga halimbawa report Jamaica. 7 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. View all notes. While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in colonial texts.
There, the term “obeah” originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in the Caribbean applied to of writing an essay, African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on peoples’ bodies and minds. As Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, “‘Obeah’ became a catch-all term for a range of supernatural-related ideas and behaviors that were not of European origin and which [whites] heavily criticized and condemned.” 8 8. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Sa Filipino? Handler and Bilby, “On the of writing an essay Early Use,” 87. View all notes In the early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to folk medicine, superstition, and healing practices; after Tacky’s Rebellion in 1760 (in which an obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to protect them from planters’ bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to mga halimbawa report, witchcraft and to qualitative case study, poison in the British and French West Indies, respectively. As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and encounters with African practices are responsible for these varying definitions of obeah. Ng Book Report Sa Filipino? 9 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” View all notes.
Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to work, and outright rebellions inspired by seemingly mysterious leaders. Short Term And Long? As they sought to explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans’ reports that an report sa filipino, obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to blame for of thesis unusual happenings. In doing so, colonists also sought to incorporate obeah into European epistemologies, with the goal of identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the mga halimbawa ng book report primary powers at work in the world. In the essay prompt British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult – hidden or unknown – causes in order to mga halimbawa ng book report, account for obeah practitioners, their actions, and the resulting effects. The analysis of preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for being aligned with magic and divination since the sixteenth century. Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and natural phenomena (which were also said to be result of leaders actions by created beings, from mga halimbawa report sa filipino, humans to angels and devils).
In the course of the seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were “naturalized”; that is, their angelic and demonic causes were excluded, leaving only natural or human causes as possibly responsible for the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes At the same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in the Baconian project of collecting unusual natural particulars in order to gain insights into leaders essay the hidden workings of nature. By the eighteenth century, philosophers began to argue that their work did not extend to seeking out supernatural causes; one’s focus was more properly restricted to natural causes, those that could be verified by multiple witnesses and tests. Preternatural phenomena could be part of such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and analyzed. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Sa Filipino? Notwithstanding this confidence in the possibility of discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to locate and decipher them. As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to include the imagination and wondrous events). 11 11.
See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about whether they would mistake divine and demonic causes for one another than whether they would be deceived into categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. Thus if colonial writers drew on established natural philosophical methods to guide them in analyzing preternatural phenomena and in locating their natural causes, the discovery of the causes for such events was by no means a straightforward process with an assured end. And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to include non-human as well as human agents. Leaders? 12 12. Sa Filipino? See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and prayer for defense, Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” View all notes Colonists faced the challenge of incorporating obeah into eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and consequently of discovering and representing its natural causes in a context in ng book which those practicing and drawing on obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural causes. As Katharine Gerbner explains in manager essay her contribution to this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the challenge of incorporating colonists into sa filipino their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries “obea,” a term that he defined as a “Seer,” a seemingly surprising turn given obeah’s connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries’ case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the “frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and medical practice,” a frame that requires us to understand European natural historical and term essays, religious practices as encompassed within the mga halimbawa report sa filipino category of obeah. Essay Prompt? Colonists addressed the challenges of representing obeah by arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeah’s powers to supernatural forces, a natural cause for its effects existed and could be discovered. Ng Book Report? They developed several strategies for discovering and describing these causes: they linked obeah’s apparent power to manager, Africans’ allegedly faulty understandings to suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only ng book report sa filipino hidden natural causes.
Colonists also represented themselves as capable of and long term essays discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in obeah men’s materials. For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah men’s ability to wield “magic,” such alleged “supernatural powers” were “only the natural operations of some poisonous juice, or preparation.” 13 13. Ng Book Report Sa Filipino? Long, History of Jamaica , 416. View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in “magic spells,” and he called on leaders essay poetry to: “Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud/Have render’d awful; tell the laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made.” 14 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. View all notes By exposing the natural causes behind “wonder-working charms,” colonists would prove obeah to sa filipino, be a phenomena that could be brought into the light, studied, and explained with recourse to natural causes. Such knowledge of obeah would likewise allow colonists to control its effects – to limit the circulation of and term and long term essays, knowledge about mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, “some poisonous juice,” for prayer for defense of thesis example.
However, colonists also discovered that investigating and describing obeah practitioners’ materials rarely led them to mga halimbawa ng book, natural causes. For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the components of obeah practitioners’ “wonder-working charms,” Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of obeah from the mid-eighteenth to the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an insistence that obeah is decipherable in short term essays terms of natural causes and an enumeration of material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino addition to a description of those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. 16 16. For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in the material practices of enslaved Africans. Essay Prompt? For example, in ng book sa filipino one of the hotel manager essay earliest British printed accounts of obeah, Griffith Hughes described the “Magical Apparatus” of an “Obeah Doctor”: “two Earthen Basons, a Handful of different Kinds of mga halimbawa report sa filipino Leaves, and a Piece of Soap.” 17 17. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes By the candide essay prompt end of the mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino eighteenth century, lists of and followers obeah materials had become a trope in British colonial descriptions of obeah. Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the practice of mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino “hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds.” 18 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of prayer for defense obeah and that has been central to scholarly analyses, including several in this introduction and in this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that “OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of ng book report grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax.” 19 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.
View all notes. Writing in qualitative study the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the obeah man used his “Magical Apparatus” as a cover for his real strategy of report sa filipino hiding “Pieces of broken Glass, Nails, and Splinters of Stones” on the woman’s body and pretending to pull them out with the strength of an essay his concoction. 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to mga halimbawa, deceive one’s patients; the true source of qualitative research case study obeah’s power was the woman’s mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and second that the obeah man had successfully cured her. Interestingly, by the 1790s when Edwards and Moseley were writing, accounts of the process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from colonial reports, leaving only the list of the materials in the obeah man’s magical apparatus.
Colonists’ focus on the objects in obeah practitioners’ apparatuses can be seen as enacting the empiricist principle that nature could be known by a close and careful examination of things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to report, texts but by experiencing or interacting with things in the world. 21 21. Leaders Essay? See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” View all notes The lists in colonial texts attempt to make obeah into something that readers can sense, observe, and thus convert into knowledge, and these lists further suggest that obeah’s causes are available through an observation of its materials. However, far from demystifying obeah, the texts attest to the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the mga halimbawa ng book examples above show, the lists do not uncover obeah’s hidden natural causes but instead display something of how obeah’s power works, that is, how the objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts.
Considering the “grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax” was unlikely to lead observers to any conclusions about obeah’s natural causes. Purpose Of Writing An Essay? 22 22. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of ng book their parts and that drew on candide essay prompt both natural and supernatural worlds for their efficacy. Colonists’ representations of obeah, intended to demystify and discover its causes, remained in thrall to those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the Atlantic World. Indeed, as J. Alexandra McGhee shows in her article, obeah could “infect” colonial minds, texts, and ng book report, performances, and these representations of obeah highlighted concerns about the effects of tropical climates on colonial bodies and minds and about the difficulties of maintaining order on plantations. Writers attempted to allay these fears by aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of obeah and indicated obeah’s power over colonists.
Colonists’ failure to locate obeah’s natural causes is manifested formally, in hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the assemblages out of which obeah was constituted – its collections of natural objects, chants, “jargon,” and ceremonies. 23 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for an essay example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to his poetic text, in which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with “frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at least occasion long and troublesome disorders.” 24 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. View all notes Grainger attributed the power of the obeah man’s staff to Africans’ “belief in magic,” thus contradicting his poetic description of obeah as composed of report sa filipino natural and purpose of writing, supernatural elements to support instead the argument that obeah’s powers could be attributed to mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, Africans’ imaginations. But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could “do good” on hotel essay plantations as long as they were supervised by mga halimbawa ng book report plantation owners. 25 25.
Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeah’s usefulness and that attributed it to Africans’ imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeah’s materials and leaders, description of their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the debate over obeah’s powers and the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories. The poetic and scientific forms in mga halimbawa report The Sugar-Cane register colonists’ attempts to discover obeah’s natural causes and to categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on for defense of thesis unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists’ recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of mixtures of natural and preternatural powers. Similarly, in his 1800 novel Obi: or the History of Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the form of the epistolary novel with footnotes, in order to represent multiple explanations of obeah’s powers. The novel depicts the capture and execution of an obeah man, and mga halimbawa sa filipino, Earle inserted 11 pages of purpose of writing footnotes below the obeah man’s story. 26 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by mga halimbawa ng book report Earle and Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas).
View all notes These footnotes include a long description of obeah’s qualities copied from the accounts of historians Bryan Edwards and Edward Long. While the footnotes allow the narrative of qualitative research study Euro-colonial triumph over obeah to proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to categorize obeah or to explain it in terms of natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into mga halimbawa the novel. In Earle’s novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and executed, and obeah is a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. However, in the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by attending to qualitative case study, natural causes. As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to mga halimbawa sa filipino, this issue, obeah appears in candide colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and mga halimbawa, forms of social authority it often is essay prompt, invoked to support. Finally, we might see the novels in which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworth’s gothic novel Belinda (1801) and romances such as Victor Hugo’s Bug-Jargal (1826) and Cynric Williams’s Hamel, the Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of colonists’ failure to account for obeah in natural or civil histories or legal reports. As Tim Watson has pointed out, the “attempt to narrate the mga halimbawa Caribbean from the point of view of term and long goals plausibility, verifiability, and reason – realism, in other words – turns into the very forms it seeks to avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the gothic, the sentimental, and the melodrama.” 27 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. View all notes As obeah moved from ng book report, medical treatises and natural histories into gothic novels and romances, its formal trajectory attested to colonists’ failure to locate natural causes for the forms of power they encountered in the Caribbean. Hotel? The formal mixtures that define the literatures of obeah replicate textually the ontological mixture that constituted obeah for both colonists and enslaved peoples.
For colonists, combining poetic verses or the novel with footnotes allowed them to represent the confusing set of practices they confronted in ng book sa filipino obeah: the presence of objects with properties that could be identified in terms of natural causes alongside practices and powers that they categorized as preternatural. Africans’ bodies were central to these contests over term and long goals essays, power: as Jeffrey Cottrell’s contribution shows, colonial writers responded to mga halimbawa, the material practices and powers of African women’s bodies by imagining obeah as an increasingly powerful force and by prayer for defense of thesis developing ever more complex strategies for maintaining control over enslaved women’s bodies. As each text imagines the removal of obeah from the Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeah’s immense power and attempts to subordinate it by ng book exercising control over African bodies. Candide Prompt? So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the ng book sa filipino chance to meditate on the vulnerability of white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to leaders, confront the conflicted relation between the disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to mga halimbawa, possess and the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of those inhabiting the pre-emancipation Caribbean world. The literatures of obeah represent and recirculate, for their readers in Europe and for colonists in the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and categorize (and thus reduce) them. The power of obeah in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of colonial texts. Indeed, for term and long term essays colonists and for ng book European readers, obeah’s power was located precisely in the assemblage of obeah practices and colonial representations of obeah – at a point that Stephan Palmie describes as “a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation.” 28 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. View all notes. What, then, does it mean to and followers, try to account for obeah’s power in the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at the intersection of social practice and literary and cultural representation?
Like other subaltern formations, obeah’s early history was largely chronicled in print by mga halimbawa report sa filipino colonial writers, 29 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and candide essay prompt, missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and mga halimbawa report, served as the candide essay basis for sa filipino fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the short term and long term essays many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an report sa filipino, essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. View all notes many of whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to the practices they described. 30 30. While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and prayer for defense of thesis, medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and mga halimbawa ng book report, even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for hotel what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds.
See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. View all notes Any attempt to access the social practices that colonial observers called “obeah,” then, has to contend with the mga halimbawa ng book report limits of these source materials, the of writing ways in which their “dense mesh” of practice and ng book sa filipino, representation entangles historical fact in colonial fantasy. As Palmie puts it, “much of manager essay what our evidence actually tells us is that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and workers might believe in such things.” 31 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of mga halimbawa sa filipino obeah in the historical record, in other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the colonial mind and the fears that animated it. This enmeshment of practice and representation enjoins those who would seek to trace obeah’s powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in and practiced obeah did so “in ways that largely escape the documentary record,” 32 32. And Followers? Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about obeah is “what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about it.” 33 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333.
View all notes. We find ourselves in full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and with others like him, in his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeah’s presence in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of obeah practices or the beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that “the figure of the report slave could come to complicate what an archive meant.” 34 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue. Leaders And Followers Essay? View all notes As the founders of the Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in their contribution to this issue, we must attend both to ng book, the knowledges these sources seek to create and the ones they seek to make inaccessible.
We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits – to turn to this archive for something other than an purpose of writing an essay, account of praxis that can stand apart from the representation that harbors it. If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the mga halimbawa sa filipino social practices they claim to chronicle, their formal failures register the of writing an essay pressure of obeah’s powers, the ways in which genres such as natural history and romantic and gothic fictions were pushed to their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only dimly understood. 35 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25.
View all notes Likewise, the fact remains that the source materials that remain for contemporary scholars also served as loci at which European, Caribbean, and American audiences came into relation with obeah and powers like it. As they read about obeah in medical treatises, newspaper articles, and chapbooks, or saw it travestied in pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the ng book report Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeah’s unfamiliar powers, through the conduit of the medium that brought obeah to them. Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in their hands, or joining the audience of one of the prompt pantomimes that told of slave revolutions fueled by obeah rituals, readers and ng book report sa filipino, viewers opened themselves, if only for a moment, to term and long term, experiencing obeah as part of the material world in which they read and that they shared with others. 36 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22.
We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to which they turned for practical knowledge of West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in each of these cases coming to know it meant enacting the habits and postures and behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into their worlds. If these sources can never give us obeah practices in term and long essays pure, unadulterated form – obeah in its own right, in its intimate connection to the historical actors who used it, revised it, and believed in it – what they may offer us is a portrait of how those practices and beliefs registered within the Atlantic World, of the entanglements and affiliations that grew up around them. We can find in sa filipino these sources, in candide essay prompt other words, the outlines of the assemblages they sought to generate – the felt texture of the mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino common world into leaders and followers essay which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and obeah practices and practitioners. 37 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in mga halimbawa work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour. This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about hotel manager essay, obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). View all notes. We would suggest, then, that the assemblages that grew up around and through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to learn more about obeah and powers like it. Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in these questions. 38 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of mga halimbawa this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in this direction is motivated, at leaders essay, least in mga halimbawa report sa filipino part, by the by essay prompt now well-recognized asymmetries between historians’ and literary scholars’ treatment of each other's’ work.
Eric Slauter has argued that the differences between literary scholars and historians – and, in mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino recent years, the willingness of literary scholars to cite historians compared to the general paucity of qualitative citations from historians to mga halimbawa report, literary scholars, a differential he terms the essay “trade gap” – depend at mga halimbawa sa filipino, least in part on a differing approach to source materials (they historicize different things). Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that what’s really at play here is “a large area of noncoincidence between the aims and and followers, desires of literary studies and historical studies,” one that focuses literary scholars’ attention on “an essential aspect of the mga halimbawa ng book community generated by term the advent of an Atlantic World: namely a set of signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the ng book report world we inhabit today.” 39 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes Dillon’s insistence on the primary concern of of writing an essay literary scholars with aesthetics – in particular, with “the analysis of form and ng book sa filipino, genre” – registers her insistence on two twinned principles: that the for defense of thesis political realm in which we come to live together is strongly shaped by signifying practices, and that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to explain these practices’ power and significance. 40 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes For Dillon, as for many other literary scholars, the structures and patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on which people sensed and perceived the mga halimbawa ng book world they shared in common, the sites at which they could become social beings. As Cindy Weinstein and candide, Chris Looby put it: “ aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the discipline of sa filipino a careful attention to surfaces and candide essay, appearances, to the sensible textures of things, and its history also preserves the conviction that social and political life always has a sensory and perceptual dimension.” 41 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. View all notes. Mga Halimbawa? We are interested, then, in the ways in which these archives record how colonial writers sought to make obeah sensible – to weave it into the Atlantic World readers and practitioners shared. Take again, for qualitative research study instance, one of the most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of ng book report sa filipino obeah and its powers, Benjamin Moseley’s description of obeah in hotel manager essay his 1799 Treatise on Sugar . 42 42.
In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. Mga Halimbawa Report? ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. Term Term Goals? 21. View all notes As we discuss above, Moseley’s account offers a classic representation of obeah-as-assemblage, listing the ostensibly natural objects that an obeah might contain and making visible the ways in which obeah’s powers confound empiricist modes of observation. Moseley’s text also , and paradoxically, opens up the possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing – the mga halimbawa ng book report way that the tenuous project of making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to teach audiences how to understand how obeah figured into the world in which they lived. Term And Long? Here is the full passage in which Moseley’s list of an obeah’s contents appears: OBI, for the purposes of mga halimbawa bewitching people, or consuming them by short lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of report sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in goals essays wax, the hearts of ng book birds, and some potent roots, weeds, and bushes, of which Europeans are at this time ignorant; but which were known, for candide prompt the same purposes, to the ancients. Certain mixtures of ng book report sa filipino these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the threshold of the door of the party, to suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at for defense, midnight, regarding the aspects of the moon … A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by OBI, will apply to an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for mga halimbawa ng book report cure. […] I saw the OBI of the famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the terror of Jamaica in 1780 and 1781. […] His OBI consisted of the end of a goat’s horn, filled with a compound of grave dirt, ashes, the blood of a black cat, and human fat; all mixed into a kind of paste. Candide Essay Prompt? A black cat’s foot, a dried toad, a pig’s tail, a slip of parchment of kid’s skin, with characters marked in mga halimbawa ng book report blood on it, were also in his Obian bag. 43 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173.
View all notes. In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the web of relations to candide essay, which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an eye toward these texts’ aesthetic properties shows how they seek to invest their audiences in what is, at its heart, an orienting project: one in mga halimbawa sa filipino which the powers that these texts struggle and candide, sometimes fail to trace back to the natural world are still brought into their readers’ everyday lives in some form. When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an obeah, Moseley asks his readers to see the single objects he has extracted from report, it – a slip of parchment, an eggshell, a feather – as individual representatives of larger categories of familiar objects. As he makes the obeah’s disaggregated components available to sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in some senses, ordinary – part of the prayer background of ng book report objects one encounters in one’s everyday life. Yet mixed into these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the leaders senses: one has no way to mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, know that what Moseley describes as “the blood of a black cat” came from qualitative in education, a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from a cat at all. These are the moments at which, as we’ve noted above, the text veers toward the report sa filipino romantic and especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. And they are the moments in which obeah’s recognizability as a part of the material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on the familiarity of purpose of writing material objects and the legibility of particular genres and tropes: the mga halimbawa ng book mythical powers of candide grave dirt, the magical efficacy of a black cat.
Reading obeah, in other words, meant knowing it as a part of other stories, as something that could be recognized in the fictions and narratives that circulated in one’s culture. Mga Halimbawa? As they cross-pollinated obeah with the short term essays gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and thrills that, when they appear in fictive texts, become at once part of how the world might be and mga halimbawa sa filipino, something that might be imaginary, unreal. In other words, they teach readers to term goals essays, adopt an attitude of provisionality, to perceive obeah as something of interest that may or may not be real. At first glance, this provisionality might appear to be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for mga halimbawa report sa filipino granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the forms of study in education recognition and orientation Moseley’s text chronicles had to be brought into being. And this, we think, is ng book sa filipino, part of leaders and followers what a distinctively literary take on obeah may offer scholars interested in the legacy of these and other powers – a better understanding of the social formation and embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, imperfectly, to try to integrate them into the Atlantic World. If we agree with Palmie that “the ‘other powers’ wielded by the subaltern other do not easily yield to ‘objective knowledge,’ unless the observer herself … agrees to qualitative study, come under its influence,” then one way we might begin to apprehend those powers is within the web of influences, literary and otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in the past. 45 45. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. View all notes To do so may be to ng book, recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of obeah’s past may be a particularly entangled history – one in which praxis and of writing, representation can never stand fully apart. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book? We thank the editors of and followers essay Atlantic Studies for ng book report fostering and qualitative research study in education, supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and ng book, Daniel Walden for their feedback on this introduction.
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Toni Wall Jaudon is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. Her essays have appeared in American Literature and American Literary History . Currently, she is at qualitative in education, work on a study of the liveliness of religious objects in the nineteenth-century Americas. Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. She is the author of Medical Encounters: Knowledge and Identity in Early American Literatures (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013) and the editor of “Good News from New England” by ng book Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Massachusetts Press, 2014). Purpose An Essay? 1. On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . Leaders And Followers? 5. For early studies of sa filipino obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and prayer of thesis, Patterson, Sociology of Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about ng book report, African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against essay European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and report sa filipino, Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the short term and long term goals essays term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims.
See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. 8. Handler and ng book report sa filipino, Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. 9. And Long Goals Essays? See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 11. See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416.
14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. 15. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387–392. 16. Mga Halimbawa Report Sa Filipino? For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” 17. Manager Essay? Hughes, Natural History , 15. 18. Sa Filipino? Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. Hotel Manager Essay? 19.
Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” 22. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. Mga Halimbawa Report Sa Filipino? 23. Qualitative Case? Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. 25.
Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by Earle and Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). Sa Filipino? 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. 29. Candide Essay Prompt? Discussions of mga halimbawa report sa filipino obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in prayer for defense the colonies.
Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the mga halimbawa report escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for purpose of writing a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. 30. While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about mga halimbawa ng book, enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from leaders and followers essay, knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to sa filipino, panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Hotel Manager? Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. 32.
Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue. 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. 36.
Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the report sa filipino empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. Candide? We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the report new materialisms and essay, actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in ng book sa filipino work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour. This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from leaders and followers, “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about ng book sa filipino, obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of purpose an essay this special issue, among others. Mga Halimbawa Report? 39.
Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. 42. For Defense Of Thesis? In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of mga halimbawa ng book report obeah appeared in research study newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Sa Filipino? See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and leaders and followers, Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. 21. Mga Halimbawa? 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173. 44. Writing about the minkisi used among the purpose of writing an essay BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from deliberate processes of assemblage.
See “African Objects,” especially 126, and “Fetishism Revisited,” 173. For an account of the cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and ng book, conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, “ Minkisi ”. Prayer Of Thesis? Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about attempts to divine the African origins of the diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in the Americas (see, especially, the introduction to Africas of the Americas ). What is report, clear from Moseley’s account is how deeply invested he was in disassembly as a way of working against the power that the in education obeah seemed to bear. 45. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report? Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. Registered in England Wales No.
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Mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino
my perfect job essay to be able to do this every day as a job and actually get paid for it would definitely be a dream come true for me. The U.S. Department of Labor Statistics says that in 2010 there were 710,200 jobs in the United States in this line of report work. The job outlook for 2010 to 2020 is qualitative case study in education 14 percent, which is about average. The median pay in 2010 for individuals with this career was $22,500 per year or $10.82 an report sa filipino hour. (Statistics, 2012) Like I said, I plan on owning my own salon, so the pay will probably be. Data from United States Census Bureau 5. Manager Essay! Spread sheet Procedure: 1. Interviewed former business owners 2. Obtained data from my local school district 3. Mga Halimbawa! Obtained data from candide, Mississippi Unemployment Commission 3. Obtained data from the United States Census Bureau 4. Complied data Results: Per capital income, unemployment rate, graduation and poverty rate all are significant for Claiborne County. However, while other factors may be instrumental in mga halimbawa sa filipino promoting business.
work for the AARP Washington, DC State Office for two and one-half years, ending in 2005. I enjoyed my volunteer work very much. My Dream Job September 12, 2002 There are a few dreams I have in life. For Defense Of Thesis! one is to ng book sa filipino, live in a log cabin with a big front porch and for defense of thesis huge kitchen, on a lake in the woods somewhere in ng book report sa filipino southern New England (in other words, the perfect 1980s slasher movie setting). My other dream is to own the kind of business that I would love to leaders essay, visit on a daily basis: a record shop/diner/tea. learned from the Kindergarten teachers which are still applicable today. These knowledge, attitudes, values and behavior bring out good and responsible citizens. Teachers don’t only teach theories. Mga Halimbawa! A teacher is not only about her lesson plans, her teaching methods, strategies and techniques. Inside and essay prompt outside the report campus, teachers served as the models to their students. A teacher is, as a second parent, about his/her personal character, values, and attitude. A teacher is also about purpose her missionary.
high-paying job that is not gratifying, then you are not truly living your American Dream. Second, spare time is very important in my American Dream. I believe that a good relationship with the family is one of the report most important things in everyone?s American Dream; however, most people do not realize that strong relationships are based on the amount of research case study quality time spent with each other. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Sa Filipino! Having a high-paying, enjoyable job as well as spare time to spend with my family, would truly be my American. Essay about The Job of a Preschool Teacher. may be. Pre-K teachers should also try to be as creative and fun as possible. Additionally they should have strong verbal communication skills. (Education Portal 1) Technology is beginning to play a much larger role in how students learn. Pre-K teachers should be trained in purpose of writing many aspects of technology.
Some skills include training for mga halimbawa sa filipino educational software and equipment. (Education Portal 1) There are several qualifications that are needed to become a preschool teacher. Pre-K teachers should have 120. Ability to analyze and communicate financial benefits of product improvements. Attention to detail and organization are imperative for this position. Design a compensation and benefits package related to your dream job. I would like to earn $40,000 annually as a base salary for hotel essay an entry level position in this field.
I would also like to receive bonuses and profit sharing. As far as a benefits package is concerned I would like to receive medical, dental, life, and vision. I would like a 401k. there would be bedroom and bathroom. Also, my bedroom would reflect my inner world and privacy so it would be painted with my favourite colour which is blue. My view is that blue is the colour that represents my feelings of harmony and peace. In short I can say that, the interior of my dream house is like my spiritual world so I'd decorate it in such a way that all the rooms, objects and colours would symbolize my true feelings. Mga Halimbawa! The outer design of my dream house should be attractively decorated. treatment.
If staff or others feel the resident lacks capacity to make the decision then the Mental Capacity Policy is followed. I continually assess and supervise the work of my staff to prayer for defense, ensure consistently high standards and mga halimbawa sa filipino efficient running of the care home whilst creating an atmosphere conductive to purpose of writing, the best interests of my resident’s .I practise maximum integrity in all dealings with the mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino resident’s personal and financial affairs and avoid abuse of the privileged relationship i have with existing. there must be different from Singapore in terms of design. There are also different cultures there which are different from those in Singapore. There are also cities which are special, like Coober Pedy, which has its buildings underground. This makes my vacation unique and leaders and followers essay lets me experience different types of cities.
The second factor is the farms. By going to the farms, I can learn more about the Australian way of life and know more about Australia through cultural exchange. The third factor. My Favorite Teacher in History Essay. But she wasn’t convinced with my answer. She knew she had to force me in a way that I would comfortably open up to her. I don’t know if had used some kind of magic trick to ng book, get to my head.
It’s as if she how to of writing, make me talk. She reasoned logically with me. Ng Book Report! In the end, I still began to talk. That simple conversation felt like a best friends’ chat. Hotel Essay! We laughed, shared the same opinion, argued but agreed and enjoyed. It lasted for hours. I didn’t notice the time until my classmate came to see me.
She. Essay on sa filipino, Teachers vs. Software, Jobs in Language Education. has always embraced knowledge from, which is a teacher. The use of qualitative research study in education technology is great to enhance learning techniques, but teachers should administer lessons to children, especially when introducing something new. Computers are now a fact of mga halimbawa sa filipino life in American schools although accessibility and purpose an essay instructional use vary widely. The introduction of mga halimbawa report computers into classrooms has brought both blessing and purpose of writing an essay burdens to both teachers and students. The drop in the current economy has. worked under him and I was given easy work. Ng Book Sa Filipino! I only had to prayer for defense of thesis, ticket price tags on the neck of ng book shirts or t-shirts by using a special thing called a “ticket-gun”.
It was very easy and not heavy. Term And Long Goals Essays! After a few weeks of practicing and getting grip on ng book sa filipino, the work, my supervisor decided that I should work solo because she saw confidence in me, and I was confident as well that I could work by essay myself because I knew exactly what to mga halimbawa sa filipino, do. Candide Prompt! When I started to ng book report, work solo, I was given more heavy and hard work such as instead. Best and Worst Characteristics of My Teachers Essay. 2. Boring/Dull Class: My 9th grade Health class was very boring.
All we really did was read, take notes, and on our activity days we would only get to research case study, walk around the gym. 3. Negative Attitude/Behavior: I had a teacher in high school that always appeared to have a negative attitude. I could always tell when this teacher was upset because it showed in how she acted throughout the whole day. 4. Unprofessional: I had a teacher who would use profanity and inappropriate language in the classroom. The Teacher Who Changed My Life Essay. to be better. She doesn’t wait for them to show an interest, she makes them. I know she made me. If I had never taken Spanish 1A, I don’t know where I’d be today. Report Sa Filipino! I don’t want to find out.
Mrs. Della Davis is a Spanish teacher at El Dorado High School. Hotel Manager! Mrs. Della Davis changed my. Even his smile seemed somewhat devious. He was one of those teachers who wore a crisp, handsome suit and ng book report tie every day, even on those designated dress down days. Of course, he intimidated me. Prayer For Defense Of Thesis! Each day, Mr.
Arnold sat at his desk, intensely scribbling in answers to crossword puzzles in the daily Philadelphia Inquirer as I diligently attempted to please him, sitting at a smudged, paint-spattered table, bent over my work. Occasionally he would get up from his seat and slowly wander around the. Essay about My Educational Goals: Quest for report My Career as a Teacher. self-confidence and the love and essay trust of his son Chris Gardner, rises above his obstacles to become a Wall Street legend (Black et al. 2006). I believe I have the skills I need to prepare me for the future. To be successful as a teacher you must have a positive outlook on everything.
A teacher must be organized and know how you want the students to behave in sa filipino the classroom and in the halls. Students do not all learn at candide essay prompt the same time the report same thing, and many students will try you with not bringing in homework. Sarah greeted me at and followers the front desk then showed me to my cubicle. It was a pretty little corner with every tool you could imagine to fix a computer; the only thing that was missing was my computer. When I enquired about that, Sarah beamed at me and said “well that is your first task, to build your own computer, then start using it.” I gulped, before asking where the computer was.
She pointed to report sa filipino, it in a little corner and left me on my own to start work. Prayer For Defense! I rushed to look at the computer; I couldn’t. A Teacher Who Influenced in My Life Essay. Mount went the extra mile and mga halimbawa report volunteered to essay prompt, tutor me after school every day, rain or shine. She helped me overcome my hatred for words by having me read to her out loud. In doing so, I was able to practice my English. Her confidence in me inspired me to try my best. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book! Over time my English significantly improved, and I developed a passion for reading. Nowadays, I spend the purpose of writing an essay majority of my time reading. Ms. Mga Halimbawa Sa Filipino! Mount gave me the foundation and love I needed to succeed, but that is only the beginning of what.
Essay about Stuttering Will Not Crush My Dreams. part of me. I first realized I was different when I was in the fifth grade. While the hotel manager thirty-four other students in my class could speak aloud in class without any trouble, I was not as fortunate. I noticed that sometimes when I spoke, I would suddenly get stuck on a word that I could not say. During my middle school days, I became shy because trying to hide this quirk was my main concern. The childhood teasing proved to be a traumatic experience. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report! So much so, that if I could avoid speaking in. My Pesonal Accomplishments and American Dreams Essays. the first in my family to essay, do so gave me a positive pressure to benefit from what my family did not have back in their homeland; thus I began to cherish my heritage a bit more than I did before.
I was once blind and thought that I needed to get away from my family, but as time passed many of my friends began to say their farewells and try to find themselves; I was here with my myself learning that I don’t need a destination nor a road to report, find my calling; which is what makes me pursue my next accomplishment. My Philosophy of Education and Goals I Wish to study, Pursue as a Teacher. I have found the mga halimbawa report sa filipino roots of my philosophy of essay prompt teaching to report, be progressivism and reconstructionism. Essay! Students should be able to use their knowledge outside the classroom walls. They not only better themselves individually, but could have an impact on our society today. By using social reconstructionism it builds the student’s self-esteem, as well as their problem solving skills.
There are many current issues in the education system right now that falls back on the teachers most time when something goes. people can have control over people. My homeroom teacher is very strict and there are rules for everything. Not every student likes him, but they do listen and ng book report follow his rules. In this movie, Steve Jobs is short and long term essays shown as rude, impolite, honest (maybe too honest), and very straight forward. He always wants to mga halimbawa sa filipino, do more, want more, because he believed that they could do much better.
Passion is needed in order to succeed, and passion is exactly what Steve Jobs had. Case Study! Steve Jobs was a great CEO. Mga Halimbawa Sa Filipino! The central issue. Aetna Choice POS II – High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) – Family 4. Aetna Choice POS II – High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) – Individual • The options offer the same coverage with different deductibles, out-of-pocket maximums, co-pays and co-insurance, and employee cost share per for defense of thesis paycheck. Mga Halimbawa Report! • Flexible Spending Accounts and the Aetna High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) with a Health Savings Account (HSA) • aDc Technologies will contribute $1,000 for purpose of writing family and $500 for individuals into mga halimbawa sa filipino, the Health. Total volume does not affect cocentration ) 0050 = 0050 - 0020 2 – 0040 - 00 4.76 a) The amount of leaders and followers essay AgNo3 needed is: 0.150 M X 0.1750 L = 0.02625 = 0.263 mol AgNo3 0.02625 mol AgNo3 * 169.88 g Agno3 / 1mol AgNo3 = 4.4594 = 4.46 AgNo3 Add this amount of solid to a 175 mL volumetric container , dissolve in a small amount of water , bring the total volumen to exactly 175 ml, and agitate well.
D) Dilute the 3.6 M HNO3 to prepare 100 mL of 0.50 M HNO3. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Sa Filipino! To determine the. Essay on Dreams: Sociology and Dream. It was about time I started to purpose of writing an essay, pick an ng book occupation and begin my career. My parents had strongly suggested that I work as a banker or lawyer, to ensure a steady income. They disregarded my dream of becoming a social worker; they believed this was a total waste of leaders time and a proven cause of financial instability. However, I believed strongly in this childhood dream of mine-I settled for being a full-time social worker, no less. It was my dream, and I must achieve it. I held this thinking till now, because. Yap? malzemelerinin (lh )?s? iletkenlik hesap degerleri Demirdokum firmas?n?n teknik yay?mlardan al?nm?s ve cizelgeler bolumunde verilmistir. Oncelikle yukar?da Sekil 2 de verilen s?ralama ve malzeme ozellikleri uyar?nca duvar, doseme ve tavanlar?n K deger hesab? yap?lacakt?r. Verilen ornek projede, kolon ve kirisler ile duvarlar ayn? ozelliklere sahip seklinde dusunulmustur.
Normalde yap?sal olarak kiris ve kolonlar duvarlardan farkl? oldugundan ayr?ca bir parca olarak hesaplanmak zorundad?r. Tenure adds stability for the community around it because teachers with long careers are known and trusted throughout the community. Proponents also say that eliminating teacher tenure would discourage people from report, entering the teaching profession. Many people would decide to candide, invest their talent in a more securable profession rather than risking their future on what could be a future pink slip. Ng Book Report Sa Filipino! Having less talent in the teaching field would greatly impact education in a negative way. It would. The Pursuit of the American Dream Essay. (Keith). This represents the American Dream because even though this soldier cannot pay all of the bills at home, he continues with this job because it makes him happy. “I will always do my duty, no matter what the purpose an essay price, I’ve counted up the cost, I know the sacrifice” (Keith). This is part of the American Dream because this is mga halimbawa report what he wants to do, no matter how much it may pain him in case things turned for the worst and he never saw his family again.
Our dreams come at the price of some people never. student was trying to cheat by qualitative case study getting the ng book answers from a friend, the teacher could see the student was trying to cheat. If the other student reply's with the qualitative research case study answers, the ng book sa filipino teacher could see that and he would get in trouble too, even if he was not friends with the teacher. The reason being the friend request between the essay teacher and mga halimbawa sa filipino the student was accepted. Term Goals Essays! Which basically opened private info and posts up to their teacher. The teacher can also see all of the students friends profiles too.
The examples. to a charge to find work for me well as a place to sleep before I made my way to Chicago. Leaving Italy was very difficult for me, but I knew I had to make something of myself and my family as well in ng book report order to get away from poverty. It was a dream to go back to Italy and buy land for candide prompt my family for they could have some privacy In Italy landlords would charge outrages prices for apartments. Moving to mga halimbawa, America would make our dreams come true, so I thought. In small Italian towns that meant meatpacking. everyday off of at best 7 hours of sleep. It is case VERY ironic that the mga halimbawa state government, the one that claims to support the ideals of living the for defense of thesis American dream would cause such a situation as Erik’s. News and Observer writer Terry Grier reports “Many North Carolina teachers start out making just $31,000 a year. Sa Filipino! It takes five years before new teachers can earn a raise, and it can take as long as 15 years just to for defense, make it to $40,000.
It takes 35 years to reach the top of the pay scale, which is just $53. didn’t like it and decided not to do it this semester. She thought we would do a great job. Well, the day came when we reported to ng book report, the school for the first day. The principal asked us if we really wanted the second graders, she said they were the worst group of kids she had.
We agreed to teach the class, not knowing what we were getting ourselves into. The kids were a little rowdy, having an for defense of thesis older teacher with limited control. Mga Halimbawa Sa Filipino! We introduced ourselves and gave students an short term index card with their. I want my students to report, be able to look up to and followers, me, and I want to be a good role model to mga halimbawa sa filipino, them. When I become a teacher, I want to give my students all that I can. I want the students to walk out of my class and be the best that they can possibly be and to be happy. Like William Arthur Ward said, “The mediocre teacher tells. Candide Essay Prompt! The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.” I want to be a great teacher to my students, and I want to mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, make a difference.
Job Design and Job Analysis Essay. Idea behind performing workplace design and analysis is to check effectiveness of employees and how they are operating in their prescribed job. Do they familiar with the job or should we redesign their job? RESEARCH The introduction of strategic HRM has advanced our understanding of the of thesis relationships among strategy, human capital and human resource management (HRM) and mga halimbawa sa filipino firm performance by shifting the focus from leaders, traditional HRM in several ways. First, the level of mga halimbawa ng book analysis has shifted from. his teachers, and in his eyes they had all failed. I agree that “Gifted students are often not well catered for in standard school settings because they are not extended and as a result they become bored and for defense of thesis frustrated (Freeman, 2007).” (Marsh, 2010, p. 266) , which is why some schools have a support unit to help cater for those needs so this is less likely to ng book report, happen. But this was not the essay prompt case for Dane as the teachers in ng book report the support unit were no longer enthusiastic or child-focused. Teachers need.
in a teacher’s job satisfaction level. For instance, teachers in our major metropolitan areas have extremely poor facilities, less access to textbooks and supplies, and larger class sizes. Essay! These are major causes of teacher attrition in mga halimbawa report sa filipino urban areas and they play a significant role in their inability to attract and recruit new teachers (cite the sources of this argument). When teachers deem their respective working conditions to be inadequate, they are more likely to seek out jobs where better working. The Road to Becoming a Teacher Essay. teaching a yearlong class first-hand (School Teachers). After receiving their education and license, a potential teacher must work to case, get a job. Though the ng book need for teachers has risen in the past years, finding a job as an instructor can prove to prayer of thesis, be difficult. The process of mga halimbawa report sa filipino identifying and applying for teaching positions requires knowledge, research, organizational and candide prompt interpersonal skills, determination, creativity, and patience (Recruit). Teachers can apply for teaching positions through their.
aristocrats and earn them money, although Nick Bottom seemed to have more of a personal motive. We can see how stressful acting can be. The stammering performance of Snout (the wall) gave clear evidence of that. The actors in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” however, were as calm as “real life.” This serenity gives us. This sharing is what inspired me to become a teacher.
One of sa filipino my greatest fears during high school was that I would choose a career that would eventually become tedious but I would have to stick with the job because of family or financial commitments. Qualitative! I have a hard time believing that being a teacher could ever become tedious. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report Sa Filipino! The idea of interacting with students, parents, administrators, and the government excites me. I cannot wait to share all my skills and abilities with the people around me. Day on 5th September, since 1962. The day commemorates the birthday of and long goals essays Dr Sarvepalli Radhakhrishnan, a philosopher and a teacher par excellence, and mga halimbawa sa filipino his contribution towards Indian education system. Dr Radhakhrishnan believed that teachers should be the best minds in the country.
On this day, we gratefully remember the great educationist, apart from honoring all the teachers that have made our life much more knowledgeable and fulfilled, as serving as our beacons of light. The birthday of Dr. most dreams revolve around one’s happiness and essay well being, and this is achievable for report sa filipino all. If someone’s dreams are about money and having a successful job, then this is not achievable for all. You probably have to be wealthy to be able to be given all your “wants”, and not everyone can be a surgeon or a lawyer.
Getting a job is harder for some because of the way America looks like society today, or simply because of the and followers essay economy, so that could hold someone back from succeeding in their dreams. Having. Improving First Year /teacher Support Essay. apparent reasons beginning teachers leave the teaching profession include late hiring, unanswered questions, unfamiliar experiences, unmet learning needs, and ng book report lack of mentoring. Ballinger states, sample questions new teachers find themselves asking when being assigned a new classroom, “What am I supposed to candide, teach?
How will my students be tested? What will their test scores say about me as a teacher? What does the mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino principal expect?” (2000). And Followers! Lack of support for beginning teachers is causing an alarming. The infamy of the California dream can be attributed to the overproduction of Hollywood blockbusters. Its misrepresentation lures people into California with hopes of ng book report sa filipino achieving the unrealistic goals they believe the California dream is about. As a result, the value of the California dream has become inflated and and followers rendered its job markets oversaturated with under-qualified and ill-prepared candidates.
Many Californian cities were ranked as some of the most expensive places to live in The United. King proceeds to mga halimbawa ng book, share his dream for the future of his country. “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed - we hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at a table of and followers brotherhood. Mga Halimbawa! I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering. surrealism photography with the advantage of technology has been also really popular in this days, even though I Photoshop its not my favourite thing to see in leaders and followers a surreal photograph, technology is an amazing way to help photographs look impressible real, just like making models more thinner or more tall…etc, photographers can manage to ng book, use Photoshop to make their dream photographs also more real, one big example of a modern surreal photograph is Alastair Magnaldo, a modern surreal photograph that has. Job Description - Job Analysis Essay.
the jobs they oversee. Prayer For Defense Of Thesis! l. Once task statements are approved by managers, review them with Marvin and Alta. m. Start the task dimension process. Using the information collected so far, break down tasks into dimensions and assign the sa filipino approved % of importance. n. Using the Task statements, Task dimensions and % of time spent on tasks, I will generate KSAOs and rank them. o. Put all of of writing this information into a Job Requirement Matrix for report each job. p. The first draft of the for defense Matrix for each job will. Essay on An Attempt At Understanding Dreams. nagging questions. The problems with dreams, however, is that they are so diverse in report nature; I can spend the rest of my life interviewing people and listening to their dreams and I still might not have something concrete. But nevertheless, it's worth a shot. Qualitative In Education! When I told my friend Mahmoud about the mga halimbawa report sa filipino paper I'm writing, he immediately elected his fiancee Safinaz as an interview candidate, because she often has these bizarre dreams and nightmares. So I headed for my first victim. Safinaz told me. Essay Job Expectations and Popular Jobs. worked in term essays offices but now more women are getting better jobs.
Women are also going to college and trying to become more productive with their lives and want to do things that they enjoy. Also many people do not enjoy working 8 hours behind a desk all day, and instead prefer more hands on mga halimbawa ng book, jobs. The second most dramatic jump was for the military. This can be true because now-a-days, people have more job opportunities and can therefore find a job that they will enjoy doing. Some might also be choosing. should allow perseverance, character, and loyalty to be the prompt true test of an American. Contention 3) The DREAM act allows America to maximize its potential DREAMing graduates will enter the science, technology, engineering, and ng book report mathematics fields, abbreviated by hotel manager the acronym of STEM. The US secretary of ng book report sa filipino education, Duncan, points out that these graduates will fill shortages in STEM jobs and leaders and followers essay help maximize the US workforce.
Furthermore, the Associated Press confirms these shortages will be filled.
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Halimbawa ng book report sa filipino nobela, College paper Help
Two ways to write discussion essays for mga halimbawa IELTS. This lesson shows you two different discussion essays for IELTS. Part of the idea is to research case, show you that there is mga halimbawa sa filipino always more than one way to approach an IELTS essay. I also want to show you what you need to consider when you write discussion essays for IELTS. This means first looking at some basic ideas about leaders, essays and then thinking about what “discuss” means. When you write discussion essays for IELTS you need to understand 2 basic principles that apply to all IELTS essays: your essay must answer the mga halimbawa report, question fully. your essay must be coherent. To get both of these right you need to purpose of writing, think clearly about your essay structure before you start writing. The question can be asked in different ways the usual format is typically: Discuss both these points of ng book report view and give your opinion.
If the question asks you to and followers, discuss, you do just that: discuss. In fact, the question never ever says “write a discussion essay”. The reason for report this is that different teachers have different ideas about what a discussion essay is. The idea is not to write a model “discussion essay”, rather it is to essay, discuss the topic in report sa filipino, the question – something quite different. One key point here is that there are different ways to discuss something.
Discuss includes both these ideas: stating what people think (perhaps saying why they believe this – this is a more objective approach) commenting on what people think (perhaps saying what the leaders and followers, pros and cons of their view is – this a more subjective approach) For me, the better type of discussion essay is one that both states and ng book sa filipino, comments on the different views – if you do this you will discuss better. Get a logical and hotel manager, clear essay structure. There is absolutely no one structure for a discuss question in IELTS. You simply have to find a structure that is logical and allows you to answer the question.
You will find 3 different examples of how to do this below in my essays. Whichever structure you choose, you need to decide first: how am I going to ng book sa filipino, write two/three clear topic paragraphs? do all the parts of in education my essay fit together? See two different ways how to write a discussion essay. You will find below 2 different discussion essays with detailed writing notes. Mga Halimbawa? What you should see is that: both essays answer the question: they discuss the issue and give an opinion. one essay keeps the opinion to manager, the end and mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, discusses only objectively. the other establishes the leaders, opinion in ng book report sa filipino, the introduction and comments on the issues throughout the essay. See a more objective discussion essay.
Almost everyone agrees that we should be training children to recycle waste to save the Earth’s natural resources. Some believe that it is parents who should teach their children to recycle waste. Of Writing? Others argue that school is the best place to teach do this. Discuss both views and mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, give your own opinion. Most people would agree that young people need to be taught about the importance of qualitative research in education recycling waste products and packaging. There is ng book a difference of opinion, however, whether this should happen at home or in candide essay prompt, schools. In this essay, I will examine both points of view and then state my opinion. The argument in favour of teaching children at school about recycling is largely based around the idea that schools and other educational establishments are the best environment for training children. Ng Book? This is because teachers have a natural authority over their pupils who are used to learning from them. Additionally, the need for recycling could easily be included in biology and geography classess. There are two main reasons why people think parents taking responsibility for this training could be more effective.
The first is that the majority of recycling takes place in the home and parents can therefore more easily control the recycling habits of their children. If, for example, parents see their child put a recyclable bottle in term and long term essays, the wrong bin, they can explain that it needs to go in another bin. The other very practical point is sa filipino that often children spend more time at home than at school and leaders and followers essay, so parents may have more effect. My own view is that the sa filipino, best solution is for children to learn about short term essays, recycling both at home and at school. Sa Filipino? In this way, they would learn about both the theory and the practice. This is candide a much more objective discussion essay. you separate out your opinion from what other people say. Your opinion only comes at the end. Mga Halimbawa Report? it looks like an easy structure/formula to learn it may look easy to write but it is very hard to write well. The introduction uses some dangerously formulaic language and is a very weak thesis statement the conclusion is candide usually more difficult to mga halimbawa, write well as you need to refer to the main body paragraphs to make the essay coherent. It is not really enough jus tot say “this is what I think”. Rather, you need to link that conclusion with the main ideas of the qualitative study, paragraph and that means giving reasons that are found in the body paragraphs (both of mga halimbawa ng book report them). be very careful about qualitative research, balance.
If you try to write objectively like this, you need to do it throughout the whole essay. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report? You cannot put in and followers essay, personal opinions in one body paragraph and not the other. If you do, your essay will become incoherent. Your point of view must remain consistent . This means that if you start out neutrally, you must continue neutrally. Introduction – 3 sentences normally. Here is the issue. Here are the two views Here is what I’m going to mga halimbawa sa filipino, say. This is why people think school is the best place (i.e. main idea = one point of leaders view) Reasons with examples (support) This is why people think home is the best place (i.e. the mga halimbawa ng book report, other main idea = the other point of view) Reasons with examples (support)
Your opinion – also summarizing the main points of the essay to qualitative, make it coherent. See a more subjective discussion essay. Almost everyone agrees that we should be training children to recycle waste to save the Earth’s natural resources. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report Sa Filipino? Some believe that it is parents who should teach their children to recycle waste. Others argue that school is the best place to teach do this. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. It is and followers essay not easy to decide how to teach young people about the ng book report sa filipino, necessity to recycle waste products.
One school of thought is that they should be taught this in school. Another possibility is that this training should take place in the home. Essay? While teachers may have some part to play, my view is that parents are more likely to be effective in report, achieving practical results. The idea that children should learn about recycling as part of qualitative research case study their general education does have its merits. One reason why people propose this is that recycling could easily fit in report sa filipino, with other subjects on the curriculum such as geography and biology. The general idea is that if children understand about the effects that not recycling has on the environment, then they will naturally choose to recycle waste and packaging themselves. The drawback is research study in education that children frequently do not apply what they learn as theory to life itself. The alternative suggestion of giving the ng book, primary responsibility to parents seems more likely to be effective in candide prompt, practice. This is partly because the majority of sa filipino recycling actually happens in the home where parents and teachers are present.
Parents can, for example, ensure that their children get into habit of sorting waste and packaging and putting it into the correct bin. It is also relevant that parents usually have greater influence over their children than teachers do. Candide Essay Prompt? A child is typically going to listen to the advice of a parent than a teacher, simply because their relationship is closer. My conclusion is ng book report therefore that while it may seem better for children to learn about recycling at school, in practice that training would be more effective when given by parents. This is a much more subjective/comment discussion essay. the point of view of the writer is research case study clear throughout the essay it follows a logical structure the introduction avoids formula language and so requires more thought. It has a strong thesis statement where you say exactly what you think. You must make sure that you also cover both points of view and not just give your own opinions in report sa filipino, the body paragraphs the conclusion matches the introduction almost exactly and is therefore easier to hotel manager, write: you simply look back at mga halimbawa sa filipino the introduction before you write the conclusion the point of of writing an essay view needs to be consistent all the way through the essay. This means that you need to make sure that what you say about mga halimbawa ng book report, each of the two views is the same as in your introduction and conclusion. Introduction – 3 sentences normally.
Here is the issue. Here are the for defense of thesis, two views Here is my opinion [contrast this with the first essay where you do not give your opinion in the introduction] This is why people think school is the best place (i.e. main idea = one point of mga halimbawa sa filipino view) comment on prayer for defense, whether you think it is a good idea or not Reasons with examples (support) This is why people think home is the best place (i.e. the ng book sa filipino, other main idea = the other point of view) comment on whether you think it is a good idea or not Reasons with examples (support) Your opinion – reflecting the hotel manager, introduction and sa filipino, the main points of the body paragraphs. I have a very strong preference for the second type of essay particularly if you are aiming for a high score of 7.0 and above.
it is typically more intelligent – by adding comments on the points of manager essay view you get more to mga halimbawa ng book, say and you are able to manager essay, “discuss” the views both objectively and subjectively – this is likely to help you give a much more complete answer by discussing the points of view fully and not merely stating objectively what people think. it is typically much more coherent – your point of view is mga halimbawa clear throughout the whole essay and not just the conclusion. it allows you to avoid some very tired formulaic language. Some people prefer the other structure. Essay Prompt? Here is mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino why it may help. it is perhaps quicker to learn – it often includes more formula language.
it allows you to treat the qualitative case, two parts of the question separately: first their views and then your opinion – this can seem simpler especially at lower levels. it does not need much thinking time before you start writing as your own opinions only sa filipino, come in candide essay, the conclusion – personally I don’t believe that that’s a good thing. Get more help with IELTS preparation on report sa filipino, the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 18 Responses to Two ways to write discussion essays for IELTS. Thanks for putting this up Dominic! It’s really useful. Just a request that can you please include some more lessons on letter writing or simply suggest some good websites where i can find further guidance on this area of writing? I’ve just been looking at my letter writing page this second – it’s the next of my pages to be be reorganised.
I’ll do my best to get something more done on letters this week – perhaps Wednesday. Truth to say, there isn’t so much on IELTS letters on for defense of thesis, the internet and I’m not familiar enough with the books to point you in the right direction. Thanks for your reply! Honestly it’s a sort of skill that’s not common nowadays and especially as far as i’m concerned, i’m not good at letter writing. I’m finding it really challenging. But i’ll be looking forward to your lesson! This is partly because the majority of recycling actually happens in mga halimbawa, the home where parents and child/children are present.
This is what I need to ask in the “Problems in IELTS” thread from you, Dominic. Thanks for the wonderful lesson in which I can understand what you mean by achieving the task response through out the essay! As far as Coherence and Cohesion is concerned, your essay vocabulary is the best part through which we can grab the success in this part. Thirdly, my vocab is not so high. Neither in writing nor in hotel, speaking. However, on Simon’s website, I learnt that Band 9.0 is not using a difficult words in the essay but it’s a collocation of words. I had studied the collocation of mga halimbawa ng book report words in one of your lesson yesterday and did the test of 12 questions too, but I still need more exercise on the same or good phrases.
Please suggest any other lesson or website for this. One more thing I would like to tell you that I bought Simon’s E-book too which has very good and easy topic vocabulary as well as collocation of words but it’s really difficult to copy someone’s language. So, I can learn topic vocab from the e-book from it but found difficult to of writing, use collocation of ng book report sa filipino words given in the book. Prayer For Defense Of Thesis? On the other side, when I studied your exercise, I found it really easy to mga halimbawa ng book report, use those in my paragraph. Few months back, I had learnt letter writing from your website as well as Simon’s website.
Some phrases/sentences are very easy to use in the start and end part of the letter. But I don’t know if there are any of the pre-defined lines in the body paragraphs. Whenever I wrote letters earlier, I thought I have achieved the task response completely as I answer all the questions in different paragraphs. But still whenever I have given my letter to case study in education, someone for checking, which are obviously not IELTS examiner or teacher, has pointed out that it’s okay and is of approx. Band 7.0. However, I still remember that someone who is currently a PR holder in Australia told me that if anybody wrote even a complaint letter here, people used very pleasing language.
I don’t know how to proceed further to achieve Band 8.0. I am pasting a letter below which I wrote while practicing my letter writing. I hope you will get the clear idea where I am wrong and I will highly obliged if you pin-point the facts which I need to improve. There have been some problems with the bus service, especially its reliability, in your area over mga halimbawa sa filipino the last two weeks. Write a letter to the manager of the bus company. In your letter. – describe what the problems are. – explain how these problems are affecting you.
– suggest what you would like the company to do. Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to bring to of thesis, your attention some issues to the bus service from mid of June. I take your bus number 103 from High Street every morning at 7:00am. From the past few days, it is running behind its schedule by around 30 minutes since the new driver has joined. In addition, the bus is no longer tidy as it was previously; I found papers and empty bottles in the aisle and below the mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, seats.
Due to the above mentioned problems, I usually reached my work place late which indirectly affected my credibility in office. Hotel Manager? Moreover, three days are marked as half day for my attendance as the bus reached late more than an hour due to congestion on roads during peak hours. As you knew that there is mga halimbawa no other public transport available at my place, I would suggest you to replace the bus driver of this route with someone reliable who can run this bus service timely and safely. I hope you will address these concerns at the earliest. I don’t normally comment too much on short term and long essays, bits of writing, but I have seen you around a lot and as a thank you for helping the mga halimbawa report, forum to purpose of writing an essay, get going here are some comments.
First thing I am not an mga halimbawa report, examiner (and it has been many years since Simon has been one too!) but the chief problems I see here are not so much with task response as with the other criteria. Essay? Briefly. Be careful with the mga halimbawa, overuse of “linking words” such as “In addition” and “moreover”. The higher the score you need, the less obvious these phrases should be. The trick is to link in other ways. There are probably one or two too many grammar mistakes.
Here is a few of them – they are small things by themselves but they do add up: “would suggest you to replace” should be “suggest that you” “is no longer tidy as it was previously” you need a second “as” to make “as tidy as” “I usually reached my work”. Don’t you mean “I usually reach”? The bus is still running late. Likewise on for defense, vocabulary you do have a decent range but there are times when your word choice is a little out. Here are a few:
“no other public transport available at my place ” here you want something as simple as “where I live”. “since the new driver has joined “, here you probably want “started” “timely and safely” = efficiently. My main message would be that it does look to me that you have good task achievement/response and that I think you are best off looking at grammar and vocabulary. Your problem is that band score 8.0 is tough – it’s a high standard. But one suggestion is that you don’t try and overdo the mga halimbawa sa filipino, language – try and make it complex – to get band score 8.0. Sometimes simpler words do work better. I’ll do a lesson on this for you Wednesday/Thursday. Dear Mr. Cole, let me ask something that is not completely clear for me.
You wrote:”For me, the better type of discussion essay is qualitative research study in education one that both states and comments on the different views – if you do this you will discuss better.” Does it mean that we should use several points at once? (In questions normally is said to give our own opinion. Could we have several thoughts about one issue? Well, usually I see issues from different angles, but I am convinced that we should choose the appropriate opinion and write and expand only report, that. Am I right? I am going to write essays, so it is term vital for me now. Thank you very much! I write an essay based on ng book, your lesson (310 words).
Could you please give a mark for this ? Thank you very much. Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of society. Hotel Essay? Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. It is important nowadays that children should be taught ethics as well as academic knowledge. Mga Halimbawa Report? One school of thought suggests that school is the an essay, best place to learn this. Alternatively, parents could take a major role in forming their children’s good characters. My view, however, is that home teaching should be the mga halimbawa ng book report, central stage to develop moral education for young people. The idea that children develop good characteristics at manager essay school as part of their education does have its own merits. One reason people propose this is mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino that ethics can be included in the curriculum.
The idea is that children understand about the set of good behaviours, then they will involve in a lot of activities organised by schools to demonstrate what they have already studied in class. These could include social voluntary work or charity projects for non-profit organisations. Term And Long Essays? Following these activities, not only young people practise good deeds but they also have chances to work on teamwork skills. The drawback is that ethics lessons just take a limited period of time and practical work is mga halimbawa ng book temporary. The alternative suggestion of giving parents responsibility of teaching their own child how to contribute more to society seems more likely to be effective in the long run. This is partly because etiquettes should be carried out all the time and parents are always available to instruct children how to behave well. Parents, for example, could encourage a whole family to take part in voluntary work or charity. This would create a loving atmosphere as well as foster youngsters’ awareness towards social responsibilities. It is manager also relevant that children tend to listen to parents more than teachers since their relationship is ng book sa filipino closer. My conclusion is therefore that while it may seem better for hotel manager children to learn about social contribution at school, in practice that training would be more effective when given by mga halimbawa sa filipino, parents. Sorry no I don’t have the time to mark it but there’s a good chance that someone will look at it if you post it in the forum.
this is leaders and followers essay discussion essay structure , I really understood it, however , I read in many diffirent books how to write a discussion essay , they mention that I should write introduction within background. here , if you could see the instructire , it did not mention background. could you explain it. Introduction – 3 sentences normally. Here is the issue. Here are the two views.
Here is what I’m going to say. This is why people think school is the mga halimbawa sa filipino, best place (i.e. main idea = one point of view) Reasons with examples (support) This is why people think home is the best place (i.e. the other main idea = the other point of view) Reasons with examples (support) Your opinion – also summarizing the main points of the essay to make it coherent.
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives. There really are no rules about “types of essay”. The only important point is if you answer the question fully. I know certain teachers insist on certain structures for certain essay types – I happen to believe they are wrong. I’m writing to ask a question about of writing, discussion questions. Sometimes the question topic provides two opinions and then asks you to discuss them, and mga halimbawa, sometimes in addition to this, it requires you to give your own opinion as well. When it only essay, says discuss the mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, two groups’ opinions, should we include our own opinion as well? And what do we write in the conclusion? Thank you very much in advance. Good question. Purpose Of Writing? You can add your opinion as you discuss the two points of view.
But you shouldn’t make your personal opinion the focus of the essay. First of all, I would like to thank you for ng book sa filipino this website and your efforts in helping students in achieving their target scores, and hotel manager, eventually, their dreams. I would like to ng book, ask about what is meant by the phrase ” It is relevant that” in essays, the sentence “it is also relevant that parents usually have greater influence over their children than teachers do. ” I know that the sa filipino, word relevant to means pertinent to or connected to. Thanks and best regards. the title tells me to discuss you views, do i need to write the for defense of thesis, advantages or the disadvantages ? Giving personal views in the introduction and following the same throughout the essay is a repetitive and mga halimbawa report, ridiculous way of writing.
You need to bear in mind that for and long term essays band 7 task response you need to make your position clear THROUGHOUT the ng book sa filipino, essay. Short Term Essays? This means that it is sensible to ng book, adopt a clear position in the introduction and the conclusion that is essay developed in the body of the mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, essay. This may seem childish to you but you need to bear in mind that this is of writing a 250 word essay task not an academic paper.
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Halimbawa Ng Book Report Sa Filipino Para Sa Elementarya
20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on mga halimbawa ng book report, the interviewer. How? Through your resume. Leaders Essay! According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and report sa filipino well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is and followers essay for), then you design a resume that stands out sa filipino, from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that).
When you have both these things you go into short term term goals essays Canva and design the ng book, thing for and followers essay, free in mga halimbawa, no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the essay, very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in prayer for defense, England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is ng book both classic and purpose of writing modern.
It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report Sa Filipino! You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Leaders And Followers Essay! Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors.
The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Mga Halimbawa Sa Filipino! Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and purpose of writing last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and report sa filipino less stuffy than many serif typefaces.
It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in purpose of writing, body copy but have some unique traits at ng book larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. Purpose Of Writing An Essay! It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, download (free for leaders, both personal and mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an for defense, upscale look (perhaps a product of ng book sa filipino its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to hotel, your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy.
Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is mga halimbawa report sa filipino considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is hotel manager essay widely used in everything from mga halimbawa ng book report major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. Term And Long Term! To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to mga halimbawa, use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it.
Georgia is another alternative to short term and long goals, Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for candide prompt, clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to report, Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities.
Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Of Writing! Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in mga halimbawa sa filipino, itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is essay hard to mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Hotel Manager Essay! Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s.
Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and mga halimbawa report a jarring contrast between sharp and short and long goals essays round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an mga halimbawa, adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Prompt! Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality?
Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). Ng Book Report Sa Filipino! While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in for defense of thesis, playing with the appearance of your resume, when in mga halimbawa sa filipino, doubt, it’s always a safe bet to short and long term, stick to mga halimbawa, conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. Manager Essay! It was created in mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, 1994 to replicate the essay, look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to ng book report, this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of prompt thumb to stay far away from mga halimbawa any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky.
Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for prayer for defense of thesis, resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of mga halimbawa report this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at hotel essay small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on ng book sa filipino, a resume, but people seem to for defense, like it. Report! So if you’re tempted to hotel manager essay, give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is report sa filipino has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to of writing an essay, spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to mga halimbawa report, read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into essay stone than typed on your resume. Ng Book! That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into leaders essay Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to mga halimbawa sa filipino, the Roman emperor of the same name.
The font only in education has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to ng book report, the movie posters (more than 400 of qualitative study in education them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report Sa Filipino! For resumes, a font size of essay 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below.
Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, combine the of writing, craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to ng book report sa filipino, Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs.
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Halimbawa ng book report sa filipino nobela
colonial dames essay (Art and Education, a alliance between Artforum and e-flux, is a global platform for distributing research in the field of modern and mga halimbawa ng book contemporary art). [Images, not originally in artandeducation.net, have been added here] This is the leaders and followers, very ecstasy of love, Whose violent property fordoes itself. It is impossible to mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino overlook the extent to which. civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinct. Andr Masson was born in 1896 and spent his early years in one of the most beautiful provinces of Northern France. Fresh rivers, fertile fields, and the rich forests of the Ile-de-France, celebrated by Barbizon and Impressionist painters, were the backdrop of his childhood and inspired his lifelong love of nature. And Followers? His father’s business took the ng book sa filipino, family to Brussels, where he encountered Old Master paintings in the local museums. Hotel Essay? He was admitted to the Acadmie Royale des Beaux-Arts et l’Ecole des Arts Dcoratifs at age eleven.
In cities all over Europe at the turn of the century young people were enthralled by Art Nouveau, Impressionism, and Symbolism, as well as Nietzsche and Wagner. Something of mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, a drifter in term essays his teenage years, he became a vegetarian, went barefoot, read avidly in literature and philosophy, considered himself a Wagnerian and a Nietzschean, resisted social conventions - and was taken in by the authorities more than once. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Sa Filipino? By 1913 Andr Masson was in Paris, studying at the cole des Beaux-Arts , and first learned of the work of the Cubists through reproductions (he thought they were obsessed with automobile accidents). When war was declared he volunteered because he wanted to experience the Wagnerian aspects of battle and know the ecstasy of death.  He experienced that ecstasy the day a bullet ripped into the young artist's chest during the offensive at Chemin des Dames in April of 1917 (Adolf Hitler also fought at Chemin des Dames). Stretcher-bearers were unable to get him to safety and term and long goals he was left for report sa filipino, the night, half-dead, on his back, where he was a submissive spectator of the struggle, gazing at the conflict overhead. Masson had spent three years in the trenches in conditions so horrible he was unable to speak of for defense, them for years, and his wounds caused him psychic trouble to the end of his life.
Torrential Self-Portrait, 1945, ink on paper, 18-7/8x24 in. [48x61 cm]. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris. There followed a succession of hospitals for two years, and even padded cell confinement in a psychiatric ward. His doctor advised that he never again live in a big city. The war left him nervous with nightmares; he suffered from mga halimbawa report, insomnia and spent long painful hours dreaming new paintings. The Crows, 1922, oil on hotel manager essay, canvas,
92x73 cm [36јx28ѕ inches]. private collection, Le Havre. A Throw of the Dice, 1922, oil on canvas, 37#8539;x25ј, Essen Museum, Germany. A Throw of the Dice is doubtless a reference to Stphane Mallarm’s Un Coup de ds jamais n’abolira le hazard , and/or Igitur . Anna Balakian wrote that the “throwing of the dice, of which we had the initial example in Igitur, is the representation of human power, and the “hasard,” which it cannot succeed in mastering…” “Igitur’s life, therefore, is directed toward one single act, symbolized in ng book the blowing out of the candle followed by the casting of dice.”  In contrast to the bareness of Crows, A Throw of the Dice is filled with references to events and personal experiences as well as to acquaintances who gathered in his studio on the rue Blomet (this Cubist-influenced painting was bought by Ernest Hemingway directly from the artist’s studio). Guite Masson, Director of Comit Andr Masson, identifies the figure throwing the dice as Georges Limbour; the others as Roland Tual, Theodore Fraenkel, and purpose “sans doute Michel Leiris.” Could these personages also be an allusion to ng book Masson’s having survived the war in what Nietzsche called, “the great dice game of existence.” The dice, at bottom center, are about to qualitative research case slip off the bottom of the report sa filipino, painting into the unknown - the “ nant .” Dice have a connotation of predetermined fatalism and appeared in an essay many paintings at mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, that time by prayer Picasso, Braque, Klee, and others. Although Picasso admired his work, years later Masson said he had never been truly Cubist, for Cubists “have nothing to do with the representations of dreams of those instincts which lie at the root of our being.” The Repast, 1922, oil on canvas, 31#8542;x36#8541;, private collection, Paris.
To eat together is spiritual union; meals in an ancient household were sacred because the household god was present. Masson’s close friends, artists, philosophers, and sa filipino poets, were often portrayed in a variety of shared activities, as in The Repast . The pomegranate has a long symbolic tradition, going back to pagan mythology where it was the hotel essay, attribute of Persephone, signifying her periodic return to earth in the spring. Because of its abundant red seeds it is a symbol of fertility. However, the French word grenade means both pomegranate and mga halimbawa sa filipino hand grenade. For Masson the pomegranate, “the only fruit that bleeds,” was a sign of death, for he suffered a battlefield memory of a soldier’s head blown open and looking very much like a gaping pomegranate. Qualitative Research In Education? Yet the figure on mga halimbawa ng book report, the right holds a glass of wine, another holds bread - the “liquid of life” and short term and long goals the “staff of life.” Masson affirmed life even with conflicting flashbacks. In 1923 Hitler’s Nazi putsch failed in Munich, while General Primo de Rivera became dictator of Spain. Cubist influence was evident in the artist’s work but with personal metamorphoses; even his still lifes were charged with an intensity of feeling at odds with the spirit of sa filipino, Cubism. Classic Cubist still life elements: tilted tabletop in shallow space, musical instruments, drinking glasses, fruit, even a Braque-like white clay pipe, plus Masson’s symbolic pomegranate, are apparent in Still Life with Candle . The lighted candle is fraught with allusions: uncertainty of being, illumination in the darkness of life, intelligence, and spiritual strength. 28x31Ѕ, collection of Mr Mrs Alexander P. Rosenberg, New York.
However, this candle burns but does not illuminate. The primary significance of the flame for Masson stems from the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who regarded fire as the fundamental substance, “Everything, like a flame in prayer a fire, is born of the death of mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, something else … the primordial element out of which everything else arises.” Heraclitus, Masson stated, “remains for qualitative in education, me the essential philosopher.” To a great degree Heraclitus foreshadowed the modern conception of the uniformity of natural law. If we substitute energy for Heraclitus’s term fire , as Werner Heisenberg  suggests, virtually everything he says about change is acceptable from the modern scientific point of view . The following year Masson became involved with Surrealism,  and by ng book report 1927 there were depictions of physical conflicts in and long essays his animal world: fish, birds, insects, and horses engaged in battle, as well as scenes of slaughter, massacres, copulation and rape. Andre Masson was possibly the most consistent portrayer of cruel confrontations and report bizarre combat in of writing Surrealism. Ng Book Report Sa Filipino? He also painted some of his most symbolic and speculative works as his erudition served insight and prayer for defense of thesis revelation.
In Ophelia Shakespeare's female. Ophelia, 1937, oil on canvas, 44#8542;x57Ѕ, Baltimore Museum of report sa filipino, Art, Sadie A. Prayer? May Collection. protagonist is surrounded by a countryside filled with ponds and lush vegetation, like the fertile fields of the Ile-de-France where Masson grew up. Ophelia’s face is made up of floral forms. Flowers are a traditional symbol of life, fecundity, and joy, but Ophelia says: “There’s rosemary, that’s for mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, remembrance; pray, love, remember; … there's rue for purpose of writing an essay, you; and here's some for me … O you must wear your rue with a difference.” Rue was a sign of repentance. More importantly it was also known and used in ancient times, and in the Renaissance, as a contraceptive and an abortifacient.  Rosemary was an report, established emblem of betrothal, but the Prince must wear his “rue with a difference.” Ophelia, like a supine non-erotic odalisque, is short goals essays, submerged in primordial waters; only her face, echoed in the cloud formation above, is visible. Life comes from water; immersion in water signifies a return to a pre-formal state, like baptism, with a sense of birth and regeneration on one hand and death and annihilation on the other. The sunlit sky is ng book sa filipino, filled with cosmic forms and astral bodies; Ophelia is transformed into a cosmic planetary constellation not unlike Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne where Bacchus, seeing the deserted, lovelorn Ariadne, leaps from his chariot to embrace her.
That event is mimicked by the clouds whose shapes echo the drapery and gestures of the principles, and study in education where the starry crown of immortality awaits Ariadne as a constellation. National Gallery, London. Above Ophelia is ng book, no Bacchic benefactor, but the research case in education, reaper Death, Claimer of Souls; while scorpion-like insects (similar to mantes, scorpions show cannibalistic sexuality ) frolic, play, and serenade Ophelia - as their lives go on unencumbered by Shakespearean tragedy. As Ophelia said, “We know not what we are, but know not what we may be” (IV,5,45). militias on the Place de la Concorde near the seat of the National Assembly.
It was one of the major political crises. during the Third Republic and entered the popular consciousness of the socialist movement as an mga halimbawa report sa filipino, attempt. to organize a fascist coup d'tat; 16 people were killed and 2,000 injured. Masson witnessed the fascist riots of 1934 in Paris; he anticipated another war and decided to an essay leave France. Recalling the doctor's advice to avoid city life, he decided Spain would offer a peaceful life. Hardly had he and his family reached Spain than insurrection broke out in Barcelona.
They found themselves trapped in the home of mga halimbawa ng book report, a friend in the middle of shelling and sniper fire. Hotel Manager Essay? Lying behind mattresses for shelter, Masson felt he was in the trenches again.  The Masson family returned to France when the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936. The next year German planes bombed the little town of Guernica, Picasso painted his mural, and Andre Breton was put in charge of Galerie Gradiva for the Surrealist exhibitions. It is likely that Masson, just returned from the terrible scenes of the Civil War, and disturbed by the indifference of Europe to the fascist horror, was making a statement about the existence of dreadful suffering and report sa filipino impending disaster. Leaders And Followers? A titanic figure, like Samson destroying the temple, seems to be bringing down the modern world around himself in the disturbing In the Tower of Sleep. 32x39Ѕ, Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. May Collection. Vital fluid gushes from his genitals and a gaping head wound spills forth seeds like an open pomegranate. Blood flows, fires (Heraclitean?) are burning. At upper right a woman’s nipples are bleeding as though pierced from ng book, within with sword-points. A humanoid, Bosch-like musical instrument (left of the central figure), reminiscent of the purpose of writing an essay, scorpion-like insects in Ophelia , tears its own strings with a saw-like bow in a sadomasochistic serenade. The flayed figure came from a memory of the war,” explained Masson, “a figure lying in a trench with his head split open;”  it all takes place in a tower from which there is mga halimbawa ng book, no way out except into the abyss.  In ancient and medieval warfare, a tall tower was used in storming fortified castles, and terrible carnage ensued.
The tower, in dream symbolism, represents elevation, pedestal, and inaccessibility, with phallic connotations. Masson’s subconscious flashback explains the chaotic composition of the painting, almost psychotically* thrown together like a horrible nightmare with its plethora of essay, complex motifs. Mga Halimbawa Report? As with the infamous “Famine Tower” where Ugolino and children were immured, horrific images grow in purpose of writing the imagination. Possibly also a reference to the Tour de Nesle Affair, a scandal of the mga halimbawa sa filipino, French royal family in 1314, during which the daughters-in-law of Philip IV were accused of adultery. Essay? The Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris where much of the adultery occurred. Ng Book Report? The scandal led to torture, executions and for defense imprisonments, with lasting consequences for the final years of the ng book sa filipino, Capetian dynasty. The knights suffered horrific deaths: flayed, broken on the wheel, burned with hot lead and sulfur, genitals thrown to the dogs, and decapitation. Is Masson making a comment on “the final years” of European dynasty? * William Rubin refered to the late 1930 pictures as “ugly” and In the Tower of Sleep as the prayer, “most repugnant of these Guignols.” (William Rubin, “Notes on Masson and Pollock,” Arts , November 1959, p. 41). [Presumably, he meant Grand Guignol theatre [ Le Thtre du Grand-Guignol ] in the Pigalle area of Paris that specialized in mga halimbawa ng book report horror shows, not Guignol, the purpose an essay, character in a puppet show for children]. Masson had wide-ranging fascination and interest in all things throughout his life. Sigmund Freud's essay of 1906, Delusions and Dreams in Jensen's Gradiva, translated into French in 1931, impressed the Surrealists more forcefully than his other writings.
It was an analysis of a novel about an archeologist so devoted to his profession that he had no place in his life for women. He visited Pompeii where he met Gradiva, who turned out to be a childhood friend who, in love with him, conformed to his delusions in report sa filipino order to cure him. Purpose? Freud refers to this revelation and final salvation as the medication of mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino, love. The Surrealists adopted “medication” as their program, and Gradiva as their Ideal Woman; Gradiva could intercede between the real and the surreal, life and death, creation and destruction. 34Ѕx48Ѕ, Collection Parti, Paris. Masson's Gradiva retains the right foot in erection,  as in the ancient marble relief of Gradiva in the Vatican Museum - and similar to the stance of a preying mantis. The body of Gradiva is in both a birth and death stance, like a combination Aztec birth goddess and hotel manager an Ariadne sleeping pose. Masson, other Surrealists, Freud's paper, Breton's essay, all used the Gradiva theme as a myth of metamorphosis and regeneration of mga halimbawa ng book report, life. 19#8541;x25ѕ, collection of Francois Odermatt, Paris. Le rve d'Ariane , (1941, Francois Odermatt Collection, Paris) betokens the mysteries of leaders and followers essay, female organs, just as the shell-vulva in Gradiva is associated with water and Venus, sources of fertility and symbols of one generation rising from the death of the preceding - similarities and parallels to mga halimbawa report motifs in Ophelia and the Heraclitean concept.
The profile of the sacred white bull (ominously darkened here) morphs frenziedly through spiraling tubal labyrinths to the waiting Ariadne (the volute suggests a vaginal plexus ). W.F. Jackson Knight cites Hommel as finding Cretan and Babylonian evidence of a connection between the spiral labyrinth and the internal organs of the human anatomy, one being a microcosm of the essay, other.  Indeed, in Leiris' novel, Aurora  the act of mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, descending stairs is short term goals, a descent into the self, a characteristic surrealist form of a pursuit of mga halimbawa ng book, self-knowledge: “This stairway is … set in a spiral which permits access to the various parts of the premises which contain your attic, it is your very viscera, it is your digestive tract which connects your mouth of which you are proud, to your anus, of prayer of thesis, which you are ashamed, hollowing out through the body its sinuous sticky way.” Does Ariadne’s labyrinthine umbilical-thread help Masson to represent the “dreams of those instincts which lie at the root of our being”? or the medication of mga halimbawa report, love? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, poet and author, worked as a scientist in various fields such as mineralogy, comparative anatomy, botany, and the theory of color. There were years when science occupied him more than poetry. 28ѕx45#8541;, Vera and Arturo Schwarz Collection, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. In Masson’s Goethe and the Metamorphosis of Plants , Goethe, who wrote “the eye both perceives and qualitative study speaks,”  gazes intently at a gorgeous vision of primordial-looking germinations, crystalline radiations, and prisms. Perhaps the geometric “prism” between Goethe and the plants is a reference to ng book sa filipino Isaac Newton’s rationalistic documentation of color that Goethe resisted. Research? Until then, most of the accepted concepts about color had been advanced by artist-scientists, like Leonardo da Vinci, who based their theories on ng book report, their experiences with pigment rather than light.
Paint and prayer for defense light are fundamentally different: light is the source of all color, and pigments are simply reflectors, absorbers and transmitters of colors. Eventually the sensation of color is in mga halimbawa our brain. Like Masson, Goethe knew that the sensation of color was a psychological and hotel sensual experience of the mind; his “Theory of Color” (a premise now known as phenomenology of mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, colors) he regarded as proof against Newtonian optics. In his epoch-making, Essay on Metamorphosis of Plants Goethe set out to trace the specific phenomena in hotel essay the magnificent garden of the ng book sa filipino, universe, back to one simple general principle. He saw plants as reflections of life forces and believed that the genera and species were variations of a basic archetype, the Urplanz , Ur -Plant, or First Plant. He published his scientific theory, but botanists and scientists snickered and of thesis advised him to stick to ng book sa filipino poetry. For Defense? He took their advice and rephrased his views in a poem, “The Metamorphosis of Plants.” Gradually his theory accumulated supporters, and report sa filipino is today the foundation for much of the study of plants, just as his color theories have new adherents through Color Field paintings. Prayer Of Thesis? Masson felt great affinity for ng book sa filipino, this genius whose insight was illuminated by prompt his study of nature.
When the Germans occupied France in 1939, Masson was in danger of persecution by ng book report sa filipino the Nazis because of his “degenerate” work, because the Surrealists had ties to manager the Communist Party, and because his wife was Jewish. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book? Shortly after finishing the painting, Masson and his family fled to Auvergne in unoccupied France and purpose of writing an essay eventually to America. Masson found Manhattan “a sublime city … entirely made by our contemporaries.” Nevertheless, his old horror of the confusion of urban life was intensified by report sa filipino the city, so he moved to the seclusion of an old Colonial-style house in suburban Connecticut where he painted Meditation on an Oak Leaf . 40x33, Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941 and case study the U.S. declared war. Masson’s “American Period” began with what he called “triumphant tellurism … symbols of blooming and germination.”  During the war Americans were urged to grow their own food in Victory Gardens; accordingly the artist dug into the dark rich Connecticut earth and mga halimbawa report sa filipino grew his own vegetables. He was impressed by the fertility of American soil; years later in hotel manager France he exclaimed: In New England there are oak trees three times larger than here, the leaves also!
The weeds are three times larger than here and the insects gigantic, for ng book report sa filipino, there is an candide prompt, astonishing fauna and it remains very wild 250 kilometers from New York . so I put a wildcat in my painting.”  No Cartesian meditation, no contemplation on the Tree of Life, Meditation on an Oak Leaf is organized in report sa filipino organic, cartouche-like compartments, pinched in research study the middle like cell division; the entire configuration is a kind of totem pole of private myths of pod and ng book womb-like forms. The wildcat’s head surmounts this staff, and next to it are two eyes - one glowing red connected by a figure-eight, symbol of infinity. The painting is in primary colors: red, blue, yellow; and white, on a black ground that stands for earth, as the prayer of thesis, source of growth and regeneration, like Goethe’s “reflections of life forces.” Red is the energy principle, yellow the solar force, and blue the color of contemplation. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Sa Filipino? “American energy fascinated me,” Masson said, “I painted the hotel, power of the earth. The magic. The climate.” The saturated hues of his American works, the sa filipino, sensual and mental experiences were an attempt to battle against the light that he found so fiercely bright in of writing an essay his adopted country. There are suggestions of roots and tendrils in mga halimbawa ng book report sa filipino the painting, of growing things weaving throughout the case study in education, composition. Compressed, bisected shapes are translated into “vegetable and human fragments: leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye.”  Below the oval, womb-like compartment is a depiction of the quiescent artist in meditation (not unlike the pose in Matisse’s Girl Asleep , or Le Rêve, and reminiscent of mga halimbawa ng book report, the. 31#8542;x25Ѕ, private collection, Paris.
figure in Repast , slumped over with his head in his arm and prayer a pomegranate in (Masson’s?) hand, along with the umbilical threads of Le rve d'Ariane . At middle right is primordial, cactus-like foliage, as in Goethe and the Metamorphosis of Plants . The larva, seed, or embryo of nascent white below the report sa filipino, peacefully dreaming painter has a broken line (always a sign of movement in Masson’s art) indicating that fertilization has taken place. Masson designed a curtain, Libert, Egalit, Fraternit , in 1942 for a Society of American Friends of France ceremony that showed his involvement with France’s plight in the midst of war. Clement Greenberg stated that Masson's visit to candide America played a pivotal role in the development of Abstract Expressionism in New York. Jackson. Pollock's Totem 1 (1944) is considered an extrapolation of Masson's Meditation on Oak Leaf ,  and his Pasipha (1943) was painted soon after Masson’s work of the same title, while Gorky’s Garden in Sochi series (early 1940s. Mga Halimbawa Report Sa Filipino? They were neighbors in Connecticut) has parallels with Masson’s art of for defense of thesis, those years.
With the end of the war, Masson returned to his native France where he was the subject of retrospective and solo exhibitions throughout Europe. He won France's National Prize for Painting in 1954. He had seen the large collections of Chinese art at ng book report sa filipino, the Metropolitan Museum in New York and at the Boston Museum in Massachusetts, and recognized sensibilities toward nature that paralleled his own. “At first glance there’s no human trace in qualitative research case Chinese landscapes,” he said, “as the eye travels over the painting, a few brushstrokes reveal the mga halimbawa ng book sa filipino, figure of a man. A grain of for defense, dust in that world” - reminiscent of William Blake’s “To see the World in a Grain of Sand, / And a Heaven in a Wild Flower…” In the mid 1950s, calligraphic forms derived from Chinese and ng book Japanese ideograms began to appear in Masson’s works. Candide? He was enthralled by the play of spontaneity and control in Asian art and was drawn to the philosophy of mga halimbawa ng book, Zen Buddhism. Interestingly, Surrealism and in education Zen share the concept that surprising juxtapositions can inspire powerful insights and intuitions. “Having left the realm of Surrealism, Masson was expressing a broadly humanistic, existentialist conception of the artist’s activity,” stated Clark Poling. “In their visual dynamism these works embody creative energy, thus recapitulating a central aspect of automatism without bearing particular evidence of a source in the unconscious.”  39#8540;x59, Mobilier National, Paris. In Pursuit of ng book report sa filipino, Hatchings and Germinations is a study Masson made for a Gobelin tapestry. Over an earth-brown underpainting is a fusion of subtle depictions of a bird, a floating figure with fruit, heart-fashioned vagina, fish, insects, leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye, egg and prayer of thesis embryo shapes, - images that have long intrigued Masson - and report sa filipino trailing hatchings of colorful meandering calligraphic lines, veins and streaks.
Masson is pursuing the hidden reality, the psyche, or spirit of the dynamics of nature that can’t be detached from its aesthetic values. Zen, the meditative method of reaching serenity and imbued by a deep sense of the cosmic order of candide essay, creation, opened the way to inner tranquility and ng book enlightenment for Masson. In 1976 Masson was honored with a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York; four years later he had to abandon painting because of ill health. Short Essays? In early 1987 a large exhibition of his drawings was held at the Haywood Gallery in London; he made his last trip to see it. He died, age 91, in his Paris home in October of that year. Without “a renunciation of instinct” Andr Masson sought the “ecstasy of mga halimbawa sa filipino, death” as a young man. He survived, and found the ecstasy of life, love, and art, of courage and sagacity, in the chaos and carnage that was the twentieth century. Sophocles ended King Oedipus with: “… learn that mortal man must always look to his ending, for none can be called happy until that day when he carries his happiness down to the grave in peace.” Masson’s valor and acumen, his affirmation of life in leaders essay the face of devastating odds, earned him the ancient Greek maxim: “Satisfaction, all passion spent.”  Interview with Masson, Newsweek magazine, 15 November 1965, vol.
2, no. 35, p. 106.  An allusion to Tristan und Isolde ’s Liebestod where death is the report, only consummation. Isolde’s final words were höchste Lust [highest bliss]. When Polonius says “ecstasy of love” (II,1,113), when Ophelia describes Hamlet as “blasted with ecstasy” (III,1,160), and when Hamlet declares “ecstasy was ne’er so thrall’d” (III,4,74) to his mother, Shakespeare uses the for defense of thesis, word “ecstasy” in the Elizabethan sense of disordered, madness, unbalanced, - a derangement of the senses .  Anna Balakian, Literary Origins of Surrealism: A New Mysticism in French Poetry (New York, King's Crown Press, 1947), p. 129, p. 92.  Werner Heisenberg, Physics and Philosophy , NY: Harper and Row, 1958, p.71; as quoted in Robert Nadeau, Readings from the New Book on ng book sa filipino, Nature: Physics and Metaphysics in the Modern Novel , University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1981, p. 21.  Masson introduced the idea of the Minotaur and labyrinth to research study in education the Surrealists, “ it was Masson and Georges Bataille who suggested Le Minotaur as well as Labyrinthe as titles for Albert Skira’s publications”: Martin Ries, “Picasso and the Myth of the Minotaur,” Art Journal , XXXII/2, Winter 1972/73, p.142. In a letter, dated 26 June 1967, in answer to questions by ng book sa filipino Martin Ries: “The title of the magazine Le Minotaure had not been proposed by the orthodox Surrealists but by hotel manager Georges Bataille and myself in a meeting at Vitrac's house, Rue de Seine, we won after arguing against the opposing Surrealists who wanted to call the magazine l'Age d’or . It was only later that Breton and the rest of the loyal Surrealists worked for it too. But not without some reserve because of the title.
About Labyrinthe , it was Bataille who gave the idea to mga halimbawa sa filipino Skira.”  John M. Riddle, J. Worth Estes, and Josiah C. Russell, Ever Since Eve . . . Birth Control in the Ancient World. Essay? Archaeology vol. 47, no. 2 (March/April, 1994), 29-35.  Mantes, unlike other insects, do not eat plant life; they are the cannibals of the insect world and devour members of their own family. They appealed to the Surrealists because of the fact that, while mating, the female devours the male, although the male continues to copulate. See William L. Pressley, The Praying Mantis in Surrealist Art, Art Bulletin , vol.
LV, no. 4, (December, 1970)  Dawn Ades, André Masson , NY: Rizzoli, 1994, p.17.  Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. 57. Cited in ng book report sa filipino William Rubin and Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , New York, Museum of Modern Art, 1976, p. 227, n. Hotel Manager? 94.  Freud described her foot as perpendicular, in Jensen's 'Gradiva' , ( Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, trans. Mga Halimbawa Report Sa Filipino? James Strachey, London, 1959, IX, pp.
10, 28, 46, 95). See Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. Purpose An Essay? 95; also cited in William Rubin and ng book Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , MOMA, 1976, p.227, n. 94; Whitney Chadwick, Masson's Gradiva : The Metamorphosis of term essays, a Surrealist Myth, Art Bulletin , vol. LII, No. Ng Book Report Sa Filipino? 4, (December, 1970); and Martin Ries, Andre Masson: Surrealism and His Discontents, Art Journal , vol. Manager Essay? 61, no. 4, winter 2002.  Knight, W. Sa Filipino? F. Jackson, Maze Symbolism and Trojan Game Antiquity , December 1932, vol. 6, #24, p. 450; citing Fritz Hommel in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung , 1919, XXVI, 63 ff.  J. H. Term And Long Term? Matthews, Surrealism and the Novel , Ann Arbor 1966, p. 108; citing Michel Leiris, Aurora , Paris: Gallimard, 1946. p. 23. Aurora was written between 1927 and 1928, published in report sa filipino 1946 (Matthews, p. 122).  The ear is dumb, the mouth deaf, but the hotel, eye both perceives and speaks, Naturwissenschaftliche Schriften, [Nature Studies] vol.
5, p.12.  Andre Masson, Entretiens avec Georges Charpentier , Paris: Julliard, 1958.  William Rubin and Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson, NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1976, p. 67.  Clark V. Mga Halimbawa Ng Book Report? Poling, Andre Masson and the Surrealist Self , New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008, p.162. This paper was written with the of writing, help of a Release-Time Research Grant from Long Island University, the mga halimbawa report, Brooklyn Center.