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Table of contents format for a research paper

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Format for a Research Paper - A Research Guide for Students

nsf format resume Proposals to the National Science Foundation. sfinger at cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon University. Updated April 2015. The original version of this advice was written in table for a research, the late 1980s. At a high level, the advice still applies, but some of the thesis, details have changed dramatically. What follows is a collection of format advice for writing research grants to the National Science Foundation.

It includes some guidelines on how to grades ib extended essay write an NSF proposal and how to get the latest version of the NSF forms. Some required NSF forms, such as the format paper, Disclosure of Lobbying Activities, will usually be provided by of global warming, your institution’s grants office. This document focuses on writing proposals to NSF, but the general advice can be applied to writing any proposal. Always read the RFP (request for proposal) to find out table paper, what the funders want. They will give you money only if you can help them reach their goals.

The goals of funding agencies (public and private) vary dramatically. A successful proposal to showing respect essay NSF looks nothing like a successful proposal to NASA. Even within an agency, the style of table format for a research proposals can be different among internal divisions. Essay Diary Anne Play? Find out table of contents format for a research paper, about the agency, its goals, and its review system. All proposals should answer the following questions in one form or another. What is the essay anne play, problem being addressed? (What is the goal of the table of contents format for a paper, research being proposed?

What is the hypothesis being tested?) Why is the problem important and interesting? To the world? To the funders? What will you DO to thesis address the problem? If you complete the plan, will that bring you closer to an answer to of contents research the question? Do you have the to blame for ww1, resources (equipment, graduate students, access to industry . ) necessary to complete the of contents research paper, research? NSF is organized a lot like a university, except that instead of departments and colleges it has divisions and directorates. The Program Directors (PDs, also equivalently called program managers and program officers) are like professors (and a lot of for ww1 essay them are professors on leaves of absence).

They have areas of of contents for a research specialization which correspond to diary anne frank play the research areas covered by their programs. Table Format For A Paper? The division directors are like department chairs. Essay? They oversee the format research paper, broad research areas covered by the programs and deal with administrative issues. Thesis Analysis? The Assistant Directors are like Deans of Colleges. They lead the directorates and are responsible for the major research directions in Engineering, Physical Sciences, etc. The Director of of contents for a research NSF, who is like a university president or chancellor, is responsible for the overall direction of Science and Engineering Research. While the causes warming essay, structure of NSF is similar to table for a research paper a university, unlike a university, NSF reorganizes constantly. Of Global Warming Essay? This means that you may get to know a program director who may suddenly return to his or her university or may be reassigned to another program -- or that your program may be merged with a different program. While this is disconcerting in table of contents format for a research, the short run, in the long run it keeps programs from stagnating and helps NSF keep on the forefront of research areas. Find out which program supports your research area. (It's not always obvious). You can ask your colleagues to find out about which programs support your research area.

Find out essay diary play, if there are other people at NSF you should talk to table research and what special initiatives might apply to you. You can find the list of telephone numbers and e-mail addresses from the showing, NSF web site (http://www.nsf.gov/). Read the program announcements before you contact the PD so that your questions will be direct and specific. The easiest way to get started is to send a brief email to table for a research the program director stating which program you are interested in applying to, a short statement of who was for ww1 essay your relevant research interests, your availability by phone or email, and a one-page attachment that covers the first three questions above: what’s the problem, why it’s important, and what your key idea is. Don’t spend a lot of table of contents for a research time/space giving the big picture on, e.g. cybersecurity; you are talking to causes of global essay an expert your area. Some PDs prefer e-mail; some prefer phone calls. Some like to talk to table research Principal Investigators (PIs); some don’t. PDs are as varied in their personalities as your other professional colleagues are. Essay? If you do talk to a PD on table format research the phone, remember to listen; don’t just pitch your idea non-stop. You are calling to get advice, not to sell your idea – that happens in the proposal itself.

Remember to say thank you. (Don't be discouraged if they are rough on you. They spend most of the day on the computer and the phone and who was for ww1 essay the rest of the time they're traveling and staying in government-rate hotels.) Treat the PDs as if they are intelligent people (even if you doubt it). The PD will assign the reviewers and will make the final decision. Table Of Contents For A Research? You don't have to be a sycophant, just be polite. (This advice comes from a former NSF program director.) Most of your correspondence with NSF will be through email, but if you call, you will probably get the PD's voice mail.

Most program directors let their calls roll to voice mail because the message is transferred into email, so they can listen no matter where they are. Crackup Essay? Also, if you are calling about a proposal or a grant, include the NSF proposal number so the table format research paper, PD has all the information at hand when returning your call. When you call, · clearly state who you are, · your institutional affiliation, · why you are calling, · give the proposal or grant number if you have it, and. · provide several times when you will be available for a call back. Also, oddly, the thesis stress, NSF phone system displays the caller ID when the call is in progress, but the number disappears after the table of contents, call is over and, as far as I could tell, there is causes warming essay no way to get it back. So don't count on the program officer being able to see that you called. Leave a message if you want them to know that you called.

The instructions to proposers get more specific every year, and FastLane (the NSF submission system) gets better at rejecting proposals that don't meet the requirements. You are responsible for ensuring that your proposal meets all the particular program requirements. Follow the directions! (The NSF secretaries are often heard muttering things like: If they're so smart, why can't they read?) The number of table of contents format paper proposals submitted to NSF has increased dramatically over the last decade. As a result, fewer proposals are funded. Warming Essay? And as a result, each PI submits more proposals because the odds on each one are lower. DO NOT submit essentially the of contents format for a research paper, same proposal to several programs. The proposal will probably go to at least one duplicate reviewer, who will get angry that you are burdening the system, will recommend that both proposals be rejected, and showing respect will put a black mark next to your name.

DO NOT submit a proposal that is rushed and not the best that you can do. Not only are you burdening the system by making everyone go through the work of declining your proposal, you are also damaging your reputation with your peers. No matter what incentives you have from your university for submitting proposals, poorly thought out proposals are not worth the damage done to you and to the peer review system. NSF recently revised the merit review criteria to emphasize the importance of broader impacts in the evaluation process. The following excerpt is from the instructions to NSF reviewers: When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers should consider what the proposers want to do, why they want to table of contents format for a research do it, how they plan to who was to blame do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits would accrue if the project is successful. These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the table of contents format for a research, proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. To that end, reviewers are asked to evaluate all proposals against two criteria: · Intellectual Merit: The intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to advance knowledge; and. · Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the potential to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of respect to others essay specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for both criteria:

1. What is the potential for the proposed activity to. a. advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and. b. benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? 2. For A? To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts? 3. Is the plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and essay diary frank play based on a sound rationale?

Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? 4. Research? How well qualified is the who was to blame, individual, team, or institution to conduct the of contents for a, proposed activities? 5. Are there adequate resources available to causes of global the PI (either at the home institution or through collaborations) to carry out the proposed activities? As you write your proposal, you should keep the review criteria in of contents for a paper, mind. As academics, we understand the intellectual merit criterion because that is how we have been evaluated throughout our careers. However, many academics struggle with the broader impacts criterion. You need to convince the reviewers that your question is not just intellectually challenging, but also that the resulting knowledge will benefit society and that you have a feasible plan to get the knowledge out who was for ww1 essay, of the university and get it used in table research paper, the world. IV. Putting together your proposal. This section follows the general flow of creating the forms and text for an NSF proposal.

Once you have a rough draft of your proposal, ask someone who is senior to you to read your proposal as if he or she were an ib extended NSF reviewer. The ideal reader is a senior trusted colleague in your field who has had NSF funding, who has served on NSF panels, and research paper who will not be used by anne frank play, NSF as a reviewer. Table Of Contents For A Research Paper? (See Section 2.5.e on conflicts of interest.) The formatting requirements for for ww1 essay, proposals are given in the Grant Proposal Guide (GPG), which you can get from the table for a paper, NSF Web site. Stress? (The link changes with each new edition, so you will need to search for the GPG.) Before you start to put together your proposal, go to the NSF website and be sure you have the latest version. The guide is updated almost every year and you are expected to follow the current requirements. Your proposal may be returned without review if you don’t do this. In general, NSF lets the community know about research opportunities through two mechanisms: Program Descriptions and Solicitations. A Program Description covers a broad research area such as Physical Oceanography or Science of Organizations. A program description usually gives you either a deadline or target date. Of Contents Research? Deadlines are hard dates, and you must get your proposal in by midnight (your local time) on the given date or your proposal will not be considered in causes of global warming essay, the current round of funding. Target dates are soft dates, and your proposal will still be accepted after the table of contents paper, given date; however, there is no guarantee that your proposal will get a timely review if your proposal arrives after the target date.

If there are no due dates, then the program accepts proposals continuously and probably uses more ad hoc reviews than panel reviews. (Section V explains the difference between these types of reviews.) A Solicitation is more specific than a Program Description. Solicitations have a specified length of time for which they are active (usually 1 to 3 years). One of the major differences between solicitations and causes of global program descriptions is that solicitations can include special requirements, such as letters of commitment from of contents paper industrial collaborators or tables of specific data required for review. When you respond to a solicitation be sure to read the solicitation in its entirety and to respond to ib extended essay any special requirements since they can differ from those given in table format for a research paper, the standard GPG. I often start by pasting the body of the solicitation into the draft of my proposal so that I am sure to ib extended cover all the requirements. NSF also issues Dear Colleague Letters (DCLs) when there is a special funding opportunity or when a policy change is made that affects the current GPG. You can stay up to date with NSF announcements of research paper new programs, solicitations and DCLs through the NSF News office. To receive email updates, go to http://www.nsf.gov/news/ and select Get News Updates by Email.

You can select which research areas you are interested in, whether you want a daily digests or individual emails, etc. I get a daily digest, and grades ib extended I over- rather than under-select options. That way, I am sure to get all of the research, announcements I’m interested in, and it’s all contained in essay frank play, one email a day. The summary is a one page overview of the proposal. It is not an abstract. Of Contents Format Research Paper? It is a self-contained, third-person description of objectives, methods, significance. Stress Analysis? If you are funded, this goes into NSF's Summary of Awards publication as well as being published on the research.gov website. It will be read by your colleagues, the general public, and Congress. Table Format? Because PIs were not explicitly addressing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts as instructed, NSF has changed the summary page to showing respect to others essay a form with separate sections for the overview, the of contents format for a research, statement of respect essay Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. Note: the Project Summary form accepts ASCII text only. Table Of Contents For A Research Paper? If you copy and paste from a Word document, all the special characters like left and right quotation marks, hyphens, etc. will show up as question marks in the final version.

Be sure to proofread the PDF copy of your project summary before you submit your proposal. Reviewers often unconsciously make the implicit assumption that if you are sloppy in your writing and can’t be bothered to proofread, then you are also sloppy in your research. There is who was to blame a provision to of contents for a upload a PDF if your project summary requires special formatting for equations or other technical content; however, the PDF must follow the project summary requirements with separate headings for the overview, statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. The project description has a 15 page limit. Proposals over this limit are returned without review. You can include links in your proposal, but the stress, reviewers may or may not follow them. All of the information they need to of contents paper evaluate your proposal must be contained within the 15 page limit. If you do include links, be sure they are active, informative, and up-to-date just in case a reviewer does decide to follow them. 2.1 Objectives and Expected Significance. This part of the proposal should answer the question: What are the main scientific challenges? Emphasize what the stress, new ideas are.

Briefly describe the of contents for a, project's major goals and their impact on the state of the art. Give the reviewer the context for the proposal. Clearly state the question you will address: Why is it important? What makes something important varies with the field. For some fields, the intellectual challenge should be emphasized, for others the practical applications should be emphasized. Why is it an interesting/difficult/challenging question?

It must be neither trivial nor impossible. What long-term technical goals will this work serve? What are the main barriers to progress? What has led to thesis analysis success so far and what limitations remain? What is the missing knowledge? What aspects of the current state-of-the-art lead to this proposal? Why are these the right issues to format be addressing now? What lessons from past and current research motivate your work? What value will your research provide? What is it that your results will make possible? What is the relation to the present state of essay frank knowledge, to of contents format research paper current work here and elsewhere?

Cite those whose work you're building on (and who you would like to diary anne have review your proposal). Of Contents For A? Don't insult anyone. For example, don't say another’s work is showing respect inadequate; rather, identify the issues the work didn't address. Surprisingly, this section can kill a proposal. Format For A Paper? You need to be able to put your work in context. Grades Ib Extended? Often, a proposal will appear naive because the relevant literature is not cited. If it looks like you are planning to of contents format for a paper reinvent the wheel (and have no idea that wheels already exist), then no matter how good your research proposal itself is, your proposal won't get funded.

If you trash everyone else in your research field, saying their work is no good, you also will not get funded. One of the primary rules of proposal writing is: Don't piss off the reviewers. You can build your credentials in this section by summarizing other people's work clearly and concisely and by stating how your work uses their ideas and how it differs from theirs. This section should include a technical description of your research plan: the causes of global warming essay, activities, methods, data, and theory. This should be equivalent to a PhD thesis proposal for the big leagues. Write to format research convince the best person in essay, your field that your idea deserves funding. Simultaneously, you must convince someone who is format for a very smart but has no background in your sub-area. The goal of your proposal is to persuade the reviewers that your ideas are so important that they will take money out of the taxpayers' pockets and hand it to you. This is the part that counts. WHAT will you do?

Why is your strategy an essay anne play appropriate one to pursue? What is the key idea that makes it possible for to answer this question? HOW will you achieve your goals? Concisely and of contents format for a research coherently, this section should complete the arguments developed earlier and present your initial pass on how to solve the an elephant, problems posed. Avoid repetitions and digressions. In general, NSF is more interested in ideas than in deliverables. The question is: What will we know when you're done that we don't know now? The question is format research paper not: What will we have that we don't have now?

That is, rather than saying that you will develop a system that will do X, Y and Z, instead say why it is important to be able to do X, Y and Z; why X, Y and Z can't be done now; what knowledge is needed to make X, Y, and Z possible, your plan that will make it possible to do X, Y and Z; and, by the way, you will demonstrate X, Y and Z in a system. Right now, NSF is thesis stress more open to application-oriented research. They need to show Congress that the table of contents for a, money spent on research benefits the US economy. Some years ago, the word applied was a bad word at NSF. Now it's a good word. The pendulum between focusing on basic or applied research has about showing to others essay, a 20 year periodicity. You always need to check to find out where it is at the moment. Of Contents Research? Check with the of global warming essay, PD and knowledgeable colleagues. 2.4 Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work.

In the table of contents for a paper, review criteria, Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts have the same weight. From the GPG (emphasis mine): The Project Description must contain, as a separate section within the narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. Broader impacts may be accomplished through the respect essay, research itself, through the activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to the project. NSF values the advancement of scientific knowledge and for a research activities that contribute to the achievement of societally relevant outcomes. An Elephant Crackup Essay? Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at of contents for a research any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of essay individuals in society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the of contents paper, United States; and enhanced infrastructure for research and education. Remember that all of the proposals going to a review panel are in the same area of research, so you need to distinguish your proposal by what YOU are going to showing do to help NSF get the knowledge out of the academy and into the world.

You should think deeply and of contents paper critically about activities that will enable your work to diary anne frank have a positive, measurable impact on the overall endeavor of table format for a research STEM research. Present a plan for how you will go about addressing/attacking/solving the questions you have raised. Discuss expected results and your plan for evaluating the results. How will you measure progress? Include a discussion of milestones and expected dates of completion. (Three months is the thesis stress, about the smallest time chunk you should include in an NSF research plan.) You are not committed to following this plan - but you must present a FEASIBLE plan to convince the reviewers that you know how to go about getting research results. For new PIs, this is often the hardest section to write. You don't have to table format write the plan that you will follow no matter what. Think of it instead as presenting a possible path from where you are now to where you want to be at the end of the research. Give as much detail as you can. (You will always have at essay least one reviewer who is a stickler for details.) If any of the PIs have received NSF support in table of contents format research paper, the past 5 years, you must include a summary of the results of previous work. Causes Essay? The pages in this section count toward the total 15 pages.

You can use this section to discuss your prior research and how it supports your current proposal. Note that you must report both on the results for Intellectual Merit and table of contents research Broader Impacts. One of the purposes of this section is to help the reviewers evaluate your track record, so be sure to make a strong case for your results in both categories. Award #, amount, period Title Summary of results: The results must be separately described under two distinct headings: Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts ; List of publications acknowledging NSF; if none, state No publications were produced under this award. To save space, you do not need to causes of global essay include the complete citations in this section. You can cite them as references, included in of contents format for a, the References section. Evidence of research products and their availability, including, but not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software, and models, as described in any Data Management Plan; and respect essay For renewals: relation to proposed work. The references are a separate section that lists the pertinent literature that has been referenced within the project description. Of Contents Format Research? Remember to to others essay proofread the format for a, reference list. Reviewers may follow up on an interesting citation, so be sure author name, journal name, year etc. are correct.

Program directors often look in the bibliography for potential reviewers, and reviewers often look in the bibliography to see if their work is cited. If your bibliography has a lot of peripheral references, your proposal may be sent to essay reviewers whose work is format not directly related to yours and who may not understand your proposal. On the other hand, if you do not cite the relevant literature, your proposal may be sent to reviewers who are not cited and who will criticize you for not knowing the play, literature. The references do not count in the 15 page proposal limit. Check the GPG for the specific requirements for biographical sketches because the requirements change occasionally. The goal of the biosketch is to provide reviewers with your credentials that will help them evaluate whether you have the background, knowledge and skills to perform the table of contents format, proposed research. The biosketch also helps identify your conflicts of thesis analysis interest. Your biographical sketch should include the highlights that a reviewer of the proposal needs to know about you. Be sure your name, institution, professional email and phone number appear prominently at the top of your biosketch.

Be sure that you do not include any personally identifying information including your cell phone number, home address, private email address, etc. If your proposal has multiple PIs, you will look more like a team if your biosketches all use the same format. The current requirements are: a) Your professional preparation: undergraduate, graduate nd postdoctoral. Include the institution, major, degree and year. b) Appointments: List in reverse chronological order all of your academic and professional appointments. Include your current appointment.

c) Publications: List up to five publications, patents, copyrights, or software systems relevant to the current proposal , plus up to five other significant publications. You should fine tune the first five publications to be sure they demonstrate your knowledge in the proposed research area. Sometimes grants offices keep biosketches on file to include in proposals. However, you want to be sure that you include your most recent archival work; you don’t want it to table for a look like you stopped publishing 10 year ago. Also, if you work in several areas or want to highlight a particular area of expertise, be sure to select your five works most relevant to the current proposal. d) Synergistic Activities: List up to five examples of your professional and scholarly work that demonstrate your participation in and commitment to the broader impact goals of NSF. e) Collaborators and other affiliations; Conflicts of Interest (COI): This section has three parts: a) collaborators and stress analysis co-editors; b) your graduate and post graduate advisors and c) the current and table of contents format paper former students who you advised as graduate or post graduate students. (See the GPG for the exact requirements.) The information in grades, this section serves many purposes.

A reviewer may be interested in the number of PhD students you have advised and what kinds of careers they have gone on to; they may look at your collaborators to see whether you work with industry, with people from other fields, or with people at other universities. PDs use this information to identify those with whom you have a Conflict of Interest (COI). Format Research Paper? The people listed in part a) have a limited duration COI (24 to 48 months depending on the nature of the collaboration.) The people listed in b) and c) have a life-time COI. You also have a COI with anyone at your current institution, at an institution you have just left, or an institution to which have applied for employment. NSF will not send your proposal to your close colleagues, your thesis advisor, your advisees, nor to anyone at your current institution.

You may list such people explicitly, if you wish. In general, NSF grants are for three years and most of the money goes toward supporting PhD students. A typical budget for a single PI grant is about $100K/year, which will pay for a graduate student (tuition and stipend), about 10% of the essay diary anne frank, professor's time to supervise the student, a little bit of travel, copying, and overhead. However, the grant size varies from division to division. Ask someone in your area what is typical. Be sure to include all the support costs that you will need including computer services, travel, supplies, etc. Of Contents Format Research? NSF may cut your budget, but they'll never give you more than you ask for, so be sure to ask for everything you need.

Describe, justify, and showing essay estimate cost of equipment items $5000 or more. (Double check the GPG for the current dollar limit.) If your equipment needs change between the time you submit the proposal and the time it is granted, you can still buy what you need -- But be sure to talk to table format for a the university grants office BEFORE you buy the new equipment. There are special rules about equipment money because it is usually exempt from overhead charges. Also, NSF will only provide equipment money for research computers. Under normal circumstances, you cannot use NSF funds to purchase a general-purpose computer that is play used by format paper, only one person. The business manager in who was to blame for ww1, your department or grants office will usually help you fill out the budget form once you have identified your direct costs. Table For A? However, you should be sure that the Budget Justification pages are complete and correct. Reviewers often look at of global essay the budget pages because they give insights into the research plan. Who is being paid to of contents format for a research do the thesis stress, work? What priorities are reflected in table format for a paper, the budget? Are the to blame, resources requested sufficient to research carry out the plan?

Does the budget look padded or lean? For example, if you ask for thousands of respect essay dollars in international travel which isn’t justified within your proposal, this will raise red flags with the reviewers. Note that NSF does not allow voluntary cost sharing. Of Contents For A Paper? Unless a solicitation gives special instructions for essay, overhead rates, you must use the overhead rate negotiated by your university; you cannot reduce the of contents format, bottom line on crackup essay your budget by changing the overhead rate. List all current and pending support on the given forms. Your institution’s grants office can probably help with these. If you have submitted the format research paper, same proposal to more than one agency, be sure that you declare it on the cover page and in the current and pending support section. Causes Of Global Essay? If you don't and table of contents the same reviewer is picked by both agencies, you won't get funded and your reputation will be damaged.

Remember that only a few people, most of to others essay whom you probably already know, are qualified to review your proposal. 8. Facilities and Special Considerations. This section should focus on the facilities available to you that you need to table of contents format research paper do your research. If you will rely on any specialized equipment, describe it. The question in an elephant, the reviewer's mind is: Do you have the necessary resources to carry out the for a research, research? In addition, if you are asking for to blame for ww1, equipment in paper, your proposal, you will want to make clear what equipment you don't have.

If some of the work will occur off-campus, you should describe the facility where the work will take place. 9. Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan. If your proposal includes funding for postdoctoral researchers, you must include a one-page supplementary document that describes the mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In this document, you should discuss specific activities designed to advance the careers of post-docs supported by the grant. Essay? Examples of of contents format for a paper activities are given in the GPG and you can find examples on the web; however, you should tailor the plan for your research area and your university.

All proposals to to others essay the NSF must include a two-page supplementary document that describes how the results of the research will be made available to the public. The plan should cover: the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and other materials to be produced in the course of the project; the table, standards to be used for data and metadata format and of global essay content (where existing standards are absent or deemed inadequate, this should be documented along with any proposed solutions or remedies); policies for access and sharing including provisions for appropriate protection of table of contents format privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements; policies and provisions for re-use, re-distribution, and the production of derivatives; and plans for archiving data, samples, and other research products, and for preservation of access to them. Check to causes of global warming see if there is special guidance for the program you are applying to. Some programs and directorates have specific data-archiving requirements. Even though this section’s title uses the of contents for a research, word “data,” you should think of it as “results.” NSF gives you the warming, option to table of contents include just the statement that no detailed plan is needed, but you should not use this option because you are basically saying that you will have no results to disseminate. If you are collecting data that is covered either by FERPA or the Privacy Act, be sure that you discuss how sensitive data will be protected. Be careful how you write this section; you want to be able to publish your results while still maintaining the privacy of your subjects. An Elephant Crackup? NSF’s goal is to table for a research get the research results out to the public (who are the ones who paid for it), while maintaining privacy and intellectual property rights. Again, you can find many sample data management plans on the web. Be sure that your plan is relevant to your research and your university.

V. What happens to your proposal after it is submitted to NSF? All proposals arrive at NSF electronically - mostly through www.fastlane.nsf.gov and occasionally through www.grants.gov. The proposals are routed based on the program announcement number or the NSF division given by the PI. (On the cover page you are asked to identify what division in NSF should consider your proposal.) Occasionally after the initial sorting is done, program directors will assign proposals to a different program if the proposed research doesn't match what is funded in the named program. Once the respect to others, proposal has been assigned to a program director, it is research ready for review. An Elephant Essay? There are two basic review mechanisms used at NSF: ad hoc review and panel review. Both are single blind peer review mechanisms: that is, the reviewers (who are the PI's peers) know who the format research, PI is, but the PI does not know who the reviewers are. Panel reviews are the most common because of the large volume of proposals that NSF receives. Here's the math: Most reviewers will not write reviews for diary anne frank, more than 10 proposals a year without revolting (reviewing a proposal is a lot of work). If 150 proposals are submitted to table of contents format paper a program, then 900 review requests must be sent out.

That means a minimum of 180 reviewers must be sent at causes most 5 proposals each. Table Of Contents Format? Three reviews per ib extended essay, person per year is more realistic - so that means the of contents research paper, program director must have access to grades ib extended essay 300 of the for a research paper, proposal writers' peers in order to get the peer review system to work. Stress? And that's just for one program. All the other program directors are working with the same numbers -- and the expertise of many reviewers overlaps several programs. Panel review: For a panel review, the table format for a, program director selects 10 to 15 experts in a field and asks them review a set of thesis analysis related proposals. These panelists are a mix of table academics, industry and government reviewers, with academics being the majority. Each panelist reviews a subset of the proposals ahead of time through the Fastlane system. The panelists then come together to discuss which proposals should get funded.

Most reviewers find it easier to rank a set of proposals than to write a detailed review of each proposal. The reviews from a panel are often not as detailed as the crackup, ones from an ad hoc review (described below) -- but they usually are more directed. If one reviewer completely misses the for a paper, point of a proposal (which they sometimes do), this will come out during the panel discussion so you get fewer out-in-left-field reviews from panels than from ad hoc review. The panel makes a recommendation to the program director about which proposals should be funded. Ad hoc review: The program director can assign an individual to review a proposal outside the panel system. Stress? Ad hoc reviews may be used when the expertise of table format research paper a panel does not cover a particular aspect of a proposal. They may also be used when a proposal arrives outside the normal funding cycle.

The proposal is assigned to ad hoc reviewers through the Fastlane system. The reviewer is given about two weeks to a month to review the proposal. Diary Anne Play? Again, the review happens within the Fastlane system. Reviewers are usually a mix of university, industry, and government researchers. Almost always, the majority are academics. The PD reviews the proposal, the panel recommendation, and any ad hoc reviews, then makes a decision to fund or decline the proposal. The PDs must exercise judgment. Format For A Research Paper? For example, a reviewer might appear to be a perfect match for a proposal -- but when the ib extended essay, review comes in, it may be obvious that the format for a, PI's work conflicts with the reviewers work, and crackup the reviewer is biased. Often the decision to fund involves deciding whether to fund the proposal at the full or reduced amount. The PD makes the decision based on the program budget, the proposals that have been funded, and the pending proposals.

The PD writes an analysis of the proposal and the reviews to support the format research, decision. The proposal goes to the division director who must concur with the decision for it to stress analysis be official. You are notified by email once the of contents research, decision is final. If your proposal is funded, the NSF grants office deals with all the (electronic) paper work required to who was essay make a grant. NSF always releases the anonymous reviews to you after the decision is made. If you haven’t received notification within 6 months of your submittal, check your spam folder for table of contents for a paper, email from NSF. (The email comes from a server and many people report that it ends up in spam unless they white-list nsf.gov.) You can also login to Fastlane to check the status. Only call the PD as a last resort. Note: A grant from NSF goes to the institution, not to the PI.

If you change institutions, it is usually easy to stress take an format research paper NSF grant with you. However, you must negotiate with your current and future institution. NSF will not intervene in these negotiations. Declined proposals are confidential -- even the fact that a proposal was declined is essay anne frank play confidential. For grants, the titles, abstracts, PIs, funding amounts, .. are public information, but the proposal itself is confidential. Almost all NSF information is available over the web. The main NSF web page http://www.nsf.gov gives you access to all NSF program descriptions, publications (including the NSF Grant Proposal Guide), program descriptions and current deadlines, the phone numbers and e-mail addresses of project directors, etc.

The FastLane system http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov is an of contents format for a research paper interactive real-time system used to conduct NSF business over the Internet. All programs now require that proposals be submitted electronically either through FastLane or through grants.gov. Essay Diary Anne Play? The grants office at your institution can set up an account for you so that you can submit proposals and of contents format check their status through FastLane. If you are asked to write a review or be on a panel, the program officer will give you an id and password to give you access to the proposals. Aside on Fastlane: The first time I was a PD at NSF in the mid 1980s, Fastlane was just coming into existence through the efforts of who was for ww1 essay Erich Bloch, then the Director of NSF and a former IBM researcher and executive. I returned to table of contents format research paper NSF as a PD in 2010 and that was the an elephant crackup essay, first year that all proposal processing was done completely electronically. Of Contents Format Paper? In order to update the software methods and make NSF funding more transparent to the public, the current plan is to migrate the diary anne frank, functions of Fastlane to research.gov and to grants.gov. As of now, only the reporting functions have been completely migrated to of contents format research research.gov. You can submit your proposal either through Fastlane, NSF’s specialized proposal submission system, or through grants.gov, the submission system for all proposals to the US government.

At least as of now (2015), I strongly recommend that you use Fastlane because there are several NSF-specific features in Fastlane that are not available in essay, grants.gov. Using Fastlane ensures that you meet all NSF submission requirements and ensures that you receive timely feedback if there are problems with your submission. In the long run, Fastlane will almost certainly be subsumed by grants.gov, but the research community will receive many warnings and updates before this occurs. If your institution’s grants office requires you to table of contents use grants.gov, don’t worry that your proposal will be penalized. It just requires more work on of global essay the part of the NSF support staff both to get the proposal from of contents for a grants.gov into who was to blame for ww1 essay, NSF’s internal proposal processing system and may require more back and forth to ensure that all special requirements are met.

Start early if you haven’t used Fastlane before. There are many sections and forms to fill out. The program gives you the table of contents for a paper, opportunity to proofread every section as you upload it. Always click Proofread PDF button. An Elephant Crackup Essay? READ the pdf and be sure it is OK before you hit the table research paper, Accept button. Do not treat the Accept button like a Yeah, Sure, Whatever button. Don’t call the PD and ask to replace a corrupt file with the who was to blame for ww1 essay, correct one. You clicked the button that said you had proofread the file and it was correct. Remember that for every proposal you submit to NSF, at least five or six of your peers take the table of contents for a research paper, time to read it, write a review, and travel to ib extended essay DC to discuss it. Table Of Contents Format Research Paper? Although, if you are a junior faculty member, the reviewers aren't exactly your peers. Panels tend to essay be weighted toward more senior members of the community, and these are the paper, people who will be asked to write letters for showing to others, your promotion and tenure case and they are also are the people who are on program committees and editorial boards.

Only submit your best work! If you are invited to table of contents for a research be on a panel or to review a proposal, you should accept if possible. Being on a panel will help you will gain insight into what gets funded and how panels work. The peer review system only works if you, as a member of your community, understand that for every proposal you submit, you incur a debt of six proposals to grades review. Usually this debt is collected as you become more senior, but you still owe it to the system. Here are a few common NSF acronyms. Each directorate, division and program has an acronym, but because these are continually changing, you will need to search the NSF website to get an up-to-date-list of these acronyms. Assistant Director (despite the of contents format for a research paper, name, this is a dean-like position. The AD is one level below the Director of NSF. Conflict of interest. Dear Colleague Letter.

NSF electronic system for proposal submission, review and thesis stress analysis management. Grant Proposal Guide. The functions of fastlane are in the process of being transitioned to research.gov. Return without review: If proposals do not following the table of contents paper, requirements of the GPG or a particular solicitation, they are returned without review. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: the purview of NSF.

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cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in causes of global essay, my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on table of contents format research, the job hunt! Good luck on thesis analysis, the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to table of contents your military experience, check out frank play our military to table format research civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for causes of global warming essay your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt!

hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is research, suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Of Global Warming Essay. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and of contents for a paper, then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use?

Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the thesis stress Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to table format for a research paper include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps!

We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in crackup, KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Research. Since I’m from the showing respect essay medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is for a paper, more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. Showing Respect To Others. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello.

Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the table paper other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in stress analysis, education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Of Contents Format Research Paper. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi!

What resume template would you recommend for thesis stress a college freshman trying to apply for of contents paper a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the warming essay summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and table of contents format research paper, accounting market. Looking for grades essay an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt.

I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of table for a paper my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into essay the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and table format for a research paper, interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out thesis stress analysis with what template I should use.. Try using the table of contents format research paper ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. To Blame Essay. Good luck on your project.

Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Table. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret,

In order to of global warming best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from table of contents paper, there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to causes of global warming go wrong with any of them — it just depends on of contents format for a, your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Causes Essay. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there).

Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on of contents format for a research, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to essay the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into format for a research paper whether you’re qualified to who was to blame for ww1 essay get back into accounting after that many years outside of the format for a paper field. To Others. I understand that some regulations and rules change over table format research paper, the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain.

If that doesn’t seem to ib extended essay be a problem then go with the of contents format for a paper functional resume for sure. An Elephant Crackup Essay. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for format for a research paper your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out for ww1 our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Table Format Paper. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.

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Analysis of Performance GCSE PE Coursework. Table Format For A Research Paper. Extracts from this document. Analysis of performance coursework I am analysing myself on essay the position I play in football which is centre back. The important skills needed in order to table for a research play centre back are: * Power * Balance * Coordination * Agility * Timing * Control These skills are important for: * Power is important so the player is able to strike the ball hard enough to grades clear it from danger. Table Of Contents Format For A Research. It is also important so the player can jump high to showing respect essay win headers. * Balance is important so the player is able to stay on their feet whilst landing after jumping for a header and taking on players. * Coordination is important in order to run and research paper, header at the same time and to run and kick at the same time. * Agility is important so the stress analysis player is able to take on players whilst coming out of of contents format defence. It is also important for the layer so he is grades ib extended essay able to keep track of his marker whilst his marker tries to lose him in and out of players. * Timing is important so the player is able to kick and header the ball at of contents research the right time to get the best effect. * Control is important in order to able to control high balls. The fitness components that are needed to who was for ww1 play centre back successfully are: * Speed * Flexibility * Cardiovascular endurance * Speed endurance * Power * Acceleration These fitness components are needed for: * Speed is needed in order to keep up with the pace of the game and to table for a keep track of your marker. Anne Play. * Flexibility is useful when playing centre because it helps you to intercept passes and format for a paper, control high passes with your feet. * Cardiovascular endurance is needed so the player is able to keep moving for the whole length of the match. * Speed endurance is needed so the player is able to keep up with their marker when through balls are played throughout the thesis analysis whole match. . read more. During this time you must be moderately active which means working at about 60-80% of your maximum heart rate (MHR). Continuous training is essential for everyone who takes part in activities for a long period of of contents format time. Fartlek training can simply be modified to work on improving cardiovascular endurance just by making the sessions longer and including more running. My second weakness that I find I have is passing with my left foot, and grades ib extended essay, my third weakness is heading.

These two weaknesses could be combined and of contents format for a, improved on in the same session. An Elephant Crackup. Circuit training could be used to table of contents research improve these two weaknesses and instead of using health based exercises at each station, skill based exercises could replace them. For example at the first station the exercise could be passing the ball onto a wall with your left foot as many times as possible in 45 seconds. To judge to see if you are improving you count the number of times you pass the ball successfully and causes warming essay, compare with your next set of results. At the second station the same thing could be done but using headers instead. Table Of Contents For A. Another way of improving these weaknesses is by doing a skills training session. For this it is best to involve other players so they can help you improve. To improve heading there could be three extra players; a goal keeper, someone to cross balls in and a defender. First a player would cross the ball in and I would be trying to win the header and ib extended essay, header at goal, the job of the defender is to win the ball and the goal keeper's job is table format research obviously to save it. Showing Essay. This would help me to improve my heading accuracy whilst I go up for corners, it would also get me more used to heading in a game situation. Once about 15-20 balls have been delivered I would then swap with the crosser and then cross balls in table format research, with my left foot in order to causes improve it. . Of Contents For A. read more.

As a result of the thesis analysis six week training programme I would expect to see a good improvement in not only the test results but in a competitive match as well. I would hope that I would find it a lot easier running around for the whole match and I would think that I would have improved my weaknesses as well as my strengths. My next steps once I have finished the training programme are to focus on any other weaknesses that could be improved. I will also keep on concentrating partly on my previous weaknesses, but not as intensely because I now have more important weaknesses. These weaknesses are speed endurance and coordination. I will write up an of contents format for a research, additional training programme in order to improve these other weaknesses. However due to stress the six week training programme I will not yet be good enough at my previous weaknesses in order to call them my strengths, therefore I will need to carry on working on them but not as often. Table Format Research. I will write up another six week training programme and in one of those weeks I will include working on my previous weaknesses, in showing to others essay, this week I will carry out the same sort of training methods but do them more intensely as I should be better at them. In the other five weeks I will still include one of those training methods once a week but for the rest of the table of contents research week I will concentrate on improving my other weaknesses.

To improve my speed endurance I will need to include training methods such as interval training in my programme. I used interval training in causes of global warming, my previous programme but in order to aim it specifically at speed endurance I will need to add more sprints in to it. To improve my coordination I will carry out table of contents format for a, a circuit training programme that will include various activities to improve my coordination, then I will repeat them three or four times. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of who was many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by of contents format research paper, 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays. Speed of reaction- when a player hears a call for the ball, how long it takes for him/her to pass it * Timing-choosing to tackle when the ball is away from the opponent's feet. * Speed- getting to the ball before the opposition All of the above are demands which.

Strategies/Tactics Strengths: Starts and turns I know this tactic is a strength in my performance because, when I dive into the water I can determine how long I spend gliding in a streamline position under water. I know this is a good strategy because my coach informs me I have a good streamlined position. GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training. from getting strained. Following this you must prepare yourself mentally. To do this you must do a specific activity - Like in football, to prepare yourself mentally, you may do some football shooting, or some heading or maybe some passing of a football. Crackup Essay. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and he . Table Format For A. My muscles started to get tired at the end.

Weights felt lighter than before. Until the third set, I began to feel it become more difficult. Improving my muscular strength and showing respect, reps. Flexibility Exercise (Stretches) 1-2 minutes My stretches were good. An example of a sport specific training course could be: 1. press ups 2. Table Of Contents. sit ups 3. squats 4. star jumps 5. chin ups 6. bur pass 7. Showing To Others Essay. tricep dips 8. short rest 9. repeat Continuous training requires you to have your oxygen intake to table of contents format for a research be matched by the body's demand for oxygen. The first step will be to identify Adamsweaknesses and strengths in Long Jump and . This increased his balance when running also. Overview of session: * His balance and timing was bad only when he was at essay speed. * Adams potential is great as he can adapt his posture and technique when I ask him. Research Paper. which is getting in respect to others essay, the way of a pass, and a phase of table format paper play in the backs may be better than one in the forwards. Anne Frank Play. I need to stay in table format for a research paper, the rucks and mauls more often that I stand in the line.

PEP and performance analysis for analysis rounders. (a) List in detail the strengths of the player/competitor/participant. In Rounders I'm good at hitting the table format for a ball when batting; in order for me to do this I had good hand and eye co-ordination. Diary Anne Frank. When batting it is good to have good hand and eye coordination because it determines whether a hit will be good or bad, I think the. of student written work Annotated by. Table Of Contents Format. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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EMail Privacy Rights In Business Essay Research. Papparizzi Rights Essay Research Paper Does the 4 . Rights Of Privacy In The Private Sector 16 . Computer Privacy Essay Research Paper Computer Privacy 8 . Table Format Paper? Technology Vs Privacy Essay Research Paper 5 . Privacy Essay Essay Research Paper Privacy 4 . Privacy Essay Research Paper Privacy is something 12 . The Right To Privacy Essay Research Paper 2 . E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business Essay, Research Paper. E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business. E-Mail Privacy Rights in Business. How far we have come in such a small time. Grades Ib Extended Essay? When you think that the personal computer was invented in the early 1980’s and by the end of the millennium, several households have two PC’s, it is an of contents research paper, astonishing growth rate. Grades Ib Extended? And, when you consider business, I can look around the office and see that a lot of the cubicles contain more than one PC. It is of contents astonishing to me that such an item has taken control over the information technology arena like personal computers. Consider, however, the items that go along with personal computers: printers; modems; telephone lines for your modem; scanners; the software; online access; and lets not forget, e-mail addresses.

E-mail, or electronic messaging, has taken over the communications world as the causes of global essay preferred method of exchanging information. From the table of contents format for a paper simple, “let’s do lunch” messages, to the ability to send a business associate anywhere in the world an e-mail with an attached document that contains 150 megabytes of information, e-mail is quickly replacing the telephone, the U.S. Frank Play? post-office, and even overnight delivery services as primary method of exchanging important data. With the ability to create and send this instant information, the technology has far outpaced the education of how to of contents format for a research use this phenomena, the affects of this technology on society, and how to diary frank play prevent this method of communication from format research paper, growing itself out of existence. Consider the following numbers: ? There were about 23 million e-mail users in 1994. ? There will be approximately 74 millions e-mail users in the year 2000. ? Employees sent approximately 263 billion e-mail messages in 1994. ? Employees will send approximately 4 trillion e-mail message in the year 2000. ? A 1993 study by who was essay MacWorld magazine found that 22% of employers have engaged in searches of employer computer files, voice mail, electronic mail, or other network communications. ? The number of table format for a paper people subject to electronic surveillance at stress work has increased from approximately 8 million in 1990 to more than 20 million in table research 1996. ? Nearly 60% of companies that monitor e-mail or other employee communications conceal doing so. ? Less than 20% of companies have a written policy on electronic monitoring.

One of the major areas affected by grades ib extended essay this new technology is corporate America. Not only is table of contents research it struggling with how to keep pace with the growing need for fast and efficient e-mail, but also the dangers associated with it. Among these dangers is privacy, in particular, what legal rights corporations and crackup essay, employees have in keeping their communications private. This paper will introduce the current legislation in table of contents for a this area, the who was for ww1 essay expectation of privacy an employee should have, any court decisions that provide additional ruling, and table of contents format research, what a corporation can do to prevent litigation in these matters. II. Crackup Essay? Employees Expectation of Privacy in e-mail. As an e-mail systems manager, I was under the of contents format impression that since the company owns the electronic messaging system, the company could view the stress analysis contents of any employees e-mail account at any time.

I was only partially right. The explanation of the current law will describe this in detail, but, the employee does have a certain right to privacy where e-mail is concerned. Arguably, a company’s most valuable asset is it’s data. In the age of technological marvels, it is easier to create more valuable data and, on the other hand, that data is more easily retrievable, especially by persons not authorized to of contents format for a obtain the data. Employees of companies can expect a certain right of privacy granted by three main sources: (1) The United States Constitution; (2) Federal Statutes (The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986); and (3) State Statutes (many of which have not addressed the issue). The United States Constitution provides a limited group of employees with privacy safeguards. The safeguards are based on guarantees in warming essay the United States Constitution’s Fourth amendment and table of contents format, similar state constitutions. Courts have upheld that the Fourth Amendment’s protection against “unreasonable search and seizures” applies to workplace invasions of privacy. However, this Constitutional protection is limited to governmental intrusions.

Hence, it does not apply to private employers, unless an employee successfully shows “state action.” In Schowengerdt v. General Dynamics Corporation [823 F.2d 1328, 1332 n.3 (9th Cir. 1987).] Schowengerdt held that the employee had a reasonable expectation to thesis analysis privacy in work areas of exclusive use to the employee, such as the employee’s office, unless the employer had previously notified the employee that the employee’s office was subject to a work-related search on a regular basis. The court concluded that despite the employee’s reasonable expectation to privacy in his office that a warrantless search of the office was permissible when it was work-related and reasonable under the circumstances. As the wording of the 4th amendment suggests. it does not protect against all searches, only unreasonable searches. Courts have defined unreasonable searches as those against format for a research, a person who has an analysis, expectation of privacy which must be protected.

This can be shown in table format paper United States v. Perkins. [383 F. Analysis? Supp. 922, 927 (N.D. Ohio 1974)] Employees who lack this reasonable expectation of privacy such as through awareness of publicized monitoring policies, will generally be denied any constitutional protection. The policy, to be effective, should warn employees that e-mail messages may be audited despite certain system features that give the appearance of privacy, such as personal passwords and for a research, the employee’s ability to delete messages. III. Current Law Pertaining to E-mail Communication. The technology revolution of the e-mail address enabled businesses and private individuals to communicate in ways never before imagined. As with anything, the easier it is, the easier it becomes to do something wrong.

With e-mail, this is very evident. In order to an elephant crackup prevent wrongdoing and to protect the e-mail user, Congress enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of table of contents format for a research 1986 (EPCA). An Elephant? [Pub. Table Research? L. No. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (1986)(codified at 18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2521, 2701-2710, 3117, 3121-3126 (1988)).] The ECPA amended Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of essay anne frank play 1968, [18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2520 (1994).]. Table For A Research Paper? The ECPA was passed in response to Congress’ perception that the privacy protection of the 1968 Act was limited to narrowly defined “wire” and “oral” communications. This bill indicated the realization that advancing technology posed potential threats to citizen’s civil liberties and that changes were needed to update the thesis analysis older wiretapping laws.

The amendment expanded the scope of Title III to include the for a research paper interception of “electronic communication” and grades ib extended essay, unauthorized access of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(1), (4), (12), (17) (1994).] E-mail was not specifically mentioned in the ECPA’s definition of “electronic communication”, but, was originally intended to be included. “Electronic communication” is defined as in the ECPA as the “transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in of contents format for a research paper part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(12)(1994). Grades? While this does not directly mention e-mail, the of contents for a paper history of legislative statutes indicates the term includes electronic mail, digitized transmissions, and essay frank, video conferences. [S. Rep. No. 99-541, at table of contents format for a research paper 14 (1986)]. The ECPA also outlaws the interception of thesis stress electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ?? 2511(1)(a), 2520 (1994).] The ECPA amended the Federal Wiretap Act’s definition of table format for a paper “intercept” as “the aural or other aquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(4) (1994).] The key to to others essay this is including “or other” in the definition, since electronic communications cannot be acquired aurally. Even though electronic communications are now included within the ECPA’s interception clause, the range of protection afforded by the prohibition against interception has been narrowly interpreted by one of the few courts to address the issue.

An example of this lies in the decision of the table of contents format for a paper 5th Circuit Court in the case of Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service, [36 F.3d 457 (5th Cir. 1994).] In this case, the court decided whether or not the Secret Service’s seizure of essay anne frank a computer that was used to operate an electronic bulletin board system, constituted an “intercept” of the stored but unread e-mail contained on the system. Even though the court decided that e-mail can be intercepted, the court decided that the Secret Service’s seizure of the unread e-mail did not constitute an interception. The main reason for this was a distinction between e-mail in research paper “transfer” and e-mail in electronic storage. The use of the word “transfer” in the definition of “electronic communication,” and its omission in that definition of the phrase “any electronic storage of essay such communication” says that Congress did not intend for table research paper, “intercept” to apply to “electronic communications” when those communications are in “electronic storage.” This means that there is only a very narrow window of time during which an of global, e-mail interception may occur. This would be the time between the time an e-mail message is sent and of contents format for a research, the time it is saved to any location designated as storage.

So, for all intents-and-purposes, interception of e-mail within the prohibition of the essay diary frank play ECPA is table of contents research virtually impossible. The next condition of the ECPA which concerns most employers is its protection against the unauthorized access of electronic communications is electronic storage. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701 (1994).] E-mail in electronic storage includes e-mail which has been temporarily stored following transmission, as well as e-mail which has been stored for backup protection. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(17) (1994).] This definition would include most e-mail as existing in electronic storage. So, any protection of employee privacy found in grades essay the ECPA will be based upon the unauthorized access provision. The ECPA has built-in exemptions that will protect most employers and protect them against suit. These exemptions are: prior consent, business use, and system provider.

1. Table Of Contents For A? Prior Consent. The best protection against liability under the ECPA is when prior consent has been given for any interception or access of e-mail in crackup essay electronic storage. Interception of electronic communication is expressly allowed by the ECPA when “one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(d) (1994).] Also, access to stored electronic communication is allowed without liability when authorization has been given “by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or intended for that user.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(2) (1994).] An easy case to understand here is American Computer Trust Leasing v. Format Paper? Jack Farrell Implement Co. [763 F. Supp. 1473, 1495 (D. Minn. 1991)]. Summary judgement was granted in who was essay this case stating that when the party consented to the access of table of contents format for a research its computer system, it “cannot now claim that such access was unauthorized.” The key to prior consent is setting policies for corporate e-mail use and notifying employees that they will be monitored. This policy should be corporate-wide and employees that use the system will be judged as giving implied consent upon reviewing the an elephant crackup policies and table of contents for a research paper, agreeing to the fact that they have read and reviewed the policies. Employers should also be aware that a provision in an e-mail policy which only suggests that monitoring will be done, such as one which reads, “ABC, Inc. reserves the right to monitor all e-mail communication,” may not operate to create implied consent. 2. Business Use Exemption.

Employers may use the showing respect to others business use exemption for interceptions made within the table format research paper ordinary course of business. Grades Ib Extended? The business use exemption is more commonly applied in telephone monitoring cases where improper use of a business telephone is in question. Of Contents? Therefore, the provision upon which it is based is unlikely to analysis apply in table of contents the e-mail arena. To Blame For Ww1 Essay? The definition of “intercept” in the ECPA excludes interceptions captured by “telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment, or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by table format research paper a provider of respect essay wire or electronic communication services…being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of business.” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(5)(a)(i) (1994).] Based on this definition, it indicates that telephone or telegraph equipment is necessary for the exclusion to apply. It is even doubtful that the courts will consider a modem to be telephone equipment.

There is another clause within the ECPA that allows employers to apply the format research business use exemption. Section 2511(2)(a)(i) states: It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an elephant crackup, an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of table paper wire of electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in grades ib extended essay the transmission of a wire of electronic communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to table for a paper the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] For this exemption to apply, the employer would have to be classified as a system provider or an agent of a system provider. Several commentators on the subject have speculated that employers do qualify as system providers. An Elephant Crackup? The term provider would likely include public email networks, such as Prodigy and Compuserve, and the term agent may or may not be defined to include employers who subscribe to or use their e-mail service. Companies with their own e-mail systems on their own networks could also fall under this exception as electronic communication service providers. Assuming that an employer does qualify as a system provider, any interception would still need to be made within the ordinary course of business. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] Previous case law in telephone call monitoring provides some “stare decisis” for monitoring of employee e-mail in the ordinary course of business. In both Watkins v. L.M. Berry #038; Co. [704 F.2d 577 (11th Cir. 1983).] and Briggs v. American Filter Co. [630 F.2d 414 (5th Cir.

1980).], the courts decided that if the employer had difficulty controlling personal use of table format for a paper business equipment, then a personal call could be intercepted in the ordinary course of business to determine its nature, but not its contents. The employer should be cautious with the business use exception, as the definition of “within the ordinary course of business” is still undefined. 3. System Providers. Where employers provide their own company e-mail system there are two additional thoughts to support the non-relevance of the an elephant crackup ECPA to them. The first theory is only available for employers with a system whose messages remain entirely intrastate, and is based on the ECPA’s applicability being limited to of contents format for a research paper interstate communications. Under this theory, an intracompany e-mail system, whose messages do not cross state lines and causes of global essay, which is not connected to an interstate network, fails to fall under the table format for a research paper definition of “electronic communications service,” [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(15) (1994).] and falls outside the thesis protection of the ECPA. The definition of electronic communications under the law only pertains to such communication that affects interstate or foreign commerce.

However, the action could fall under the Interstate Commerce Clause if it is for a paper determined that the activity affects interstate commerce. In Perez v. United States [402 U.S. 146, 152 (1971)] the court stated “that a class of activities can be properly regulated by Congress without proof that the particular intrastate activity against who was to blame for ww1, which a sanction was laid had an effect on commerce.” Also, in Wickard v. Filburn [317 U.S. Of Contents For A Research? 111, 125 (1942)], the observation was made that “local activity may be reached by Congress if it exerts a “substantial economic effect on interstate commerce, irrespective of whether such effect is indirect.” Because the Interstate Commerce Clause could pre-empt this theory, the theory appears to have no basis and would be a shaky defense in a court of law. The second theory for diary frank, exclusion rests upon the ECPA’s clear exemption of table system providers from its prohibition against access and disclosure of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(1) (1994)] The exception states “Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to warming conduct authorized (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service.” Although speculation provides that employers should qualify as system providers, there is little legislative history that provides clarity on whether or not Congress intended to format for a research exempt private companies who provided their own e-mail system as system providers from the ECPA.

Senate Reports on the ECPA acknowledged the existence of internal e-mail, but did not address the law’s affect on those systems. In addition, testimony during the Senate hearings reflected an overriding concern for a company’s rather than an individual’s privacy. Some testimony during the Senate hearings even argued that the proposed legislation should cover all electronic communications. Philip Walker, Vice-Chair of the Electronic Mail Association (EMA), stated that, “electronic mail users deserve privacy regardless of what type of entity runs their system.” [S. Rep. No. 99-541 (1986) Hearing on S. 1667 Before the Subcommittee on Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 99th Congress 42 (1986)(statement of stress analysis Senator Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont)).] This uncertainty of Congress has left the door open has left the door open for courts to create a narrow definition of format research system providers, which could only stress analysis, include public, commercial providers such as America On-line, Prodigy, and Compuserve. Table Paper? Employers should again not depend on essay the system provider exception, but rather use the business-use or consent exceptions.

IV. For A Research? Case Discussion. In examining case law concerning e-mail privacy, there are a few standard benchmark cases. Most of these cases come from California and it is no coincidence that this law should develop in what is essay diary anne frank play considered a technological center of the United States. Of Contents For A Research? In California, which has some of the strongest laws protecting individual privacy rights, the courts have been unwilling to showing respect to others essay enforce promises made by employers to employees that their e-mail messages would be kept confidential. In fact, the California Supreme Court refused to review the case of Alana Shoars v. Epson America Incorporated. Format For A? In that case Ms. Shoars, who was the to others e-mail administrator, told Epson’s employees that their e-mail was confidential. A supervisor subsequently set up a gateway that allowed him to monitor all the employees’ e-mail.

When Ms. Shoars learned of this practice she immediately complained to her supervisors, and then was fired for table for a research paper, “gross insubordination”. Grades Essay? The judges in Ms. Shoars case concluded that California privacy laws did not encompass the workplace or e-mail and basically left it in the hands of the table research legislature. The same result was found in Flanagan v. Epson. [Sup. Ct. Cal., Jan.

4, 1991] In this case, an essay, employee brought a class action lawsuit alleging that Epson invaded the employee’s privacy by circumventing their passwords and reading their e-mail messages while advertising a feeling which led the employees to believe their messages were private. The final case interpreting California’s Constitutional right to privacy was Bourke v. Nissan Motor Company. [California Superior Court, Los Angeles County (1991)] In determining whether the right to privacy has been violated, the court said you must first determine whether the individual had a personal and objectively reasonable expectation of privacy. For A Research? Nissan argued that there was no reasonable expectation because the stress analysis employees had signed a Computer User Registration Form, which stated, “it is company policy that employees and contractors restrict their use of for a company-owned computer hardware and essay, software to company business. Bourke and Hall countered that they had a privacy expectation because they were given passwords to format research paper access the computer system and were told to respect essay safeguard these passwords. Format For A Research? The court realized that a subjective expectation of privacy existed, however this was not objectively reasonable. As a result, since there was no reasonable expectation of who was to blame privacy, there was no violation of the table of contents format research paper right to privacy.

The federal courts seem to have taken the same position. In Smyth v. Pillsbury Corporation, [914 F. Supp. 97 (E.D. Showing To Others Essay? Pa. Format For A Research Paper? 1996).] a federal court in Pennsylvania ruled this year that Pillsbury Corporation was entitled to fire a manager who had sent e-mail critical of essay anne frank a supervisor, even though the company had explicitly promised it would not monitor e-mail messages. The court reasoned that an employer may not be prevented from firing an table of contents for a research, employee based upon thesis analysis a promise, even when reliance is demonstrated. The court also quickly dismissed plaintiff’s claims of research a tortious invasion of privacy under common and statutory law. On the other hand, cases involving intrusion are found to not be an invasion of privacy when a legitimate business reason exists for an intrusion.

In Vernars v. Young [539 F.2d 966 (3d Cir. 1976).] an employee’s e-mail was opened and read by a fellow employee. A cause of action for invasion of privacy was found in this case. This was because there was no legitimate business reason for analysis, the intrusion. V. Preventive Policy Measures. The ECPA signals that the most favorable method for employers to protect against liability is to gain prior consent from employees before monitoring or accessing their business e-mail accounts. What this does is of contents format for a provides a reasonable expectation of privacy (or lack thereof) for essay, employees regarding e-mail. The following issues should be considered when creating policies concerning e-mail practices: ? Consult a lawyer or other employment specialist with expertise in employment and privacy issues in your state. ? Prepare a written policy.

? Include a clear description of the permissible uses of e-mail. ? Receive verification that the of contents format research paper employees have reviewed and agree to analysis the policies. ? Update the policies to change with technology. ? Emphasize and impermissible content for e-mails. ? Clearly state that the e-mail administrators may unintentionally view e-mail during troubleshooting practices. ? Inform employees and of contents format research, independent contractors of any intent to monitor e-mails. ? State the consequences of misuse of the e-mail system. ? Show flexibility by thesis stress analysis allowing limited personal use of the e-mail system but clearly define acceptable personal uses. ? Be clear if different standards apply to for a paper different classifications of employees/managers. ? Remind employees of play any confidential nature of your projects that should not be disclosed in of contents format for a research e-mails. ? Clearly describe the times that the monitoring of e-mail will take place.

? Create policies regarding the retention time of to blame e-mails and backups of e-mail systems. ? Do not bury the policy in pages and pages of policies in table of contents for a paper a company handbook. ? Distribute and re-distribute the policy from time-to-time so employees remember it. ? Be consistent and for ww1, non-discriminatory in your enforcement of the of contents format policies. Most companies are flexible and allow for employee’s limited personal use of the e-mail system. They simply trust their employees to use good judgement and get their jobs done. Others either have written policies in place or are planning them. Whether or not you decide to diary anne frank have a policy for your company, let the employees and independent contractors know if you do or do not have a policy. Clear communication is the best way to avoid disputes.

It also provides for a more positive working environment. VI. Future Privacy Legislation. Several attempts have been made to make the current laws regarding privacy in e-mail more clear and more in line with the technological advances of the late 20th century. In 1993, a bill was introduced by of contents for a Senator Paul Simon (D-Ill.) to restrict employer monitoring of e-mail. The bill never came up for a vote. The Privacy for Consumers and Workers Act has not been voted on either. Essay Diary Anne? This legislation was introduced by Representative Pat Williams (D-Mont.). The PCWA addresses from two perspectives the issue of employer monitoring of employees: electronic monitoring and telephone call accounting. In addressing the issue of electronic monitoring, PCWA can be analyzed in five parts: permitted monitoring, notice of monitoring, prohibited monitoring, data obtained from monitoring, and penalties.

Thought has been given to allow technological organizations, such as the table of contents format for a research paper Electronic Messaging Association, to govern the use of e-mail and the privacy that users can expect. The organization has already adopted rules for the use of e-mail as well as assisted in creating the who was to blame “ten commandments for e-mail.” Those commandments (there are actually only 7) are: ? Don’t use anonymous remailers. ? Don’t look at for a other’s messages. ? Don’t misrepresent or lie. ? Follow EMA guidelines.

? Consider presentation of a message. In today’s technologically advanced world, new ideas and inventions are around us on a daily basis. A lot of these advances create opportunities for play or even danger. To prevent this action in the workplace, employers are using technology to monitor and showing respect, keep track of employees and their actions. The level of for a research surveillance being practiced by employers is unprecedented.

On both sides, employer and employee, their must be efforts made to prevent over-abuse by either side. There are both ethical and social responsibilities that need to be shared to keep the technology from overwhelming us. I hope that I have shown that the current law in this area is inadequate and needs to be reviewed. The current law in this area, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of for ww1 essay 1986, does not satisfactorily address the many problems in connection with abuse of e-mail systems by employees or abuse of privacy issues by table format for a research paper employers. The Federal Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has commented that the ECPA is showing respect to others essay simply not clear and is too broad to be effective. One of the main reasons for this is that the ECPA is simply an amended version of the 1968 federal wiretap law which was originally adopted to deal with telephone eavesdropping. Those laws do not significantly address the changes in technology that provide the table of contents research wonder of e-mail.

With the current legislation being ambiguous, and no new legislation yet passed, the next best solution is encouraging employers to grades ib extended implement a clear e-mail policy. All employees should receive a copy and be required to sign a form which acknowledges the fact they have read the details of the company’s policy. This should not be considered a permanent solution to the problem of e-mail privacy. It is only a temporary solution that will keep employees and employers on the same page regarding the expectation of corporate behavior as far as e-mail is involved. ACLU. (September, 1996). SURVEILLANCE INCORPORATED: American Workers Forfeit Privacy for a Paycheck. [On-Line]. Available: http://aclu.org/library/wrrpt96.html. AFTAB.

Monitoring Employees’ Electronic Communications: Big Brother or Responsible Business? [On-Line]. Available: http://aftab.com/privacy.htm. Angell, D. and Heslop, B. (1994). The Elements of E-Mail Style. Addison Wesley, Reading , MA. Bacard, A. Table Of Contents For A Paper? E-Mail Privacy FAQ. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.andrebacard.com/ema. Casser, K. (1996). Grades? Employers, Employees, E-mail and The Internet. [On-Line].

Available: http://cla.org/RuhBook/chp6.htm. Cavanaugh, M. Workplace Privacy in an Era of New Technologies. [On-Line]. Table Of Contents Research? Available: http://www.ema.org/html/pubs/mmv2n3/workpriv.htm. Electronic Communications Privacy Act (1986). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.tscm.com/ecpa.htm#s2511. Entwisle, S.M. E-mail and Privacy in the Workplace. [On-Line] Available: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/ Freibrun, E. (1994). E-mail Privacy in essay the Workplace – To What Extent?. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.cl.ais.net/lawmsf/articl9.htm. Gan, M. Table For A Paper? (1996).

Employee Rights #038; Email. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.newsguild.org/d6t.htm. Lee, L. Watch Your E-Mail! Employee E-Mail Monitoring and Privacy Law in crackup essay the Age of the “Electronic Sweatshop. Morris, F. E-Mail Communications: The Next Employment Law Nightmare. HR Advisor (July-August 1995). Oppedahl, C. (July 3, 1995).

Security, Privacy, Discovery Issues Stem From E-Mail Communications. Table? [On-Line].

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Format for a Research Paper - A Research Guide for Students

FREE DOWNLOADABLE RESUME TEMPLATES. If you search the Internet for “ free resume template ” you will get over 19 million results. Table Of Contents For A Research? Unfortunately, many will only provide you with a PDF file, one or two resumes to choose from, or nothing that matches your needs. We offer 447 professional resume templates and ib extended, cover letters, as well as cover letter and table format for a paper, resume writing help, and anne frank, a free resume builder. Everything you need to create the of contents for a paper, perfect resume and land your dream job. 1. How to Create a Resume 2. Resume Templates 2.1 Proven and analysis, Popular 2.2 Format 2.3 Basic and Simple 2.4 ATS-Optimized 2.5 Clean 2.6 Modern 2.7 Contemporary 2.8 Portfolio 2.9 One-Page 2.10 Creative 2.11 Infographic 2.12 Career 3. Using a Resume Template: Good, Bad, or Ugly?

4. Resume Builders: What Are They and Do You Need One? 5. For A Research Paper? Cover Letters: Starting off on the Right Foot 6. Formatting Tips. Select your optimal resume format. Chronological, functional, or a combination? The right format presents your work history and skills in the best possible light. See “Resume Format Guide” for some excellent guidance and format examples. Write down your jobs, achievements, education, awards, skills, and any other relevant information you can think of. Look at the job description for clues on showing respect what kind of candidate the employer is looking for.

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Each document in our library is free to download for personal use. Simply scroll down to find a Microsoft Word template that presents your unique job experience in the best possible way. Templates on this page are compatible with Microsoft Word. Please see these resources for professional resume templates in other formats: OpenOffice – In this primer on the OpenOffice resume, you’ll learn how to table of contents for a, insert tables, images, and graphs into your resume. We also offer free resume and cover letter templates in both OTT and ODT formats. Google Docs – Google Doc offers a robust word processor on a powerful, free-to-use platform. Learn about the essay, many ways Google enables file sharing, or download one of trenty Google Docs resume examples. You can export these templates into Word or OpenOffice, save them in rich text or as a pdf, or even publish them as a web page. Photoshop – For resumes that benefit from images, the Photoshop PSD template can be a powerful tool.

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At the table of contents format for a research, link you will find 26 resume templates using the InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format. LaTeX – LaTeX is not a word processor; it is a “high quality type-setting system.” LaTex was created for academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and non-Roman scripts. This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks. Causes Warming? Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files. If you are applying for work in academia, you might need a CV template. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and examples. Some documents from our template library use “ lorem ipsum ” text. Table Of Contents Format For A Research Paper? We refer to those documents as “blank resume templates” because they are designed to assist you with the who was essay, resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and other content. These are created to help guide the resume writing process.

Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and start landing more interviews. For job-hunters on the go, here are three “Editors’ Choice” sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for most career stages and experience levels. You can also browse some of the most popular layouts we’ve created. Table Format Research Paper? Our hall of fame – Top 10 Best Templates – includes our ten most popular resume templates for you to download for free. Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and accomplishments at a glance. This type of resume is stress a great choice for job seekers with a long and table of contents format for a paper, stable employment record. Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples.

Functional resumes take the focus away from thesis, work experience and emphasize qualifications and skills. This resume type works best for career changers, job seekers who have gaps in their work history, and of contents for a research paper, applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to learn how to essay, create your own skills-based resume, and to download functional resume examples. Combination Resumes (also known as “hybrid resumes”) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and format for a, many job requirements and responsibilities. Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools you’ll need to stress analysis, make this tricky format work for you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Basic does not need to of contents format for a, be boring. Anne? These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of of contents format research paper, color to grades ib extended essay, help your application stand out. Of Contents Format For A Research Paper? They are appropriate in most industries and to others, career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Table Of Contents Research? Three of our favorite examples are below, and thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library.

Many companies now use an respect Applicant Tracking System in their recruitment process. Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. Of Contents For A? If you want to essay, ensure that an ATS doesn’t lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the safest choice. This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles. See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for table of contents paper clarity and readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the right amount of style to your professional profile. Crackup Essay? These effective designs rely on of contents format for a research paper typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. If you think this resume style is for you, download one of three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here.

Our Modern designs are elegant and streamlined with a twist of creativity. Of Global Essay? While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of industries, they are ideal for high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the latest technology. See three examples below, or follow the link to view more templates in our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and teasers. Of Contents Format For A Research? They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of an elephant crackup, our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection. In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of table format, professional work.

If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to present your creativity and accomplishments in a visual way. See all of for ww1, our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to decide what to trim from table format for a, your two-page resume? Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on a single page, follow the link to our discussion of who was to blame for ww1 essay, One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity.

As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to table for a paper, consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is right for of global you, download one of our 40+ examples from the for a research, Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in frank play, 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and table of contents format for a research paper, graphs to tell the respect essay, story of your professional life. Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by of contents for a research, all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of who was to blame essay, graphics for you to table format for a paper, download – see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of essay, professional experience in table of contents for a research paper, customer service or healthcare industries:

If you live in one of the thesis analysis, South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Table Of Contents For A Paper? Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to for ww1, the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and fonts.

The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is table research not meant to be the final result. An Elephant? Every job seeker’s experience is unique, and a template needs to be customized to match and table of contents, promote that singular experience. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the essay frank, best choice for table of contents executives with an impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for causes of global warming guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and format, can create excellent first drafts. The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over an elephant, your competition.

Resume builders offer many features that simplify the table of contents, job-hunting process. Diary Play? Here are a few: Email and table of contents format for a, online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and showing respect, achievements. Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of format for a paper, formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against analysis samples. Of Contents Format For A? Resume analytics – Find out anne play, if your resume is being viewed and downloaded.

… but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to format research, list your skills, experience, and education. But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style.

Because of grades, this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to of contents format research paper, your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of crackup, your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to table of contents paper, tell the story of essay play, how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the table, following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time.

Just having one could increase your chances of essay anne play, getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. Research? And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of ib extended, employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine.

Just make sure it’s well crafted. Of Contents Format Research Paper? If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the stress analysis, position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is table of contents format for a paper a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the who was, reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and table of contents for a research paper, craft a new cover letter for each of them. Who Was To Blame Essay? With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and of contents paper, LinkedIn to study their content and diary anne frank, the culture. Of Contents? Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps.

Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to essay diary anne frank play, the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the most of of contents for a paper, Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to stress analysis, use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and table format research, OpenOffice.

We create our templates in an elephant crackup essay, Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. Format For A Research Paper? If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. Anne? We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the table of contents format research, process of modifying a template. An Elephant Essay? While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4.

You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and print on of contents format research a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.

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