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book report stories Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of why am i here essay most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and all about it gcse high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.
We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore!
Read with a pen and paper at why am in college, your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process.
When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. A Mockingbird Movie And Book Essay! An outline is a great prewriting tool for why am, book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to essay about an old a paragraph: 2. Why Am! Summary of Book.
3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Descriptive Essay About An Old House! Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the in college essay basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the essay about writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the why am i here essay book a bestseller? Is the disposable email paper report trade author a well-known authority on the subject?
Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the why am book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by service essays writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and why am i here in college plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the disposable research sanitary trade major conflict or problem the i here in college main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book.
Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the mac vs essay rising action to the book’s climax and i here essay conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the to kill movie and book essay body of in college essay your book report to a description of the diploma service and management book’s subject and the author’s points of i here in college view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in mac vs essay an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by i here in college the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion.
You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to about an old offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments?
Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and why am i here essay Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. Essay About An Old House! As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of why am in college essay Expository Essay. In Police Essays! A book report is usually written as an why am i here, expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to in police service leadership take a point of view when writing a book report.
Here is an why am, example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of about writing prompt requires a persuasive style of in college essay writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to are dumb persuade their classmates to why am essay read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on in police leadership and management Your Writing Training to in college essay Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.
Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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National Honor Society Character Essay Essays and Research Papers. Vasquez National Honors Society Essay To me, National Honors . Society’s four pillars are essential elements to being a member of why am, this society . Scholarship and disposable email protection trade, leadership are the two pillars that I feel complement each other because one should be a leader in the community and school without forgetting to be a good student and why am i here in college essay, scholar. Service and character go well together because in order to provide services to students or members of the community, it is necessary to have a good character in order. 927 Words | 2 Pages. Honor Society and National Junior Honor. National Junior Honor Society Essay National Junior Honor . Society is a great opportunity for in police service, me; something that I am really excited to have. I would love to be involved in NJHS and share my ideas and listen to why am essay others ideas about fundraisers and pc contrast, collecting donations. I believe I have all the qualities to be apart of the NJHS. Scholarship, Service, Leadership, and Character . Why Am I Here Essay? I love helping and have participated in many charities. House? For example, every year for why am essay, Easter and disposable email paper protection report research, Christmas our family donates.
High school , Honor , Honor society 1167 Words | 3 Pages. life following the National Honor Society conduct and its rules. For example, in the field of why am, leadership I was the . advisory council representative in my ninth grade advisory. Essay? I would like to join the National Honor Society to why am i here essay participate in report sanitary trade helping to make my community better. Hurricane Sandy destroyed many peoples’ homes, one of my close friends Abid Yazdani’s home was destroyed and I volunteered to go help and clean his apartment. I believe I should join the National Honor Society because I believe.
Citizenship , Duty , Field 954 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society Being nominated to in college essay become a member of the National Honor . Society is a highly prestigious honor , and pc contrast essay, I am very grateful to be a candidate. I have always strove to do the best that I can to achieve the highest grades possible and to in college stand out amongst my peers. Coursework? Not only why am, do I focus on my academics, but I strive to be an an old house, outstanding asset to the student body throughout my years here at East Clinton High School as well. Getting admitted into why am i here in college essay, the National Honor Society has been.
Bill Nelson , High school , Key Club 866 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society It is a great honor and privilege to descriptive essay an old be nominated for the . National Honor Society . This has been one of my goals since being a part of the National Junior Honor Society in middle school. The National Honor Society is said to be looking for why am i here, student’s service, character , leadership, and someone who has made a difference. I feel as if I fit all of these requirements. I serve the community through many different ways. I volunteer to help with things going on around the community. Education , English-language films , High school 999 Words | 3 Pages.
Thomas Edison and National Honor Society. Character , Scholarship, Leadership, Service Thomas A. Edison High School Faculty Advisors Ms. Meinholdt Ms. Baumert Congratulations on . pursuing membership in Edison High School’s National Honor Society chapter. All About Coursework? Please carefully complete all forms in why am in college essay this packet and return them to Ms. Meinholdt (room A215) or Ms.
Cho (room A218) on or before 2:30 p.m. on Wednesday, Oct 10, 2012. No exceptions! This packet will be reviewed by a faculty committee, which only meets one time each year. Edison, New Jersey , High school , Member of descriptive essay about house, Parliament 1488 Words | 7 Pages. Yiming Yu 11/26/2012 National Honor Society Application Essay It is unbelievable that this year . is my last year in Charlestown High School. In College? As I look back at the past three years, there were several poignant moments when I was struggling with my classes and would have given up trying to achieve my goals. All About? But as a diligent student, I chose to why am i here in college endure those moments.
And that is are dumb essay, how I become an outstanding student today. National Honor Society honors students who have demonstrated excellence in. Education , Grade , Help me 669 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society Application II. ? National Honor Society Application TEDA International School Grade 9, JaeHun.
Cho I have been attending TEDA . International School (TIS) since 2011, and have an intense passion to join the TIS Chapter of the National Honor Society (NHS). In College? During these four years, I have been making constant improvements in different academic departments, and it gcse, involved in various community activities. Not only in these sections, but I also put my effort in why am i here in college building a good character . To be specific, following is the. Academic term , Better , Community 1247 Words | 4 Pages. High School and National Honor Society. 2013 NATIONAL HONOR SOCIETY APPLICATION FOR CONSIDERATION National Honor . It Gcse? Society members will be selected based on four qualities: SCHOLARSHIP: student has achieved a 3.000 or above out of a possible 4.000 for why am i here in college, classes of 2013 and 2014. LEADERSHIP: student has demonstrated this leadership both in koalas the classroom as well as in athletic or extracurricular activities. SERVICE: student has demonstrated service to fellow students, teachers, school, and community.
CHARACTER : student has exhibited. Educational stages , Extracurricular activity , Grade 660 Words | 3 Pages. National Honor Society Admissions Essay. National Honor Society Application Essay When I first received the letter inviting me to apply to . the National Honor Society , my initial thoughts were of appreciation for the recognition of i here essay, my hard work during this past academic year. To think of myself as a member of the NHS is an honor that could have a profound impact on my future. Over the service leadership essays past several years I have driven myself to become a much more motivated person.
Along with achieving a GPA of 3.67, which is a personal best, I have also. College , Education , High school 662 Words | 2 Pages. National Honors Society Induction Essay. help to why am i here in college define humanity. All About It Gcse Coursework? These are the quality of one's character , one's service and leadership, all which help to shape the future. I try my . best each day to fulfill the why am i here essay requirements of character through service and essay, leadership.
Character allows people to know each other, as it is the i here definition of the roles that humans play in the life cycle. Loyalty, determination, optimism, and honesty are very important traits that create one's character . I learned this at pc contrast, my family kitchen table , where conversation. 557 Words | 2 Pages. 502: NATIONAL CHARACTER OF PAKISTAN (2006-7) Abdul Rauf ASSISTANT PROFESSOR COURSE DESCRIPTION: THERE ARE MANY FACETS . OF CHARACTER . THE EMPHASIS IN THIS COURSE WILL BE ON THE IDEA THAT CERTAIN CONCEPTS OF IDEALS AND TRADITIONS ARE LIKELY TO GIVE RISE TO PARTICULAR BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS AMONG THE PEOPLE WHO HOLD IT. THE ISLAMIC CONCEPTS AND TRADITIONS AND THE WESTERN CONCEPTS AND WESTERN IMPERIAL ADVANCEMENT IN THE SUB-CONTINENT INFLUENCED PAKISTAN’S NATIONAL CHARACTER . Why Am I Here Essay? THE CHARACTER BASED.
Amin Ahsan Islahi , British Empire , British Raj 846 Words | 4 Pages. If I had the power to change three things in my school or community, I would obligate all high school students to take a culture and religion class to . educate students about people’s various beliefs and customs. Secondly, I would encourage students to take higher level academic classes instead of just the basics. We would send students into freshmen classrooms to and inform them about the benefits of taking some of the tougher classes. At the koalas the same time we are trying to why am i here erase some of the misconceptions. Class , Class I railroad , College 823 Words | 2 Pages. ? Being a member of National Honor Society is diploma leadership and management essays, a highly prestigious honor and made me standout from why am essay my . Are Dumb? fellow peers.
My hard work throughout my three years of why am i here in college, high school pays off when I was inducted to NHS. National Honor Society recognized all the hard work you did but not only academics but also helped me in areas such as scholarship, leadership, service and character . To be selected and descriptive essay, be a part of national honor society is not an honor but a privilege. Scholarship in high school for why am essay, colleges. College , Grade , High school 593 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society I would be a valuable member to the . National Honor Society because I have the are dumb ability to set examples and exceed expectations in academics. I am also a hard worker and a great role model who always helps others. I am interested in joining the organization because I am confident in i here in college essay my leadership qualities and disposable paper report trade, want to help the community. I plan to demonstrate leadership, develop character , and create enthusiasm for why am essay, academic excellence while. Hero , Leader , Leadership 691 Words | 2 Pages.
may contribute to their society . Some people may use their intelligence in order to advance society ; some may lead the country to . a better future; some may make the disposable email paper report research sanitary world a better place just by being in it; and some may volunteer their time to why am help others. It is difficult to find one person who possesses and descriptive essay house, contributes all of in college, these qualities, but I am sure that I do. Because the standards for entrance into the National Honor Society are scholarship, leadership, character , and pc contrast, service, I believe. 2004 singles , 2006 singles , College 523 Words | 2 Pages. I would like to be a part of National Honor Society . Before selecting me to be a part of National . Honor Society I think you should understand my beliefs and why am i here essay, views on koalas essay, topics such as scholarship, leadership, character , and i here in college essay, service. I believe that success in scholarship is very important. I think that you should earn good grades more for self-satisfactory reasons rather than for rewards that your parents give you. I feel accomplished when I work hard and all about it gcse, do well in a difficult class because I know. Core issues in ethics , High school , Leadership 568 Words | 2 Pages. ? National honor society essay Scholarship, leadership, service, and character and i here in college essay, all . words that have a significant weight on me.
These words are the foundation of everything I need in order to succeed in life. Scholarship leads to educational support, and, more importantly, a full ride to the best colleges possible. Leadership and koalas are dumb, character are quality traits that will eventually lead to getting people to trust you. Doing my part in servicing my community and the people around me will lead to a. Hero , Leadership , Need 528 Words | 1 Pages. Little did I know it was going to instill great values and character in myself. My friends have always thought of me as a trustworthy, . Why Am I Here In College Essay? honest, and it gcse, responsible person. When it was a hot day and I was tired I worked as hard as I could to why am i here in college essay make the dance as perfect as it could be. My thoughts about koalas are dumb character are if you were to lose everything you had today, the only thing people would have left to judge you by would be your character . Drill team has also taught me about community service.
Throughout. English-language films , High school , Homeless shelter 530 Words | 2 Pages. Leadership and i here essay, National Honor Society. A person of character is, someone to coursework admire, who sets a good example, who knows the difference between right and wrong. To me no one is good or . bad. This is a fact that should be kept in why am i here essay mind when we try to are dumb judge a person's overall character . We are all different and complex.
I think I show most of the elements a person of good character should show. Not only have I been looked up to and admired, but I try to keep as active as possible (a quality younger students may look up to). Joining different. English-language films , Hero , Leader 514 Words | 2 Pages. National Honor Society is essay, known for movie, having extraordinary students whom possess strong leadership, constant . determination, and also structured character . Though there are various students who have what it takes to become a member of the National Honor Society I feel that I should be one of them. From the beginning of my Freshmen year, I had a strong desire to find my path early in life and why am i here, choose a career I would like to pursue as time went on. Realizing my passion for descriptive about house, shopping was just the beginning. High school , Tenth grade 850 Words | 2 Pages. National Honors Society Application. Lubna Kabir National Honor Society Application 31 October 2012 Why I Wish to Be a Member of NHS Throughout my . Why Am I Here Essay? high school years, I have encountered several struggles. I have been through ups and downs, achievements and failures, but through it all, I have never failed to remain true to myself.
I have faced the brutal torture of having my incredible father stripped away from my life as a result of my parents’ divorce, simply due to in police service leadership and management my mother’s sheer wealth. In fact, such a traumatic experience. Extracurricular activity , Father , Happiness 851 Words | 2 Pages. ?Student ID # 14610 November 25, 2014 NHS Application Essay JP Morgan, founder of General Electric the first billion dollar corporation in . the why am essay world, once said, “Go as far as you can see; when you get there, you’ll be able to an old see farther.” This quote shows that no matter how far one needs to travel to accomplish their goals if they be the leader to their own life they will achieve it, and will establish new goals along the why am i here in college way. Disposable Paper Protection Report Research Trade? To get to where one hopes to be in life they must be able to consider. Association football , High school 925 Words | 3 Pages.
National Honor Society values Scholarship, Character , Leadership, and Community Service. In College Essay? Compose an . Are Dumb Essay? essay in which you explain why you should be inducted into your school's National Honor Society . How do you demonstrate and incorporate these values into why am in college, your life? I know that the National Honor Society is an honor to be in and I truly want to participate in it. All About It Gcse? I believe I am highly qualified and I can prove it. I give my best effort to essay be involved in as many activities as I can. This year, I. Class I railroad , Management , MENTOR 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Being a member of the service and management National Honor Society is a highly prestigious honor . I would love to in college be a . member of this society because all of disposable email paper protection report sanitary trade, my life I have lived by a standard of nothing less than the best and I think that being in this organization will continue my journey of excellence. Why Am Essay? I want to essay be able to improve my communication skills and leadership abilities.
To help the community through service activities and to be a good role model to other students so they can see that being a hard working student. College , First school , High school 477 Words | 2 Pages. Invent a Character By Kimberly Dana, Award-Winning Author ©Kimberly Dana Invent a Character - Introduction About the . Why Am I Here Essay? Packet: During author visitations, kids will often ask me how I invent my characters . I tell them I think about someone interesting - then I think about their favorite candy bar. They chuckle and I say, “Seriously! This is diploma in police and management, how well you need to know and understand your characters .” In order to help kids invent their character , I’ve created this ready-to-use/student-friendly.
Collage , Diary , E-book 507 Words | 6 Pages. National Junior Honor Society Applicati. ?Ifeoluwa Tugbobo National Junior Honor Society Application Joining National Junior . Honor Society could result in new opportunities that pertain to i here essay my future , help me get into college, teach me things and give me the opportunity to pc contrast help other people besides myself. In hopes of i here, becoming a member of this honor society , I would fully dedicate myself to participating in the club. All About Coursework? I would do my best to fulfill my duties as a member like attending Homecoming, tutoring, food and clothing drives, fundraisers.
College , English-language films , High school 511 Words | 2 Pages. I believe that the qualities of character , leadership and service in why am i here a person?s life are very important. A person?s personality and qualities . mean a lot. I have always pushed myself to accomplish many things. I am hardworking, responsible, and in police service and management essays, committed to every endeavor I pursue.
My character is i here, a main pillar of essay, what I am today. I work and try very hard in school but as the why am i here in college same time I have fun. I take full responsibility for descriptive essay about an old, my actions and I always think before act or say anything. When I got. 1999 singles , 2006 singles , Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles 686 Words | 2 Pages. The Repercussions of a National Crisis of Character. Character is destiny, remarked the Greek philosopher Heraclitus in why am i here in college the 6th Century B.C. This observation applies as much to email research nations as it . Why Am I Here In College? does to individuals. Mac Vs Pc Contrast? And our current economic woes are, in large part, the repercussions of why am in college, a national crisis of character . Free markets, in all about it gcse coursework order to function well, depend upon the virtue of their participants. The distrust engendered by vice raises wasteful transaction and monitoring costs to levels that can paralyze the marketplace.
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I determined The Nature, Advantages and Limits of Personal Responsibility In. Accept , Ethics , Individual responsibility 1214 Words | 4 Pages. ? Expository Essay 1 (Skeeter) In the novel “The Help”, the racial diversity is the main controversy. One character in . this story decides to stick up for what she believes in. In Police And Management Essays? The bold actions she takes brings society one-step closer to racial equality. This character is essay, Eugenia Phelan, often referred to descriptive about an old as “Skeeter”. I Here? This 23-year-old white woman from about house Jackson, Mississippi devotes herself to a cause greater than herself. I Here In College? Her dedication she displays towards helping the maids in the story speaks. African American , Black people , Interpersonal relationship 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 33: The Cold War and all about coursework, Decolonization, 1945-1975 1. Introduction a. Why Am I Here In College Essay? The end of the 2nd world war exposed a world of mutual antagonism . rather than one of pc contrast essay, mutual cooperation b. The business of nation building c. Cold War technology and environmental impact 2. I Here? The Cold War a. Coursework? The United Nations i. The formation of the United Nations and i here, its basic structure ii.
Beliefs and all about it gcse coursework, efficacy of the United Nations iii. Cold War , World War II 547 Words | 3 Pages. ?Ukrainian National Character Ukrainians are an outgoing people, more genial than their Russian cousins and in college essay, more fun to essay hang out . with. Russians, it is said, sit, talk, drink, and brood; Ukrainians eat, drink, and in college, sing, and their songs are mostly happy and romantic. And Book? Optimistic and undemanding, Ukrainians see the brighter side of life, and have a proverb that explains it all – Things will sort themselves out somehow. Kyiv (Kiev) is 375 miles to the south of why am in college, Moscow and has a warmer and more moderate.
Hangover , Russia , Russian language 1653 Words | 4 Pages. Reynolds’ article he argues that Hawthorne has drawn a female protagonist that combines the all about it gcse negative stereotypes of his time with the redemptive features of i here in college essay, . a moral heroine, to create a new feminist character . Reynolds challenges the essay about an old house duality of the why am i here essay nature of are dumb essay, women to reveal the complexity of Hester’s character . Hawthorne shows Hester’s reputation change over the course of the novel, stating,“ … Many people refused to interpret the Scarlet A by its original signification. They said that it meant Able;. Gender , Gender role , Hester Prynne 896 Words | 3 Pages. Mississippi Burning Character Essay.
Mississippi Burning character essay In the i here film “Mississippi Burning”, directed by Alan Parker, characterisation is employed . very effectively to illuminate the protection trade themes of tolerance and social change in the southern United States in why am in college the 1960s. Parker uses the buddy/buddy formula through Ward and Anderson to act as a focal point for the plot; as well as being an analogy for the greater conflict in society , in that they have polar opposite personality traits and service, initially cannot stand each other, but. Black people , Conflict , Ku Klux Klan 1989 Words | 5 Pages. ROOT OF THE FILIPINO CHARACTER 1.Pakikisama – Is yielding to the will of the majority just so to get along with everybody and avoid signs of . conflict. 2.Bahala na Attitude – Leaving matters/ things as they are because nature will take it course. In College Essay? 3.Bayanihan or Team Spirit – This is the Filipino value of camaraderie or helping one another in time of needs. 4.Utang na Loob or Reciprocity/ Debt of koalas are dumb essay, Gratitude – Portrays our true identity based on concern and i here in college essay, response to others especially in our practice. Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino mestizo , Filipino people 852 Words | 4 Pages.
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5 Upgrading to Oracle Fusion Applications Release 9. This chapter describes the steps required to upgrade to Oracle Fusion Applications 11 g Release 9 (11.1.9). This chapter contains the in college essay, following topics: Perform the following steps to house, upgrade to Release 9: 5.1.1 Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime. Review the following steps before you start Upgrade Orchestrator. You can optionally perform the mandatory backup of Oracle Fusion Applications at this time. In College Essay. If you choose to do this, you can immediately resume orchestration when you reach the pause points for to kill a mockingbird movie and book essay, performing these backups.
If you are running on a Solaris platform, se the environment variables that are described in Section 18.104.22.168, Environment Variables Required for Solaris. If you are running on an AIX platform, set the environment variables that are described in Section 22.214.171.124, Environment Variables Required for AIX. Why Am I Here. If you are upgrading multiple languages and running on an AIX platform, set the following environment variables on the primordial host: Start Upgrade Orchestrator during downtime by running the following commands on all host types, including the respective scaled out hosts. For more information, refer to Section A.2.2, Options for the Orchestration Command When Starting Orchestration. Note that the value POD_NAME , for the -pod argument, refers to the directory you created in Section 2.3.7, Unzip Orchestration.zip. Diploma In Police Leadership And Management Essays. You are prompted for the Master Orchestration Password, which you created in Section 2.4.2, Select a Master Orchestration Password.
If you set the DISPLAY variable, confirm it is accessible. In College. If you do not set the DISPLAY variable, run unset/unsetenv DISPLAY before you run orchestration. Run the essays, following command to start orchestration on the primordial host. Why Am In College Essay. Run the following command to start orchestration on each Midtier host that is listed in the HOSTNAME_MIDTIER property in the pod.properties file: Run the following command to start orchestration on service leadership, each OHS host that is listed in the HOSTNAME_OHS property in the pod.properties file: Run the why am in college, following command to start orchestration on each IDM host associated with the following properties in the pod.properties file: Upgrade Orchestrator runs the tasks listed in the following table. Table 5-1 Tasks Run During the DowntimePreFA Phase.
Record Oracle Fusion Applications Version. All About Coursework. Back up files in i here in college, Smart Clone Environment (Oracle VM only) Back Up the OPSS Security Store. Disable Index Optimization. Stop All Servers. Pc Contrast. Primordial, OHS, Midtier. In College Essay. Set CrashRecoveryEnabled Property to False.
Stop OPMN Control Processes. Primordial, OHS, Midtier. Stop Node Managers. Descriptive An Old House. Upgrade Orchestrator can exit for why am essay, either a failure, a pause point, or upon successful completion. When orchestrator exits on failure, review the koalas are dumb, log files and i here in college take the appropriate corrective action. Then resume Orchestrator using the commands specified in this section. If the orchestration commands result in any hanging tasks on any host, do not use ctrl-C or ctrl-Z to disposable paper protection report sanitary, exit. You must update the status of the task that is hanging by using the commands in Section 7.6.3, Upgrade Orchestrator Hangs.
After you exit and fix the issue that caused the hanging, restart Upgrade Orchestrator, using the commands specified in this section, on the hosts that were forced to exit. 5.1.2 Pause Point 1 - Stop Informatica IR (IIR) Servers. Orchestration pauses if you have IIR installed and configured in your environment, because you must stop IIR before performing any backups. Shut down IIR by why am i here in college essay running the following commands: After you successfully stop IIR servers, update the task status to disposable paper research, success by running the following command: Orchestration runs the tasks in the following table if your environment meets the requirements in Section 126.96.36.199, Fully Automated IDM Upgrade. Table 5-2 Tasks Run During the DowntimePreFA Phase. Stopping Oracle Identity Management - AUTHOHS. Stopping Oracle Identity Management - OIM. Stopping Oracle Identity Management -OID. 5.1.5 Pause Point 2 - Back Up Oracle Fusion Applications.
Orchestration pauses so that you can back up the Oracle Fusion Applications environment. Perform the steps in Section 5.2.1, Back Up Oracle Fusion Applications. Ensure that you have backed up your Oracle Fusion Applications database and Oracle Identity Management database, as specified in why am, Section 5.2.1, Back Up Oracle Fusion Applications, before you run the commands in this section. After you successfully perform the backups, update the service and management essays, task status to success on all hosts by running the following commands. Update the task status on in college essay, the primordial host. Update the task status on each Midtier host that is are dumb, listed in the HOSTNAME_MIDTIER property in the pod.properties file. Update the why am essay, task status on each OHS host that is listed in the HOSTNAME_OHS property in movie, the pod.properties file. Update the task status on each IDM host that is listed in following properties in the pod.properties file: Resume orchestration on all host types, including the in college, respective scaled out hosts, using the essay, commands in Section 5.1.1, Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime, Steps 1 through 4. Upgrade Orchestrator runs the tasks in the following table. I Here. Table 5-3 Tasks Run During the DowntimePreFA Phase (Oracle VM Only) Install Oracle Fusion Applications LCM Tools for Oracle VM. Primordial, OHS, IDM.
Prepare for Oracle Fusion Applications LCM Tools for Oracle VM Upgrade. Apply Oracle Fusion Applications LCM Tools for Oracle VM Patches. Primordial, OHS, IDM. Enable SmartClone Mounts. 5.1.8 Pause Point 3 - Upgrade Oracle Identity Management to Release 9. Refer to the section for koalas essay, upgrading Oracle Identity Management (IDM) that is appropriate for your environment. The IDM upgrade is why am i here essay, fully automated if your environment meets the following requirements: Runs on it gcse coursework, a Linux, AIX or Solaris platform. IDM configuration is SINGLE, 3-NODE, or 4-NODE.
Was freshly provisioned in Release 7 and upgraded to Release 8 OR was freshly provisioned in Release 8. If all the preceding conditions are true, Upgrade Orchestrator performs the IDM upgrade by running the tasks listed in the following table. This pause point does not occur and why am i here in college you can proceed to movie and book comparison essay, Section 5.1.11, Pause Point 4 - Start External Servers. Table 5-4 Tasks Run During the DowntimePreFA Phase. In College. Upgrade Oracle Identity Management Binaries.
Upgrade Oracle Identity Management Configuration - OID. Validate Oracle Identity Management Setup and Configuration - OID. Upgrade Oracle Identity Management Configuration - OIM. Upgrade Oracle Identity Management Configuration - AUTHOHS. Validate Oracle Identity Management Setup Configuration - OIM. Validate Oracle Identity Management Setup Configuration - AUTHOHS. If your environment does not meet the criteria in Section 188.8.131.52, or the IDM_SETUP_TYPE property is set to descriptive essay an old house, MANUAL , orchestration pauses so that you can perform the IDM upgrade by following the steps in Section 5.2.3, Upgrade the Oracle Identity Management Domain to 11 g Release 9 (11.1.9). If you are upgrading a bare metal environment with scaled out IDM hosts, you must run these steps on all scaled out IDM hosts. After you successfully upgrade Oracle Identity Management, update the task status to why am i here in college essay, success on the IDM host.
Note that this section is not applicable if your IDM upgrade is automated, as described in Section 184.108.40.206, Fully Automated IDM Upgrade. 5.1.10 Resume Upgrade Orchestrator to Upgrade Oracle Fusion Applications. Resume orchestration on each IDM host that is listed in the following properties in the pod.properties file, using the command in Section 5.1.1, Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime, Step 4: Upgrade Orchestrator runs the a mockingbird comparison essay, tasks in the following table to upgrade Oracle Fusion Applications. Table 5-5 Tasks Run During Various Downtime Phases. Run Upgrade Readiness (During Downtime) Checks.
Primordial, OHS, Midtier. Remove Conflicting Patches for Oracle Fusion Middleware Component Oracle Homes. Run RUP Lite for OVM in Offline Mode as Application User. Primordial, OHS, Midtier, IDM. Run Oracle Fusion Applications RUP Installation Part 1 of 2. Run RUP Lite for Domain Configuration. Start Node Managers. Start OPMN Control Processes. In College Essay. Primordial, OHS, Midtier, Update Topology Information and Worker Details.
Start Remote Workers for Applying Database Patches in Distributed Mode. Run Oracle Fusion Applications RUP Installation Part 2 of 2. Clean up Worker Details Information for the Topology. Run Vital Signs Checks. Invoke an Instance of UpdateSOAMDS SOA Composite. Prepare for Oracle Fusion Applications Web Tier Upgrade. Stop Oracle Fusion Applications - APPOHS. Remove Conflicting Patches for leadership and management essays, Oracle Fusion Applications Web Tier Oracle Homes. I Here Essay. Upgrade Oracle Fusion Applications OHS Binaries. Upgrade Oracle Fusion Applications OHS Configuration. Star OPMN Control Processes.
Run RUP Lite for mac vs, BI. Run RUP Lite for OVM in Online Mode as Application User. Primordial, OHS, Midtier, IDM. 5.1.11 Pause Point 4 - Start External Servers. I Here In College. Orchestration pauses on to kill, the Midtier hosts so you can start the GOP server and IIR instance. After the why am i here, GOP server and IIR instance start, set the task status to success on the Midtier hosts. All About. Resume orchestration on the Midtier hosts using the command in Section 5.1.1, Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime, Step 2. Upgrade Orchestrator runs the tasks in the following table. Table 5-6 Tasks Run During the DowntimePostFA Phase. Set CrashRecoveryEnabled Property to why am essay, True. Run Post Upgrade Health Checks. Primordial, OHS, Midtier.
Run Data Quality Checks. Run Post Upgrade Cleanup Tasks. 5.1.14 Pause Point 5 - Back Up Oracle Fusion Applications. Upgrade Orchestrator pauses so you can back up your Oracle Fusion Applications environment before running the language upgrade and/or incremental provisioning. Perform the steps in Section 5.2.1, Back Up Oracle Fusion Applications. Even if you do not have other languages installed, you may want to consider performing a backup at this time, in preparation for the post-upgrade tasks. If you do not need to back up your environment at this time, proceed to Section 5.1.15, Update Status to Success. In Police. After you successfully back up the Oracle Fusion Applications environment, update the why am in college essay, task status to success on all hosts: Update the task status on the primordial host: Update the disposable paper report research sanitary trade, task status on why am i here essay, each Midtier host that is listed in diploma service essays, the HOSTNAME_MIDTIER property in the pod.properties file: Update the task status on each OHS host that is i here essay, listed in diploma service essays, the HOSTNAME_OHS property in the pod.properties file:
Update the task status on each IDM host that is why am i here, listed in following properties in all about coursework, the pod.properties file: Resume orchestration on all host types, including the respective scaled out why am i here hosts, using the commands in mac vs, Section 5.1.1, Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime, Steps 1 through 4. If you do not plan to run incremental provisioning and you have only US English installed, proceed to why am i here in college, Section 5.1.24, Upgrade Orchestrator Completes Successfully. If you do not plan to run incremental provisioning and you have previously installed additional languages, Upgrade Orchestration runs the descriptive essay about house, tasks in Table 5-7, Tasks Run For the Language Pack Upgrade and you can proceed to Section 5.1.24, Upgrade Orchestrator Completes Successfully. If the PERFORM_INCREMENTAL_PROVISIONING property is set to true, Upgrade Orchestrator runs the InstallIpBinary task on the primordial host, to install binaries for incremental provisioning. Why Am I Here In College. Proceed to Section 5.1.17, Pause Point 6 - Create the Incremental Provisioning Response File. 5.1.17 Pause Point 6 - Create the Incremental Provisioning Response File. Orchestration pauses if you meet one of the conditions described in Section 2.4.10, Prepare Incremental Provisioning, so you can create a response file for descriptive essay an old, running incremental provisioning. I Here. Perform the steps in koalas, Section 5.2.5, Create Response Files for Manual Incremental Provisioning. After you successfully create the response file for why am i here in college essay, manual incremental provisioning, update the task status to success on descriptive about an old, the primordial host: Resume orchestration on the primordial host, using the commands in Section 5.1.1, Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime, Step 1. 5.1.20 Pause Point 7 - Perform Incremental Provisioning. Orchestration pauses if you meet one of the conditions described in Section 2.4.10, Prepare Incremental Provisioning, so you can run incremental provisioning.
To perform incremental provisioning, follow the steps in Section 5.2.6, Perform Incremental Provisioning. If you have a scaled-out, secondary Oracle Fusion Applications OHS instance, incremental provisioning does not update the secondary OHS. Why Am Essay. In this case, you must first perform the additional steps in Performing Post Incremental Provisioning Tasks in the Oracle Fusion Applications Installation Guide , before proceeding to the next step. If you only have a single Oracle Fusion Applications OHS instance, do not perform the post incremental provisioning tasks. After you successfully perform manual incremental provisioning, update the task status to descriptive essay an old, success on the primordial, OHS and why am i here in college Midtier hosts: Update the task status on the primordial host: Update the to kill and book comparison essay, task status on each Midtier host that is listed in the HOSTNAME_MIDTIER property in the pod.properties file: Update the task status on each OHS host that is listed in the HOSTNAME_OHS property in the pod.properties file: Resume orchestration on the primordial host, using the i here in college essay, commands in Section 5.1.1, Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime, Step 1. Koalas. 5.1.23 Upgrade Orchestrator Runs Language Upgrade Tasks. If additional languages are installed, resume orchestration on all host types, including the respective scaled out hosts, using the commands in essay, Section 5.1.1, Run Upgrade Orchestrator During Downtime, Steps 1 through 4. Upgrade Orchestrator runs the tasks in the following table.
Note that the mac vs, LanguagePackInstall task runs both the General System and Pre-Language Pack Readiness Health Checks and this runs for each installed language. The PostLangPackChecks task runs both the General System and Post-Language Pack Health Checks. If you have set the SKIP_UPGRADE_FOR_LANGUAGE option to skip languages, the upgrade for why am essay, those languages is not performed as part of orchestration. In this case, proceed to Section 5.1.24, Upgrade Orchestrator Completes Successfully at this time and you must manually upgrade your installed languages after Upgrade Orchestrator completes successfully. Diploma In Police Leadership And Management. For more information, see Performing Optional Language Installations in the Oracle Fusion Applications Installation Guide . Essay. Table 5-7 Tasks Run For the Language Pack Upgrade. Run Pre Language Pack Health Checks. Upgrade All Installed Languages. Update Topology Information and Worker Details. Start Remote Workers for Applying Database Patches in Distributed Mode. Runs Configuration Actions for all Installed Languages. Clean up Worker Details Information for disposable report sanitary, the Topology.
Stop All Servers. In College Essay. Start All Servers. In Police Leadership And Management. Run Post Language Pack Health Checks. Perform Post Upgrade Configuration. 5.1.24 Upgrade Orchestrator Completes Successfully. Upgrade Orchestrator generates the Oracle Fusion Applications Orchestrator Upgrade Report upon successful completion of the why am, upgrade, which you review as a post-upgrade task. To continue with the email report sanitary trade, upgrade after all tasks complete successfully, proceed to Chapter 6, Running Post-Upgrade Tasks. This section describes the in college, detailed steps required by each of the following default pause points: 5.2.1 Back Up Oracle Fusion Applications. Back up your entire Oracle Fusion Applications environment by following the steps for all about, performing a full offline backup in Backing Up and Recovering Oracle Fusion Applications in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide . I Here In College. Include the following components in your backup: For additional back up steps that are specific to Windows, refer to Section 5.2.2, Back Up Steps for Windows Platforms. Database upgrade and patching is movie comparison essay, a prerequisite to the Oracle Fusion Applications Upgrade. You must backup your Oracle Fusion Applications database and Oracle Identity Management database before and after applying all prerequisite patches and why am in college essay before starting the Oracle Fusion Applications upgrade.
For more information, see Backing Up and Recovering Oracle Fusion Applications in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide . Turn on Oracle Flashback Database as a best practice before taking a backup of the Oracle Fusion Applications database. A Mockingbird Movie And Book Comparison. 220.127.116.11 Back Up Upgrade Orchestrator Directories. Upgrade Orchestrator writes to work areas specified by properties in the pod.properties file. Ensure that you back up the work directories during all Oracle Fusion Applications backup pause points. During any restore of your environment, you must restore the i here essay, orchestration work directories to the same backup point. Backup directories are specified by the following properties in essay about an old, the pod.properties file: If these directories are shared among multiple environments, the backups of these directories must be specific to the environment ( POD_NAME ). The restore should also be specific to that environment ( POD_NAME ), as shown in the following examples: ORCHESTRATION_CHECKPOINT_ARCHIVE_LOCATION /ARCHIVE/ POD_NAME. When restoring the why am in college, Oracle Fusion Applications environment from a backup, you must restore the orchestration directories if you want to continue using orchestration, starting from the backup pause points in the orchestration flow. 18.104.22.168 Back Up the movie and book comparison essay, OHS Host and /etc/hosts.
On the i here in college, OHS host, back up /u01/APPLTOP and descriptive house /u02/instance . Also back up the /etc/hosts file. 22.214.171.124 Back Up the Central Inventory. Why Am I Here In College Essay. Upgrade Orchestrator upgrades and applies Oracle Fusion Middleware and Oracle Fusion Applications patches to your Oracle Fusion Applications environment. As a best practice, back up your central inventory, along with other Oracle homes, before the upgrade. On the primordial host, the disposable paper report trade, location of the i here essay, central inventory can be obtained by looking at the inventory pointer file ( oraInst.loc on Linux), located in FA_ORACLE_HOME . After your backups are complete, and if you are performing the steps to upgrade to Release 9, proceed to Section 5.1.6, Update Status to Success to continue the in police leadership and management, upgrade. If you are performing the steps to upgrade your installed languages, proceed to Section 5.1.15, Update Status to Success. Why Am I Here In College. 5.2.2 Back Up Steps for Windows Platforms. Back up the Oracle Fusion Applications environment, including APPLICATIONS_BASE , inventory, registry entries, Oracle Identity Management, the database and all about it gcse coursework the System environment PATH variable of the Oracle Fusion Applications host machine.
APPLICATIONS_BASE contains many files whose path is more than 256 characters. The Microsoft Windows Copy function is essay, limited to service leadership essays, copying only those files with a path of less than 256 characters. Why Am I Here. Therefore, many files fail to copy. Use Robust File Copy (Robocopy), which is available as part of the Windows Resource Kit, to copy APPLICATIONS_BASE . Use the following command: Sample output from the robocopy command: Back up the inventory.
Back up the inventory location referenced in the registry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREORACLEinst_loc . Back up the registry. Use Regedit.exe to back up the following registries related to Oracle Fusion Applications. Web Tier service. Node Manager service. Ensure that the disposable trade, System PATH has the following values: Add any of the previous values that are missing to the system PATH. Missing values cause failures in launching the OPMN services and BI Presentation Catalog deployment configuration assistants in RUP Installer. I Here In College. Save the system PATH variable. 5.2.3 Upgrade the Oracle Identity Management Domain to 11 g Release 9 (11.1.9) Before performing an upgrade to 11 g Release 9 (11.1.9), check the Technical Known Issues, Oracle Fusion Application 11g Release 9 (11.1.9) for descriptive essay an old, the latest information on required patches. Perform the why am i here essay, following steps to manually upgrade the Oracle Identity Management domain to diploma in police leadership, 11 g Release 9 (11.1.9):
Oracle Identity Management for Oracle Fusion Applications 11 g , Release 9 (126.96.36.199) includes patches for the following products that are installed in the Oracle Identity Management domain: Oracle Identity Manager. Oracle IDM Tools. Oracle Access Manager. Oracle Internet Directory. The Oracle Fusion Applications Release 9 Identity Management software and patches for why am in college essay, your appropriate platform are available in the Oracle Fusion Applications repository under SHARED_LOCATION/ 11.1.9.x.0/ Repository/ installers . Review the individual patch Readme files before applying them. 188.8.131.52 About Identity Management Domain, Nodes and Oracle homes. This section explains the various nodes and Oracle homes in the Identity Management domain for Oracle Fusion Applications 11g, Release 9 (11.1.9.x.0). Identity Management (IDM) Node. WEBLOGIC_ORACLE_HOME (For IDM provisioned environments, this is IDM_BASE/ products/dir/wlserver_10.3 .) Oracle WebLogic Server. IDM_ORACLE_HOME : This is mac vs, also known as the OID_ORACLE_HOME . I Here In College. (For IDM provisioned environments, this is IDM_BASE/ products/dir/oid .) The following Oracle Identity Management products are installed in in police service, this Oracle home: Oracle Internet Directory.
Oracle Virtual Directory. Oracle Directory Services Manager. IDM_ORACLE_COMMON_HOME : (For IDM provisioned environments, this is IDM_BASE/ products/dir/oracle_common .) The following Oracle Identity Management products are installed in this Oracle home: Oracle Platform Security Services (OPSS) Oracle Web Services Manager (OWSM) Identity and Access Management (IAM) Node. WEBLOGIC_ORACLE_HOME (For IDM provisioned environments, this is IDM_BASE/ products/app/wlserver_10.3 .) Oracle WebLogic Server. Why Am I Here In College Essay. IAM_ORACLE_HOME : This is also known as the OIM_ORACLE_HOME . (For IDM provisioned environments, this is IDM_BASE/ products/app/iam .)The following Oracle Identity Management products are installed in this Oracle home: Oracle Identity Manager. Oracle Access Manager. Oracle IDM Tools. Oracle Identity Federation. SOA_ORACLE_HOME : (For IDM provisioned environments, this is mac vs pc contrast essay, IDM_BASE/ products/app/soa.) This is typically installed under the IAM_ORACLE_HOME . The following products are installed in this Oracle home: Oracle SOA Suite. IAM_ORACLE_COMMON_HOME : (For IDM provisioned environments, this is IDM_BASE/ products/app/oracle_common .) The following Oracle Identity Management products are installed in this Oracle home: OHS_ORACLE_HOME : This is also known as the i here in college essay, WEB_ORACLE_HOME . The following Oracle Identity Management products are installed in this Oracle home: OHS_ORACLE_COMMON_HOME : The following Oracle Identity Management products are installed in this Oracle home: RDBMS_ORACLE_HOME : This is the service and management essays, ORACLE_HOME of the why am i here in college, Oracle Database. You must apply mandatory database patches to this Oracle home.
184.108.40.206 Performing Pre-installation Tasks. Perform the following tasks before installation. Mac Vs Essay. Ensure that your environment meets the following requirements before you install or uninstall the patch: Review and download the latest version of OPatch 11.1.x via Patch 6880880 (OPatch version 220.127.116.11.2 or later). Oracle recommends that you use the latest version of OPatch.
Review the My Oracle Support note 224346.1-Opatch-Where Can I Find the Latest Version of Opatch? Verify the OUI Inventory. OPatch needs access to a valid OUI inventory to why am in college, apply patches. Validate the OUI inventory with the following command: If the command errors out, contact Oracle Support for assistance in validating and verifying the report research, inventory setup before proceeding. Confirm the executables appear in why am i here in college, your system PATH . The patching process uses the about, unzip and the OPatch executables. After setting the in college essay, ORACLE_HOME environment, confirm whether the following executables exist, before proceeding to the next step. 18.104.22.168.2 Stop the Servers and Processes. Stop the servers and processes, as follows: In the to kill essay, Oracle Identity Management domain, stop all Oracle Identity Management services and processes using the following sequence. Why Am I Here. Do not stop the database. Stop the following servers and processes: Oracle HTTP Server.
Oracle Identity Manager managed servers. Oracle SOA managed servers. Oracle Identity Federation managed servers. Oracle Access Manager managed servers. A Mockingbird Comparison Essay. Oracle Directory Services Manager. Oracle WebLogic Administration Server for i here in college essay, the Oracle Identity Management domain.
Oracle Virtual Directory. Oracle Internet Directory. At a minimum, create the following backups: Middleware home directory (including the Oracle home directories inside the disposable paper report trade, Middleware home) Local domain home directory. Local Oracle instances. Domain home and Oracle instances on any remote systems that use the Middleware home.
Back up your database and ensure the backup includes the why am i here in college essay, schema version registry table, as each Fusion Middleware schema has a row in descriptive about an old house, this table. The name of the why am in college essay, schema version registry table is SYSTEM.SCHEMA_VERSION_REGISTRY$ . Back up your Configurations and Storesspecifically, all data under the all about, root node of the why am in college, LDAP store. Back up any Oracle Identity Federation Java Server Pages (JSP) that you customized. The patching process overwrites JSPs included in the oif.ear file. After you complete the patching process, restore your custom JSPs. In addition to the preceding backups, Oracle recommends performing your organization's typical backup processes. The following documents provide additional information related to subjects discussed in koalas are dumb essay, this section: 22.214.171.124.4 Patch the why am i here essay, Database (RDBMS_ORACLE_HOME) Ensure the essay house, patches listed in Chapter 3, Updating the Oracle Fusion Applications and Oracle Identity Management Databases are applied on the Identity Management database to why am, keep both Oracle Fusion Applications and Identity Management databases synchronized. Follow the steps in essay an old, Chapter 3 to apply the patches. Why Am I Here Essay. The Database Client patches are available under the SHARED_LOCATION/ 11.1.9.x.0/ Repository/ installers/dbclient/patch directory.
Follow the patch Readme and apply all patches in the directory. Proceed as follows to about, apply all patches: Set your Oracle home to RDBMS_ORACLE_HOME , for example, ORACLE_HOME/u01/oid/oid_home . Go to the patch directory: Run opatch using the napply option. 126.96.36.199.6 Patch the why am i here in college essay, WebLogic Server on the IDM Node. Oracle Fusion Applications 11 g Release 9 (11.1.9) Identity Management continues to use Oracle WebLogic Server 10.3.6. However, there may be additional Oracle WebLogic Server patches that you must apply. The WebLogic server patches are available under the SHARED_LOCATION 11.1.9.x.0/ Repository/ /installers/smart_update/weblogic directory. Follow the patch Readme and apply all patches in the directory. Use the following commands to apply all the patches on the IDM NODE : Take the list of jars from the output of the ls command and create a comma separated list without the file extension, for diploma leadership and management, example: 188.8.131.52.7 Patch the WebLogic Server on the IAM Node.
Oracle Fusion Applications 11 g Release 9 (11.1.9) Identity and Access Management continues to use Oracle WebLogic Server 10.3.6. However, there may be additional Oracle WebLogic Server patches that you must apply. Use the following commands: Take the list of jars from the why am i here in college, output of ls and and management create a comma separated list without the file extension, for example: The patches for this Oracle home are available under the why am i here, SHARED_LOCATION /11.1.9.x.0/Repository/installers/pltsec/patch directory for your appropriate platform. Follow the patch Readme and apply all patches in the directory as follows: Set your Oracle home to IDM_ORACLE_HOME , for a mockingbird and book, example, /u01/oid/oid_home . Go to the patch directory: Run opatch using the napply option. 184.108.40.206.9 Patch the Common Oracle homes on All Nodes. Your deployment should have at in college essay least the following, if not more, Oracle Common homes: The patches for these Oracle homes are available under the SHARED_LOCATION /11.1.9.x.0/Repository/installers/oracle_common/patch directory for your platform. Follow the patch Readme and apply all patches in the directory to the Oracle Common homes as follows: Set your Oracle home to about an old house, IDM_ORACLE_COMMON_HOME ., for example, /u01/oid/oracle_common . Go to the patch directory. Run opatch using the i here essay, napply option. Set your Oracle home to ORACLE_COMMON_HOME , for example, /u01/oim/oracle_common . Run opatch using the napply option. Set your Oracle home to koalas are dumb essay, OHS_ORACLE_COMMON_HOME ., for example, /u01/ohsauth/oracle_common . Run opatch using the napply option.
You must apply all the patches to all the Common Oracle homes. 220.127.116.11.10 Patch IAM_ORACLE_HOME on the IAM Node. The patches for this Oracle home are available under the SHARED_LOCATION /11.1.9.x.0/Repository/installers/idm/patch directory for why am essay, your platform. Follow the patch Readme and all about it gcse coursework apply all patches in the directory as follows: Set your Oracle home to IAM_ORACLE_HOME , for example, /u01/oim/oim_home . I Here In College Essay. Go to the patch directory. Run opatch using the napply option. Some of the about, patches have post-patch steps mentioned in the README of the patch. Only apply the patches using opatch napply now, as you will run the post-patch steps later. 18.104.22.168.11 Patch OIF_ORACLE_HOME on the IAM Node. The patches for this Oracle home are available under the why am in college, SHARED_LOCATION/ 11.1.9.x.0/Repository/installers/oif/patch directory for your platform. Follow the patch Readme and apply all patches in all about it gcse, the directory as follows: Set your Oracle home to i here in college, OIF_ORACLE_HOME , for and management, example, /u01/oim/fmw_idm_home . I Here Essay. Go to descriptive, the patch directory. Run opatch using the napply option.
22.214.171.124.12 Patch SOA_ORACLE_HOME on the IAM Node. The patches for this Oracle home are available under the SHARED_LOCATION /11.1.9.x.0/Repository/installers/soa/patch directory for why am essay, your platform. Follow the all about it gcse, patch Readme and apply all patches in the directory as follows: Set your Oracle home to SOA_ORACLE_HOME , for example, /u01/oim/soa_home . Why Am I Here In College. Go to the patch directory. Run opatch using the are dumb essay, napply option. 126.96.36.199.13 Patch OHS_ORACLE_HOME on the OHS Node. The patches for this Oracle home are available under the SHARED_LOCATION / 11.1.9.x.0/Repository/installers /webtier/patch directory for your platform. Why Am. Follow the patch Readme and apply all patches in the directory as follows: Set your Oracle home to OHS_ORACLE_HOME , for example, /u01/ohsauth/ohsauth_home . A Mockingbird And Book Comparison. Go to the patch directory. Run opatch using the napply option. 188.8.131.52.14 Patch WEBGATE_ORACLE_HOME on the OHS Node.
The patches for this Oracle home are available under the SHARED_LOCATION /11.1.9.x.0/Repository/installers/webgate/patch directory for in college essay, your platform. Follow the to kill movie and book comparison essay, patch Readme and apply all patches in i here in college essay, the directory as follows: Set your Oracle home to WEBGATE_ORACLE_HOME ., for example, /u01/ohsauth/webgate . Go to the patch directory. Run opatch using the napply option. Movie And Book Essay. Some patches have online post-patch steps that must be completed. These are documented in the individual patch readme. Review and follow the post-patch steps.
Perform the procedures in the following sections: 184.108.40.206.1 Start the Servers and Apply Post-Patch Steps. Start servers and processes in the following sequence: Oracle Internet Directory (if not already started) Oracle Virtual Directory. Oracle WebLogic Administration Server for the IDM node (if not already started) Oracle Directory Services Manager (ODSM) managed servers. Oracle Access Manager managed servers (if not already started) Oracle Identity Federation managed servers. Oracle SOA managed servers (if not already started) Oracle Identity Manager managed servers (if not already started) Oracle HTTP Server and Webgate (if not already started) 220.127.116.11.2 Verify the Oracle Identity Management Domain. To verify that the upgrades and patches to the Oracle Identity Management domain were applied correctly, perform the why am i here, following steps: Confirm you can access and are dumb essay log in to the Oracle WebLogic Administration Server console at: Confirm you can access and log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control at: After you complete the IDM upgrade, proceed to i here, Section 5.1.9, Update Status to Success to continue the email paper protection report sanitary, upgrade. The following document provides additional information related to subjects discussed in this section: For more information about OPatch, see Patching Oracle Fusion Middleware with Oracle OPatch in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Patching Guide . Perform the following steps: Perform the i here in college essay, following steps to start the GOP processes. Note that the opmnctl process for gop_1 should be started only on service leadership, the host machine which contains the i here essay, AdvancedPlanning Managed Server. It Gcse. Do not start it on the primordial host.
Proceed to in college essay, Step 2 if your GOP processes have been previously configured and have run before. Pc Contrast. If you are starting GOP processes for the first time, confirm that a datasource exists, in the form of XML files, under the APPLICATIONS_BASE /instance/gop_1/GOP/GlobalOrderPromisingServer1/datastore directory. Then run the RefreshOpDatastore ESS job by performing the following steps: Ensure that the AdvancePlanning Managed Server is running in in college, the SCM domain. Invoke http:// scm - AdvancePlanning managedserver : port /advancedPlanning/faces/MscCentralEssUi. In the bottom list applet click on Actions , then Schedule New Process . Select Search under Name , and query for %Order%. Select Refresh Order Promising Data and click OK . Disposable Paper Protection Report Research Trade. Select all check boxes in the Process Details popup. You can customize some options in the Advanced pane, but this is not mandatory. Click Submit and note the process ID. After you confirm that the in college essay, process is complete, you should see information from the log file that is pc contrast, similar to the following example: Proceed to Step 2. Log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control (Cloud Control). For more information, see Monitoring Oracle Fusion Applications in the Oracle Fusion Applications Administrator's Guide . Access GOP by navigating to Oracle Fusion Supply Chain Management , then Global Order Promising , then GlobalOrderPromisingServer1 . Click GlobalOrderPromisingServer1 to open the GlobalOrderPromisingServer1 page.
Select Control from the menu, then Start Up . 18.104.22.168 Start the Informatica IR (IIR) Instance. If you have IIR installed and configured in i here essay, your environment, you must start IIR. Perform the following steps: 5.2.5 Create Response Files for Manual Incremental Provisioning. Perform the steps in Creating an Extended Provisioning Response File in diploma service and management essays, the Oracle Fusion Applications Installation Guide . 5.2.6 Perform Incremental Provisioning. Perform the steps in Performing Incremental Provisioning in the Oracle Fusion Applications Installation Guide .
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combat camera resume Militarized, Folding All/Extreme Terrain Mountain and Electrical Bikes (F-ATBs, F-MTBs, eMTBs) COMBAT REPORT: IRAQ. BASRA, IRAQ: A British Soldier on patrol speaks to an Iraqi boy in the southern city of why am in college essay, Basra, 500 kms south of Baghdad 06 January 2005. It is mainly British forces that patrol this city. U.S. ARMY TESTING OPERATIONAL USE IN AFGHANISTAN/IRAQ. MONTAGUE MILITARY BIKE R D. PARATROOPER 2000 on All Terrain Bike (ATB): the future of war is AIRBORNE, not seaborne. All men dream: but not equally. Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to diploma service and management essays, find that it was vanity: but the in college essay dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act out their dream with open eyes, to make it possible.
--Lawrence of all about, Arabia, Seven Pillars of why am essay, Wisdom. THE AIRBORNE LIGHT BICYCLE INFANTRY (LBI) CONCEPT. The world moves by all about the speed of the air, not a slow boat to China . America is a strategic AIR POWER as England was once the ruling sea power. U.S. Airborne forces must be able to essay, rapidly converge on the enemy's most critical center of gravity by AIR power in order to gain strategic and operational surprise; as proven in Grenada, Panama and Haiti. And Book! Air POWER is not to be confused with air STRIKES as is why am i here vogue in the USAF. Our loss of Pristina airport to the Russian Airborne in a permissive motor march in Kosovo is a perfect example of the coursework weakness of having to why am i here in college, wait for marine peacekeepers driving long distances overland (from Greece. ) to inland areas better reached by air-delivered forces.
This means AIRBORNE forces must move within HOURS not days, weeks, months by ship, and arrive with greater mobility than a foot-slog. These forces conduct AIRBORNE WARFARE not just logistics base seizure; they do not have to seize and hold WWII-style. The days of piling supplies on koalas are dumb essay, the beach for an enemy to cream a bloated marine force are over; the why am i here essay Russians know this, we do not--as we insist on and management essays, wasting BILLIONS on land-locked, slow-to-deploy, sea-based gyrene units that once ashore foot-slog and truck-hop into enemy land mines. The way to create a fully mobile U.S. Airborne/Air Assault Air-Mech-Strike Force is by creating LTC Richard Liebert's Dragoon units: heavily armed mounted Soldiers who use All-Terrain Vehicles like diesel-powered armed Para-Gators now used by the XVIII Airborne Corps and essay, folding bikes and carts backed by are dumb essay light TRACKED Armored Fighting Vehicles. Dragoon Light Bicycle Infantry (LBI) can use air-droppable folding ATBs and Extreme Terrain Bikes (ETBs) with 10-inch wide tires to traverse over sand/snow. seizing assault objectives and road block mobility corridor security positions immediately after forced-entry. The maneuver of LBI units would be supported by Dragoons in ATVs firing heavy-caliber machine guns, grenade launchers, rockets and in college, recoilless rifles.
Expanding the Recon Security zone after an airhead is taken, Dragoon LBI units can act as the mobile reserve of the Airborne Task Force commander and be used for reconnaissance and raids far beyond what men on foot can travel. The Airborne's battle space tied in with digital communications means extends beyond enemy artillery and about an old house, rocket weapons ranges and secures the foothold for offensive operations to collapse the enemy before he can react. Hanebrink Extreme Terrain Bike (ETB) A/ETBs can be jumped over why am, the rear ramp or side jump doors of high-performance aircraft like the Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules and koalas are dumb, Alenia C-27J Spartan and even through the super-large side jump doors of the C-17 Globemaster III . (Images-negatives owned by why am i here in college essay 1 st TSG (A) donated to the U.S. Descriptive! Army; re: Infantry magazine, January-February, 1995) ITSG Begins Military Bicycle Development in 1988. Our early 1992 parachute test of the why am i here essay folding bike was not conclusive due to the exposed condition of the bike for the jump, though we found out later this was successfully done by the British Airborne in WWII combat (see below). To Kill Movie And Book! However, it proved the ease which parachute delivery can be used to why am i here in college essay, deliver ATBs. Later RD led to pc contrast essay, the padded airdrop bag for i here essay, folded ATBs to mac vs, be jumped with common Airborne combat equipment attached to ready-for combat individual Paratroopers as lowering line loads as depicted above or Container Delivery System (CDS) bundles to be recovered later (see below) as the 1 st Tactical Studies Group (AIRBORNE) Paratroopers did for the OPERATION DARK CLAW demonstration, February 11, 1993 at Laurinberg-Maxton airfield (Home of the U.S. Army Golden Knights ) near Fort Bragg, NC.
Squad Accompanying Loads are means that oversized items like A/ETBs and Javelin ATGMs can be delivered to Paratroopers. a piece of truck bed liner plastic as directional slide aids for essay, door bundles to prevents bundles from getting stuck in the door when being pushed out. OPERATION DARK CLAW! C-212 STOL turbo prop aircraft. Folded ATB in airdrop bag. Non-folding ATB and a mockingbird comparison, Montague Folding ATB on i here in college essay, ATAC as ramp drop bundle. Dark Claw team members rigged and ready to essay, jump. Team Leader ready to jump combat equipment and i here in college, ATB in are dumb essay, airdrop bag. ATB bag rigged under chest reserve.
Folded ATB in bag with quick release straps. Paratrooper good exit from rear ramp with ATB bag. ATB in bag still connected to Paratrooper. ATB lowered on line prior to landing. Bag opened to in college essay, recover ATB. Unfolding the email paper report research ATB in under one minute. Paratrooper cycles at 10 - 25 mph across battlefield. The designer of the in college essay padded ATB airdrop bag, SF MSG Lee Cashwell (Retired) acted as the diploma service leadership and management essays primary jumpmaster employing U.S. military jump procedures for the C-212. Grenadier/scout LT Jeffrey Schram and Combat Medical Specialist, SF 18D SSG Ernest Hoppe followed their non-folding AT bikes and ATAC on a palletized bundle (Kudos Rigger SGT Ken Potter) on the first pass to why am, demonstrate this technique. On the second C-212 pass, Team Leader, LT Michael Sparks jumped with the folded bike over the rear ramp in its airdrop bag as a lowering line load. All 1 st TSG (A) members wore complete combat equipment, LBE, and weapons in it gcse coursework, M1950 cases.
The entire operation captured on video by freefall legend, USAF CCT Dave Lilico (Retired) from the air, and later on why am in college, the ground. On the ground, Team Leader LT Sparks, though jumping later was able to all about it gcse, derig, unfold and why am in college essay, cycle back to his men who were still de-rigging their Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs). VIDEO: Operation DARK CLAW, Part 1: Insertion. From there, they moved as a unit to in police, rescue a mock hostage from an enemy camp, briefed the SF Command Observers, then took the hostage mannequin on ATAC in tow 35+ miles under their own power back to Fort Bragg, NC. In College! All done in under a few hours time. As way of comparison, according to Gerard Devlin's book Paratrooper! in to kill movie and book comparison, October 1942, the in college 88 th Glider Infantry Regiment foot-marched the same distance to descriptive essay about an old, start glider training at Laurinberg field and it took them 2 DAYS to get there from Fort Bragg! The HPV-mobile 1 st TSG (A) team got to Fort Bragg later that afternoon after a 2pm departure. What's fascinating is that the 88 th GIR was the Army Airborne's Experimental unit and they had bicycles so they could have went much faster!
History of the 88 th Airborne Battalion. The history of the 88 th Airborne Battalion, from its activation, to the time it was amalgamated as a regiment with the essay 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in France during World War II, is covered in an eclectic assortment of conventional official documents. Not recorded in them, or elsewhere, are its contributions and diploma service and management, the impact these contributions have made to airborne warfare operations and doctrine, to military and why am in college essay, commercial airlift operations, to disposable email paper report sanitary, military helicopter operations or to the progress of why am, America, especially through the aircraft industry. At its activation as the 88 th Airborne Battalion on descriptive essay house, 10 October, 1942, it was intended to be an experimental organization that would introduce the air landing aspects of airborne warfare to America's military forces. Such warfare had been applied by the Germans against why am i here essay, the Belgians early during World War II with devastating affect. Germany was able to keep information about these operations from leaking out of Germany. This much the allies were able to pc contrast, glean through intelligence sources - a number of German Soldiers in large gliders had landed on the surface of Belgian's massive Fort Eben Emael on why am i here essay, May 20, 1940. Coursework! They subdued the fort in essay, less than one hour.
The loss of the fort created a gap in a mockingbird, the Belgian defenses. Because of the shock of this loss, in in college, only a matter of days, Belgium surrendered. This left France's northern flank defensless to the Wermacht 's panzers . An Old! Soon France fell and the debacle at Dunkerque followed. The 88 th battalion was organized as a hybrid tactical and experimental unit. It was lightly manned and equipped and i here, initially was limited to flying in Douglas DC-3's, the only transport airplane immediately available in to kill movie essay, those early years for carrying its equipment and available to test airborne techniques and doctrine. Motorcycle, bicycles , guns and equipment issued the (airborne) unit were intended to enable it to load in i here, the airplanes, deplane quickly once landed, hit the enemy swiftly and hard and are dumb essay, then hold until relieved. In College! The unit was not constituted for sustained combat. This sort of activity divined by a War Department, promised great things for the future of airborne operations, but it did not foresee, nor did it have to koalas are dumb, cope with the myriad problems in i here essay, putting such doctrine into disposable paper protection report sanitary trade, reality. It left this to the 88 th to translate a concept into workable tactics, techniques, doctrine and procedures.
There was little, if any, experience available with respect to the loading of equipment into airplanes, and the problems such activities entailed. Nor did the why am essay 88 th get guidance from any source with such knowledge. What was achieved was achieved through dangerous, difficult, practical experience and the ingenuity and ability of the all about it gcse members of the 88 th to overcome the problems that developed. From the beginning there were problems in securing guns, ammunition and equipment so that turbulence while in flight would not cause it to shift or become free. The 88 th learned to why am in college, use ropes to lash the cargo to tie down rings set into the floor of the essay about airplanes.
When we encountered turbulence we had the harrowing experience of finding 90mm mortar ammunition floating around the interior of the plane we were riding in. Initially, we could only resecure it or hold it down the as best we could. The 88 th sent some men to Wright Patterson air base to present the problem and try to find solutions. One Mr. Baker offered a trucker's knot, the bowline, later dubbed the Baker bowline by his appreciative students. The bowline could not be untied quickly, slowing the unloading of equipment, so enterprising 88ers added the essay slippery half hitch, well known to boy scouts and truckers. Then we found that not just any rope would do for the task of securing equipment. Most of it stretched, permitting the equipment to loosen.
We opted for 5/8ths-inch Manila hemp, which was very durable and stretched little. Pilots of the day had little interest in it gcse, passengers or cargo of any kind. Why Am In College! Their attention was directed to flying the glider. The 88 th became concerned when pilots were reporting puzzling problems, especially in taking off, and in having to trim the all about coursework airplanes unduly in why am i here in college, flight. What was amiss was that loads were changing the center of gravity of the airplanes, or were heavier than the load for to kill a mockingbird and book, which the aircraft was rated. We had received no cautionary advice from the pilots on how to distribute loads. With little help from the in college essay Air Corps, the 88 th devised loading plans taking into consideration the center of gravity. It was customary to pc contrast essay, equip each military airplane and glider passenger with a parachute. This was OK for airplanes, but when it came to gliders Lieutenant Al Leonard, one of the primary contributors to i here essay, airborne techniques, considered the expendability doctrine inherent in air transport combat operations and questioned the advisability of issuing parachutes to mac vs essay, passengers in gliders. Why Am In College Essay! Al reasoned that gliders normally were towed at about 300-500 feet altitude, too low to use parachutes if the occasion demanded.
Moreover, weight was always a problem. If chutes could be dispensed with, equivalent weight in weapons and ammunition could be substituted. Al's argument carried the day, and diploma service leadership and management essays, glidermen ceased to wear parachutes, a condition that convinced paratroopers they never wanted to go into essay, combat in a glider . The air force later adopted the practice of not issuing parachutes to passengers in transport aircraft. [EDITOR: WRONG: not true. Only of late has the USAF wimped out and email paper report, stopped using common sense.] To facilitate unit training for the vital task of in college, loading men and equipment into gliders, the 88 th built the first full-scale glider mockup.
It became the prototype for large formations of mockups in a mockingbird movie comparison essay, training areas that were used for loading and lashing training of the 88 th and why am in college, all airborne divisions. As with the mac vs pc contrast essay mockup, so it was with many other items of equipment and i here essay, training. The 88 th made it all first, or made the suggestions and koalas essay, designs that led to i here in college essay, the actual items. These ideas led to modifications of gliders and airplanes, and even to the design of new aircraft. A case in point is the koalas essay successor of the CG-4A glider, the CG-15. The CG-4A was an innovation amongst aircraft, and was the first of its kind in why am, America. It had little testing, and no combat experience up to that time, and thus fell to Al Leonard and other members of the 88 th to suggest improvements that would have be desirable and all about it gcse coursework, necessary. These were passed up to why am i here, the Airborne Command, then in charge of collecting and acting on such information, and they all found their way into the modified CG-4A, the CG-15. Shortly after take off, early production CG-4As dropped their wheels, and landed on skids that ran part of the length of the fuselage. For the gliders to mac vs, take off again, crews had a real chore to i here in college, raise the glider and reinstall the wheels.
There were other difficulties that (d)evolved from the skids too numerous to mention here. In Police Leadership Essays! Al Leonard cited them and suggested that landings be made on wheels. The Air Corps adopted his suggestion. Problems evaporated. Gliders suffered less landing damage, and changed from in college being expendable to recoverable. It should be understood that these gliders were largely designed by about an old the Air Corps, with little knowledge of why am in college essay, airborne unit requirements. This is where the 88 th played an important role. Elements of the 88 th tested the air transport capabilities of the XCG-13, the CG-15A, and mac vs essay, the CG-19 as well as other glider and transport airplane prototypes and heavily influenced which modifications were made. The 88 th trained the glider infantry regiments, artillery, medical and other battalions and many of the parachute elements of the 82 nd , 101 st , 11 th , 17 th divisions in i here essay, air transport operations. After the all about it gcse 88 th was absorbed by why am i here in college essay the 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in the 13 th Airborne Division, members of the former 88 th that were then in the 326 th also were selected to train the pc contrast 84 th Infantry division for air transportably. From the i here essay 88 th evolved the information that was to become the basis of airborne operations, training and doctrine manuals.
The aircraft industry incorporated many of the experiences gained in the 88 th into the design of and book, airplanes, especially those that were intended primarily as cargo carriers. Perhaps the i here best example in are dumb essay, this trend was the 66 passenger XCG-20, America's largest glider. Why Am I Here Essay! It incorporated the best of the technology that the 88 th had devised and contributed to cargo airplane and glider construction. It was to become the to kill a mockingbird movie essay C-123, which gradually evolved into a jet airplane from which the design of i here, many of America's most advanced airplanes have borrowed many design features. Colonel, USA (Ret.) Colonel Mrazek commanded a battalion in the 326 th Glider Infantry Regiment in the 13 th during World War II and towards the end of the war commanded the regiment for several months.
He then took command of the 325 th Glider Infantry Regiment of the essay an old 82 nd Airborne Division for several months after it had returned to the United States. PKO. WW2 Mystery: U.S. Army Airborne USMC Paramarines' Pre-War Experiments with Break-Apart Columbia Compax Bicycles. The question is DID U.S. Army Paratroopers and/or Paramarines JUMP disassembled Columbia Compax bicycles? If so, HOW? We know the British jumped BSA folding bicycles uncovered in their hands which is i here in college very dangerous as its a snag risk to your parachute deployment. So far, all we have are these blow-ups from a poster hanging in a museum where a Columbia Compax is displayed. We wrote to the curator for help with better pics but so far this is all we have. As if we need yet more proof that ad hocery results in good ideas that could gain us a tactical advantage falling by the wayside; consider the pc contrast essay U.S. military's failure to exploit bicycles for i here essay, military mobility advantages in WW2--and thereafter.
The U.S. Army lead the world in all about coursework, military bicycle use but then got fat and lazy and disastrously road-bound with motorized trucks and forgot how to i here in college essay, use them when it really counted in war. While the Germans were moving around entire rifle battalions by bicycle to achieve decisive effects like repelling the British at Arnhem, at best we used bicycles tactically en masse only if they were captured. The point of this is that military bikes must be ORGANIC to U.S. A Mockingbird Movie Essay! military units so they are used aggressively in war practice so when the fear of why am in college, life/death settles in disposable protection sanitary, during a war their utility and usefulness to FAN OUT INFANTRY QUICKLY to get decisive kill/capture positions or to in college, control ground to deny the enemy its use (prevent land mines from being laid) will be established and not be ignored . Johan Willaert from Belgium writes: Although the U.S. Army had used bicycles for many years before WW2, none were standardized for procurement before 1942. The Army's official use for these bicycles was: To provide Transportation for Personnel engaged in disposable email paper protection research sanitary, Dispatch or Messenger Service . Of course they were used for many other purposes. They proved a fast and why am i here, economical way to get around Depots, Camps and Airfields. The Bicycle, Military, Universal was adopted in October 1942 by the Ordnance Department.
It was a military version of the and management essays Westfield Columbia and why am in college, was equipped with heavy duty rims and spokes. It came with a D-Cell powered headlight on the front fender and basic tools were carried in a toolbag attached to mac vs pc contrast, the Persons saddle. A tire pump was clamped to the frame. These bikes were manufactured by both Westfield Columbia and Huffman with only minor differences in parts. Huffman fenders were rounded as opposed to gothic ones on the Columbia, chain guards varied and why am, Huffman front sprockets had a unique whirlwind design. All parts were interchangeable . Early rubber pedal blocks were replaced with wooden ones later in the war. Mac Vs Pc Contrast Essay! Early frames had a curved front tube but these were replaced with straight tubes on later models. Late in why am essay, WW2 Columbia produced a Women's model. Folding Compax models were tested by [U.S. Army] Airborne Troops and the U.S. Service Leadership Essays! Marine Corps but saw no action in i here in college, Europe in WW2.
Westfield Columbia MG138969 (± Late 1943) The Westfield Serial Number files do not contain any reference to all about it gcse coursework, specific Military contracts, so it's become very hard to determine how many bikes were manufactured and when. Huffman frames were dated, but there too there's no reference to how many were made. I am trying to put together a database with Models and Serial Numbers and their location, so I invite you to post that info here with a picture of the bike if possible. For more info and wartime images, feel free to visit the Bicycles pages of my site: www.theliberator.be. Willaert's U.S. Why Am In College Essay! Military WW2 Bicycle Research Page. Tactical Bicycle Use in Hawaii shows some Custom Gear for Military Applications. U.S. Diploma In Police And Management! Army Signal Corps Photo via Jerry Cleveland.
Members of the Intelligence Platoon, HQ Company, 34 th Infantry Regiment on patrol in Hawaii. Rifles are carried in i here in college, leather scabbards on the front forks . Note the it gcse coursework Willys MA Jeep in the background. Another WW2 Bicycle Mystery: By Parachute or Glider? One of the few surviving Columbia's in Europe is why am i here in college displayed in to kill a mockingbird movie and book essay, the Airborne Museum of Sainte-Mre-Eglise, Normandy, France where it sits under the wings of a C-47 aircraft. MG145375 was left behind during WW2 and ended up with a local farmer who used it well into the 1970's before donating it to in college, the local museum where it underwent complete restoration. WATCH THE CLASSIC MOVIE, The Longest Day based on Cornelius Ryan's Book.
Click on the picture to view the 2-hour movie. PROOF! U.S. Airborne Glider-Airlanding Bicycle Use in all about it gcse coursework, Combat in WW2. Although many have claimed to see a Compax Paratrooper bicycle in the back of the Jeep on why am essay, the right, the springer type front forks clearly indicate it is not a Columbia Compax. It actually is descriptive essay an old a Simplex Servicycle. There seems to be another Servicycle in why am, the Jeep on the left where the passenger seat has been tilted forward to all about coursework, make room for the cycle's rear wheel. All vehicles belong to Service Company, 504 th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 82 nd Airborne Division and in college essay, are being loaded into WACO Gliders for the Operation Market-Garden Airborne insertion into Holland in September 1944. During WW2, Servicycles were used by Medical units of Airborne Divisions. Compare the front forks of the Servicycle above to the one shown below.
Father Sampson, Chaplain of the are dumb essay 501 st Parachute Infantry is i here shown on to kill movie and book essay, a Simplex Servicycle during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. Tricycle Resupply in Combat. Al Krochka Photo from Mark Bando's The 101 st AIRBORNE-From Holland to Hitler's Eagle's Nest. This image shows Technical Sergeant 5 Mendoza from B Company 326 th Airborne Engineer Battalion, 101 st Airborne Division using a captured/borrowed Dutch Tricycle to transport equipment to a Supply Dump in Veghel, Holland during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. The tricycle is loaded with two A4 Supply Bundles. Note the Parachute First Aid Packet tied to his M1 steel pot helmet. Bicycle Infantry: the Swiss Experience by Captain Kevin D. Essay! Stringer, U.S. Army Infantry magazine, September-October, 1994. NOTE: narrow-minded Stringer didn't realize that bikes can FOLD and be ATTACHED to armored personnel carriers for armored, mechanized maneuver to the area of operations where LBI would fan out for mac vs pc contrast, effect. Infantry magazine, November-December, 1994. Infantry magazine, January-February, 1995.
CopterBox, HeliBox, MaxiBox. An Air Force Loadmaster and three Australian Army Riggers deploy a helibox and a maxibox load from a C-130J Hercules as part of Exercise Pacific Airlift Rally in essay, Thailand. Use CDS bundles to airdrop oversized items like A/ETBs and ATACs so heavy fire and forget missiles like Javelin ATGMs or AGTMs can be delivered to Paratroopers, who are then mobile to use them effectively. Diploma In Police Service Leadership! So the options are: 1. Jump the folded ATB in airdrop bag attached to the Paratrooper; a. Rear ramp C-130s/C-27Js/CH-47s/CH-53s. b. Side jump doors of C-130s/C-27Js/C-17s. Obviously, jumping the ATB folded/attached to the Paratrooper will require a major gut check of those involved, but the why am i here essay pay-off of 10-25 mph mobility on the ground afterwards is definitely worth it. The rear ramp jump provides undisturbed air for a majority of the descriptive essay an old parachute opening sequence; so this using this exit technique should not be a major mental obstacle to overcome.
SOF routinely jumps TacSATs and loads almost as large routinely over the rear ramp of C-130 type aircraft today. U.S. Army Soldier Randy Policar recently jumped the Montague PARATROOPER folding ATB inside an i here in college essay, Airpac airdrop system from the 36 wide SIDE jump door of a C-130 proving its feasible using EXISTING Army airdrop equipment. Jumping With The Paratrooper. October 23rd, 2006 by all about Randy Policar. Montague Corporation states that their Paratrooper can be air dropped and be ready for action. As a Paratrooper myself, I was more than happy to why am, put it to the test. 5 ' 9 Tall Policar and His Airborne Unit. A few days ago, my Unit conducted an Airborne Operation. It was the perfect opportunity to jump the Paratrooper. And Book! But before the why am jump was to take place I had to rig up the Paratrooper in order for it to be dropped.
I used an Air Pack to rig up the Paratrooper. All About Coursework! It was one of the few containers that I had available to i here in college, fit the email protection sanitary trade whole bike. Here you could see the front tire being placed inside the bag. A lot of padding was used to i here in college, protect the bike. The rest of the bike had to be placed inside a HALO kit bag. This was done so that none of the bike would be exposed decreasing the pc contrast essay chance of snagging any part of the why am in college essay aircraft upon exit. The handle bars and pedals were removed in order to all about, keep a uniform shape of the Drop Bag. Montague offers folding pedals as an accessory that could be used to keep from in college having to remove the pedals.
Above is what the Paratrooper looks after being completely rigged to be air dropped. Every part of the Mountain Bike is included so that it could be used on essay, the drop zone. This was taken on the way to the C-130 Hercules just before station time. Inside the C-130 just before the jump. Being in a unique Unit, a grand total of five static line jumpers owned the entire aircraft that day. Why Am! For those of email paper research, you who jump and are usually packed inside the bird like a can of in college essay, sardines, stop drooling. Don't worry; I've had my fair share of those jumps as well. This was taken on the drop zone after a spectacular jump. My landing could use some improvement. Email Paper Protection Research Trade! But the way I figure is, any jump you could walk away from is a great jump. In College Essay! I didn't get any pictures on the way down because our public affairs person was a no show.
I plan on jumping the mac vs Paratrooper once again. Next time I'll just leave my camera on i here in college essay, the ground for someone to take pictures from the ground up. The Paratrooper made it through without any serious damages just a few minor scratches. Not bad considering the fact that it was just dropped 1,250 ft above ground level. 2. Drop the folded ATB/ATACSs separately as; a. Door bundle A-7A strap or A-21 cargo bag or future CopterBox loads into the personnel drop zone. b. It Gcse! Rear ramp CDS A-22 or CopterBox loads into i here essay, the equipment drop zone (Paratroopers must run to, identify their bundles and de-rig) In OPERATION PROVE BATTLE MOBILITY , a bicycle assault exercise at Fort Bragg, NC videotaped by a NBC correspondent, Alan Covey the 1 st TSG (A) team composed of Combat Medical Specialist LT David Tran, Grenadier/Scout SGT Paul Latham and Team Leader LT Mike Sparks moved rapidly from a simulated airdrop in paper report research sanitary, fully ghillie strip camouflaged-ATBs to assault positions through woods where there was no pre-existing trails. Visual camouflage techniques were proven as enhancements for ATB forces. Photos of Operation Prove Tactical Mobility can be viewed at this hyperlink: tacticalmobility.htm. U.S. ARMY GROUND MOBILITY EXPERIMENTS.
TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, PROCEDURES. The first myth that has to be busted is that light infantry has to take a rucksack to why am essay, the field at all if you implement all the Combat Light techniques described in detail in our Airborne Equipment Shop web site. The only thing that needs to be carried in the rucksack is bulk water, food (MREs) and ammunition. If local water is nearby, it can be collected and diploma in police service essays, purified, instead of being carried thus, saving weight. I Here Essay! These things are generic and thus every Soldier's rucksack should be uniform so they can be collected en masse , taken to the rear, refilled and air-delivered (Cargo chute or CopterBox ) back to the unit as a LOGPACK. All field-living-SERE (Survival, Evasion, Resistance, Escape) equipments need to be and can be on the Combat Light Soldier at mac vs all times for the normal temperature/weather range from 20 degrees to why am i here, 90 degrees.
Only in email paper protection report research sanitary trade, extremely cold weather is i here in college a rucksack with survival clothing/tentage required, in descriptive essay about an old, extreme hot weather (deserts) bulk water. The British SAS call this living from just the essay belt kit . When the rucksack is with the Paratrooper it is on the All/Extreme Terrain Bike NOT his back. Even when the A/ETB cannot be ridden, it can be pushed/towed (retractable outrigger wheels and a tow-bar at the front wheels) as a cart with the Soldier hands-free. WHAT IS SO GREAT ABOUT FOOT RUCK MARCHES THAT TAKE ALL DAY? Chart from U.S. Army then Major Stephen Tate's CGSC Master's Thesis Human Powered Vehicles in Support of Light Infantry Operations Accession Number: ADA211795. Title: Human Powered Vehicles in Support of Light Infantry Operations. Descriptive Note: Master's thesis Aug 1988-Jun 1989.
Corporate Author: ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS. Personal Author(s): Tate, Stephen T. Handle / proxy Url: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA211795 Check NTIS Availability. Report Date: 02 JUN 1989. Pagination or Media Count: 188.
Abstract: This study examines the suitability of using bicycles to pc contrast essay, enhance the mobility of i here essay, U.S. light infantry units. Initially the study defines mobility problems encountered by it gcse coursework U.S. light infantry units as a result of force design. Why Am In College Essay! The study presents historical examples of previous military cycling operations at the turn of the century, during both World Wars, and the Vietnam Conflict. The tactical use, mobility, speed, distance, and load carrying capacity of bicycle troops during each of these periods are discussed. The present use of three bicycle regiments in the Swiss Army is examined.
The impact of recent technological improvements in the bicycle industry is examined for possible military application. Keywords: Bicycle; Light infantry; All-terrain bicycle, Mobility; Soldier's load; Vietnam, Swiss army; Strategy; Tactics; Derailleur; World War II; Logistics; Military operations. Descriptors: *MOBILITY, *LOGISTICS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, MILITARY PERSONNEL, WARFARE, GLOBAL, INDUSTRIES, ARMY PERSONNEL, CAPACITY(QUANTITY), INFANTRY, TERRAIN, CYCLES, MILITARY APPLICATIONS, LIGHTING EQUIPMENT, ARMY, VIETNAM, SWITZERLAND. Subject Categories: MILITARY OPERATIONS, STRATEGY AND TACTICS. Distribution Statement: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. Get to point B-from-A in a bike in an hour, get off the bikes and into about an old house, attack position. Walking at a turtle's pace for why am i here, hours exposes the infantry force to all kinds of air/ground observation, artillery, mortar, small arms fires. Troops tired from to kill movie and book comparison long foot marches have lost battles and i here in college, wars since the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D. Essay About An Old! What is so great about that?
Being able to move through terrain several 1,000 meter grid squares at a time is why am in college a form of protection called SPEED. When the LBI force moves it has security front, rear and protection report trade, flank to contact any enemies before they can reach the why am i here essay main body. When contact is expected, LBI teams move by bounding overwatch, one team aimed in on likely enemy ambush points as the other moves ahead--just like armored vehicles do. When it is certain the enemy is ahead, they dismount their A/ETBs and essay, begin fire/maneuver on the enemy. This is i here essay more tactical then riding in back of a noisy, unarmed or armored truck.
With a Weapons Gun Shield (WGS) on all about it gcse, the end of their shoulder weapons, Paratroopers move forward from cover to cover behind the WGS in why am i here in college, the prone, so even if the enemy returns fire, they can survive it to complete the mission----and regain fire superiority with their own weapons. Details of how the bullet-sponge paradigm can be defeated is enclosed in the future infantry squad web page link here; squad.htm The WGS is attached at movie comparison essay the front handlebars of the A/ETB during cycling for frontal protection-windscreen in event of i here, enemy contact from the front. All About Coursework! It appears that the powers-that-be are starting to listen. Ref: Prior message on Shields used in MOUT. Thank you for your input regarding ballistic shields for Soldiers in a MOUT environment.
You are correct that some sort of shield is needed. In fact, we are currently pursuing a variety of shields for evaluation within this program. Thank you again for your message. MOUT ACTD Force. U.S.
Army Soldier Systems Command Hotline. for Food, Clothing, Shelters and Airdrop Systems. Comm: (508) 233-5341. If terrain is why am not passable by either cycling or towing, the A/ETB can be folded and carried attached to all about it gcse coursework, the rucksack for interface with motorized ground/air/sea vehicle transport. Why Am Essay! This can be Fast Rope Insertion/Extraction (FRIES), Special Patrol Insertion-Extraction System (SPIES) or rappel from a hovering helicopter, airland or with the padded airdrop bag, parachuting.
U.S. Army ARMOR Magazine: Bikes Tanks = Effective Cavalry. Singapore Army Bicycle-Snipers! Modern Polish Light Bicycle Infantry. The German Army in mac vs, WW2 had several light bicycle infantry cavalry companies in every infantry division's reconnaissance battalion. The reason was to have an unit MORE MOBILE THAN THE MAIN BODY THAT WAS WALKING.
The German infantry also had light tank assault guns embedded with them to why am i here essay, work together just like the M113 Gavins we need today. Dr. Leo Niehorster's excellent organizational web pages document these facts. Infantry Division (1st Wave) Infanteriedivision (1. Welle) (Commander on 22.06.1941) Gen.Lt. Frhr. v. Gablenz. Gen.Maj. A Mockingbird And Book! Frhr. In College Essay! v. Schleinitz.
Gen.Maj. v. Seydlitz-Kurzbach. Gen.Lt. All About! Graf v. Sponek. Airlanding equipment was in depots back in Germany. Gen.Maj. v. Tettau. Gen.Lt. Fischer v. Weikersthall. recon battalion without armored car platoon.
recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without heavy company, but with armored car platoon. German Radhfahrtruppes (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on i here essay, Arnhem. Cavalry Bicycle Company. 1 September 1939. KStN 353 dated 01.09.1939. 1 NCO as Headquarters Section Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle)
1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Messengers (Rifles)(on motorcycles) 1 Motor Vehicle Driver (Rifle) 1 car, light, cross-country (Kfz. Diploma In Police Service Essays! 1) 1 Medic NCO (Pistol)(on bicycle) 4 Stretcher Bearers(on bicycles) 1 Senior NCO as First Sergeant / Trains Leader (Pistol) 1 NCO as Armorer (Pistol)
1 NCO for Equipment (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol) 5 Motor Vehicle Drivers (Rifles) 1 Motorcyclist (Rifle)(on motorcycle with sidecar) 3 Bicycle Mechanics truck escort (Rifle)
1 Cook truck escort (Rifle) 1 motorcycle with side car. 1 car, medium, cross-country (Kfz. 18) 1 truck, light, open, cross-country for field kitchen. 3 trucks, light, open, cross-country for equipment and ammo. 9 light machine guns (as equipment reserve) 1 Enlisted in charge of baggage / clerk (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Cobbler (Rifle) 1 truck, light, open, for baggage and equipment. 1 Officer (Z) as Platoon Leader (Pistol)(on bicycle)
1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Rifle Squads , each with. 1 NCO Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Assistant Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 MG Gunner (Pistol)(on bicycle) 2 Assistant MG Gunners (Pistols)(on bicycles) 7 Riflemen (Rifles)(on bicycles) 1 light machine gun.
Light Mortar Section. 1 NCO as Mortar Section Leader (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 3 Gunners / (Pistols) 6 Assistant Gunners (Rifles) 6 Motorcycle Drivers (Rifles)(on motorcycles with sidecars) 6 motorcycles with sidecars. 3 light mortars (50mm) 4 Officers, 24 NCO, 152 Enlisted; 134 Rifles, 46 Pistols, 18 LMG, 3 Light Mortars;
7 motor vehicles, 7 motorcycles, 7 motorcycles with side cars, 138 bicycles. From Steve Olderr's superb web site, the Bicyclopedia link above, lists an amazing history of the bicycle, military bike history excerpts taken here: The forerunners of today's A/ETBs have been proven by years of successful military use in why am i here in college essay, war by to kill essay the Germans, British Commandos, Vietnamese, Swiss and can give AIRBORNE forces 10-25 mph mobility without logistical tail that is inherently stealthy. In its 1937 invasion of China, Japan employed some 50,000 bicycle troops. Why Am In College Essay! Then the Japanese Army of just 3 divisions defeated the entire British Army in Malaya and Singapore. Their secret weapon: bicycle jungle infiltration tactics created by essay a Studies Group Early in 1941 Colonel Masanobu Tsuji, (scroll down after clicking link) a veteran of the China campaign. was allocated a shoe-string budget and put in charge of a small Southern Military Studies Research Group in Taiwan to investigate problems of i here in college essay, jungle warfare. Tsuji was given a report drawn up by two senior Japanese army officers, who had visited Malaya in pc contrast, September 1940. They advised that any attack on Singapore would have to come from the why am north and reported that the British Air force in Malaya was understrength and its planes obsolete. Email Paper Protection Report Research Sanitary! Tsuji appreciated, as Percival and i here, Dobbie had pointed out, that a frontal attack on Singapore was scarcely feasible but her back door stood open, and he realized that British propaganda was deluding only her own people.
Tsuji embarked on his task with enthusiasm and verve. The challenge was enormous, for the Japanese Army had no experience of fighting jungle warfare. Soldiers accustomed to cold weather fighting had to be trained to face tropical conditions, and cavalry, which was used in China, had to be abandoned in pc contrast, favour of bicycles . The 25th Japanese Army, which was hurriedly assembled for the invasion of why am i here, Malaya, was put under the command of Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita, probably Japan's most able general . Are Dumb! The son of a humble village doctor, Yamashita was then fifty-six years old and why am i here essay, was Tojo 's contemporary and rival. Leadership And Management Essays! He had headed the Japanese military mission to Germany and Italy in 1940 and served in Korea and North China, until November 1941 when he was summoned from i here in college Manchuria to command the attack on Singapore. Yamashita was offered five divisions but decided to employ only three, knowing that this was the maximum force which could be fed and maintained as his supply lines became extended south.
The 25th Army comprised the Imperial Guards, the seasoned 18th Division and the highly experienced crack 25th Division, which was one of the best in mac vs pc contrast essay, the Japanese Army. The Japanese secret weapon was the why am essay bicycle and it gave them speed and mobility in the advance down the all about coursework Malay peninsula. The Japanese swept down the Malay peninsula, carried forward by audacious planning, good fortune and the exhilaration bred by success. Why Am Essay! The main body of the force were disciplined, hardy and mac vs pc contrast, vigorous Soldiers, who had fought together in the China campaign. Yamashita used his mastery of the air and the coastal waters to conduct a dynamic technique of infiltration, enveloping and outflanking which bewildered the defenders and compelled them to withdraw to avoid being cut off from the rear. Confined by i here in college the communications system of descriptive essay an old house, one trunk road and railway line, the British defence lacked mobility and why am i here in college, the Japanese could defeat them in detail. Without tanks and anti-tank guns or prepared lines of defences, the Commonwealth retreat was inevitable, and the Japanese drove relentlessly south. Ironically, when he was almost out of ammunition, Yamashita attacked and General Percival surrendered to his bluff. Victory brought a thrill of exhilaration to Japan and her allies. The previous year German military leaders had told Yamashita it would probably take five divisions eighteen months to conquer Singapore.
In fact, the mission had been accomplished by three divisions in just over two months. For the British, the loss of Singapore was the disposable trade blackest moment of the Second World War and, in the words of Winston Churchill, 'the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history'. VIDEOS: The Fall of Malaya and Singapore. Jap bicyclists take Malaya/Singapore. PART 1: Percival had plan to block landing up north but didn't do it, Japs sink air coverless Repulse and i here in college, Prince of Wales , use bicycle-infantry to infiltrate through British lines, Light tanks prevail because stupid British ASS U ME NO tanks can operate in koalas are dumb, the jungle; don't fathom LIGHT tanks that are closed-terrain mobile. PART 2: non-linear Japs outflank linear Brits repeatedly, IV and pole carry of casualty, planes in crates not helping; if they were folded in BATTLEBOXes they'd be ready to fly, interesting small boat with a cannon on it, Japs encircle Singapore with light tanks and in college, artillery, launch observation balloon to direct fires; British have no planes to knock it down! Cuts off water supply, can't win a fight if forced to dislodge the British so he tries leaflets to get a surrender, Yamashita bluffs Percival to movie and book essay, surrender.
PART 3: 130, 000 POWs horror made into slave laborers. The Brits Get Bikes: Defeat the Japs Jerry. Later in the same year, British Airborne Cycle Commandos struck at in college essay Bruneval Radar station using folding mountain bikes. Flying in Stirling bombers which also dropped bombs to to kill movie and book essay, confuse the Germans, the Cycle-Commandos were paradropped 8 miles away from their objective for secrecy. Using their bikes for ground mobility, the Paratroopers closed on their target silently and captured the necessary radar components and prisoners to bring vital intelligence back to why am i here in college, England by sea landing craft.
Type G Apparatus - Folding Bicycle. In WW2 bicycles were a cheap and lightweight method of giving mobility to infantry. This was particularly true for Airborne troops, who were obviously much more limited in the size and number of vehicles that could accompany them. The British Airborne forces had a unique bicycle designed to be folded in half and parachuted down. Are Dumb! While somewhat bulky by i here in college today's standards, the bike is remarkably light. The bike could either be dropped separately or strapped to pc contrast, the parachutist. A member of the [6 th Airborne re-enactors] unit has acquired and why am essay, restored one of these interesting pieces. BSA Folding Airborne Bike rigged to be dropped separately.
Following are several more photos of this particular bike along with several wartime photos. All of the following text is taken from the war-time military manual for koalas essay, the Type G Apparatus, the folding bicycle. Stores Ref. Number: The Stores Ref. Number of the why am parachute is 15C/84 Weight of folding bicycle: The weight of the folding bicycle and disposable email paper protection report sanitary, parachute is 32 1/2 lb. It is necessary to throw the bicycle vertically downwards through the door of the why am i here in college aircraft to prevent the parachute fouling the tail. Tests were made by A.F.E.E. from a C-47 with satisfactory results. Airborne Bicycle General.
The frame of the bicycle is elliptical and movie and book comparison essay, is hinged at two points. The slackening of two wing-nuts enables the frame to be folded so that the two wheels lie side by essay side. Service And Management! The wheels are lashed to the frame to prevent their turning and a type Q parachute with 12 ft. Canopy, as described in A.P. 1180A, Vol. I Here In College Essay! I, Part 2, Sect. 2 Chap. 4, is attached to their circumference. Any partial bending of the handlebars on landing can usually be corrected by to kill a mockingbird movie hand.
Parachuting with the Airborne bicycle from either Dakota or Stirling Aircraft is simple and requires little equipment. The bicycle is suspended from the parachutist´s body by a quick-release strap when jumping and is always released and i here in college, lowered to the full extent of a 20 ft suspension line during descent. Preparation of Bicycle. Fold the bicycle and push the email paper protection research pedals through into the stowed position. I Here! Lower the koalas are dumb handlebars and raise the in college essay saddle so that the latter will receive most of the landing shock. Strap both wheels together, securing them to descriptive about an old house, the rear chain stays to prevent them from rotating (An Army-issue valise strap is most suitable for this.). Tie one end of the 20 ft. suspension line to both the wheels in such a position that when the cycle is suspended by the line the saddle is lowermost. This is important to i here in college essay, prevent damage to the handlebars.
Method of Attaching Bicycle to Parachutist. Commencing from the free end, plait the suspension line to ensure that it will pay out quickly and easily without forming loose coils likely to foul the mac vs pc contrast cycle. In College Essay! Take the free end and tie it to the lower left leg strap of the to kill and book parachute harness. Finally, suspend the bicycle from a quick-release strap passing round the back of the parachutist´s neck. Method of Jumping with Airborne Bicycle. When making an exit from [C-47] Dakota aircraft, hold the bicycle slightly forward and to the right-hand side, as shown in fig. 2. Take care to avoid fouling the forward edge of the door and catching the brake cable of the bicycle on the door jettison handle.
Step well out to avoid being brushed along the i here in college side of the aircraft. As soon as the canopy has developed, release the bicycle by a mockingbird movie and book essay pulling the loose end of the quick-release strap. When jumping from Stirling aircraft, hold the bicycle slightly forward and to why am, the right-hand side, as shown in fig. 3. It is important to stand slightly to the starboard side of the aircraft centre-line to prevent the cycle from fouling the exit. Protection Report Sanitary! As soon as the canopy has developed, release the bicycle by pulling the loose end of the i here quick-release strap.
No anti-sear sleeve is required. BICYCLES AT WAR PHOTO GALLERY. Vietnamese Bicycle Use. Bike decisive Logistical means at the Battle of and book, Dien Bien Phu. Some of the best references are Bicycles at War by Martin Caidin and Jay Barbree, 1974 (see bottom of this web page) and i here essay, the 1989 U.S. Army Command General Staff College Master's Thesis of it gcse coursework, then Major Stephen Tate: Human Powered Vehicles in support of Light Infantry Operations, Defense Technical Information Center, AD A211 795, and Infantry magazine, September-October 1994, Bicycle Infantry: The Swiss Experience by CPT Kevin Stringer who was a liaison officer with the why am i here Swiss Bike troops, January-February 1995, Airdrop of All-Terrain Bicycles by essay about house Michael Sparks, Pages 4-5. LTC Edwin L. Kennedy Jr., of the Combat Studies Institute at USACGSC wrote in i here in college essay, the same issue of Infantry magazine a quote from German General Herman Balck:
From the early '30s, I advocated equipping infantry with bicycles in preference to motorcycles for the reasons that bicycles would be very quiet, would be able to go off roads onto trails, and would be almost as fast as motorcycles. However I didn't have the time or the position to fight for this position. I had some actual experience with bicycle infantry because right after the First World War, I commanded a bicycle infantry battalion in Germany. the pc contrast mobility of the bicycle troops was quite good. It was absolutely no problem to i here in college, make a hundred kilometers in a day. The U.S. Army has also tested bicycles--both in the late 1800s and in this century. In a 1988 REFORGER Exercise, we used bicycles in a company that was designated one of our division's Air Assault elements proposed by Captain Kevin Stringer CURRENT SWISS ARMY 7-SPEED MOUNTAIN BIKE EQUIPPED LIGHT TROOPS.
This MO-05 ( militaer ordinanz 1905) example is from 1979 . Coursework! There were numerous chainwheel designs and two head badge decals over the 83-year production run at Condor of Switzerland. 1993 saw the introduction of the why am essay MO-93, a seven-speed fahrrad (six more than the MO-05) in mountain bike style. Swiss Bicycle Trailer/Sled for koalas are dumb essay, M1905 or M1993 Bicycle (?) The anhanger , or trailer is used to transport a stretcher with four clamp points for the two poles. The trailer weighs 62 pounds of why am in college, steel, wood and coursework, rubber . The carrying capacity seams to be unlimited, or at least the rider will know their limits long before the trailer's limits are known. On the way home this day, I passed a VW waiting first at the red light. Why Am Essay! Just as I passed with the bicycle, the a mockingbird comparison passenger door flung outwards just as the trailer's wheel was passing.
The first sign of why am essay, trouble was the loud crunch. That poor VW now has a horrible dent to the door corner and I have yet to find even scratched paint on the anhanger . I felt bad for the auto owner, but am glad the trailer was there rather than myself a split second earlier. The VW passenger sure was civil and apologized for the scare. We shook hands and departed. This is an original Swiss bike trailer for the MO-05. The trailer is basically meant to carry a person on a stretcher . Those stretcher with four terminals can be securely fastened. The folding cart is are dumb not so much space. The wheels can be removed with a quick and simple operation.
The wooden baseboard can be quickly removed and you can of course do everything themselves. He is very stable behind the bicycle. WITH ALL-TERRAIN CART/SLED. He seems quite sturdy and essay, that is true. You notice there are not many of them as you bike and you can so that on vacation. The cart and the bicycle are a wonderful combination. BIKE + CART/SLED INTERFACE. Here is the to kill a mockingbird and book essay trailer attached to the hook that comes. WITH STRETCHER TO MEDEVAC A CASUALTY. Kar stretcher and with the towing
CART/SLED ON ITS OWN (TOWED BY HAND) an option. A wheel as you get there from. The retracted bracket. In the folded position he does not take much space. Solid and very solidly made. If you get the why am wheels off, you get a kind of trolley because there's a couple places thick metal reinforcements have been ordered. Bicycle Infantry: the Swiss Experience by Captain Kevin D. Stringer, U.S. Army Infantry magazine, September-October, 1994.
Combat effectiveness and speed: mechanized and light troops. Tanks, armoured personnel carriers, anti-tank guided weapons and armoured mortar carriers belong to the instruments of the mechanized troops. The light troops have mortars, anti-tank guided weapons, reconnaissance instruments and bicycles . Here, the combat effectiveness of modern tanks is combined with high speed. This allows the defenders to strike well-aimed blows against all about it gcse coursework, an opponent who has broken into the country, and to maintain control of the terrain. I Here In College! Fighting takes place as combined arms combat - jointly with infantry, artillery and air defence. Jane's Defense Review elaborates: A unique Swiss Army formation is the bicycle regiment; it can be deployed to counter threats to the corps' rear or used to secure lines of communication for are dumb, the deployment of armoured brigades or other formations. It is organized into two bicycle battalions and a headquarters battalion, including a Piranha TOW company with nine vehicles. Companies have received the new Bicycle 93, a mountain bike design which allows Soldiers quick access on i here in college essay, road or cross-country. Each battalion has an 81mm mortar company equipped with the Dragon medium-range anti-tank guide missile. The Legendary British BSA Folding Bicycle.
Headquarters 5 Airborne Brigade. Aldershot, Hants GU11 2AU. Thank you for pc contrast, your letter of the 2 Nov 93 outlining the why am i here essay low cost solution to our lack of mobility. We appreciate your comments and koalas, have in fact trialled ATBs within the Brigade. In College! We have a limited number which are used on mac vs essay, the airhead to enhance communications. The articles you enclosed make interesting reading and will be evaluated in due course. Once again many thanks for why am essay, your interest. British Gurkhas Bicycle Security Fence Patrols in a mockingbird comparison essay, Hong Kong. We have just received evidence that the Swedish Army once used bicycle-infantry.
One of the i here in college essay armored infantry battalions became bicykle mounted. This meant that the mobility of the battalion was totally warped. Three different speeds of advance. To command this battalion effectively was not possible. In practice one half of the battalion fought together, the tank company and the KP-car mounted armored infantry company, while the tractor towed bicykle company fought with other units of the battalion.
Condor Club of koalas, Holland found the following on Wikipedia: The Swedish military bicycle (Swedish: militrcykel ), or Swedish army bicycle, has been used in the Swedish military for over a century. In typical military humour, these were nicknamed LTGAC (Swedish: Ltt terrnggende attackcykel or Light All-Terrain Attack Bike) by the conscript soldiers using them. The first bicycles in why am i here in college essay, the Swedish military were privately owned or bought for testing purposes. Bicycle infantry were first introduced in 1901, when a Gotlandic infantry regiment, I 27 in Visby, replaced its cavalry complement with bicycle-mounted troops. By 1942, there were six bicycle infantry regiments in the Swedish army, operating mainly m/30s and m/42s. However, there were also examples of undesignated tandem bicycles for use by diploma service field radio operators and specially fitted pairs of bicycles designed for mounting a stretcher between lead's rack and the rear's steer tube. Following World War II, in 1947, the decision was made to i here essay, decommission the bicycle infantry regiments.
They were gradually removed from the Army between 1948 and 1952. Following this decision, the mac vs pc contrast essay role of the bicycle shifted away from a combat one to a more utilitarian one, with special bicycle transport groups being formed. However, bicycle rifle battalions (Swedish: cykelskyttebataljon ) continued to exist into the late 1980s. m/1901: A safety bicycle, it was the why am essay first officially designated bicycle in the Swedish army. m/30: A spoon brake equipped, balloon-tired roadster. It was based around an to kill a mockingbird and book comparison essay, agreement with several large Swedish manufacturers regarding the interchangeability of why am essay, parts.
Weight: ca. 23.5 kg (52 lb.) m/finsk: A Nymans-manufactured bicycle without chainguard. About An Old! The label finsk is the Swedish word for Finnish. m/42: The most well-known Swedish military bicycle. It was produced by several large Swedish bicycle manufacturers (Rex, Husqvarna, Monark, Nymans) from the 1940s to the 1950s with a maximum of essay, interchangeable parts. It uses a rear, one-speed Novo coaster brake hub and, on Husqvarna-produced examples, a front drum brake (chain-operated by an integrated right-hand lever). In addition, it has a large, sturdy rack with a tool box and koalas, storage tube for a short frame pump.
Weight: up to 26 kg (57 lb.) m/104, m/104A: 26 11/2 inch (584 mm) wheels with Sachs Torpedo rear hub. m/105, m/105A: Post-1971. 28 inch wheel with Sachs Torpedo rear hub. Paratroopers wearing thellie infared resistant, Multi-Cam type camouflage clothing are invisible to visual, audio and FLIR detection. Couple this invisibility with A/ETB mobility and i here, you have a battle-winning combination that can be taken along with Paratroopers during their jump into the drop zone. Thanks to the efforts of the 1 st TSG (A) which contacted the U.S. Army's Ground Mobility Program they are exploring off body load bearing devices like A/ETBs and ATACs as reported in their Soldier Systems Command April 1996 Warrior magazine. To Kill Comparison! The SSCOM GMP has also held industry days to gain more input and ideas on these devices. BIKES AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS.
Anyone who has seen the in college film, Blackhawk Down! will note that in 1993, shortly after the 1 st TSG (A) test jumps that U.S. Army Special Forces Operational Detachment Delta (Delta Force) used a mountain bike to koalas are dumb, infiltrate and exfiltrate an operator into and out of downtown Mogadishu, Somalia to gain intel on the whereabouts of warlord Muhammad Farrar Aideed. The film shows the Delta operator with All-Terrain Bike in civilian clothes being picked up at a beach landing site by a MH-60K helicopter. Retired Command Sergeant Major Eric Haney in his superb book, Inside Delta Force on page 210 notes: For our part, we shot targets, blew things up, and executed building assaults.
We also made free-fall parachute jumps with motorcycles and, upon landing, roared past the in college essay VIP stands firing our submachine guns. Therefore, if Delta Force can put out a mockingbird movie and book heavy motorcycles under a parachute canopy and follow them in under their own parachutes, land together and ride motorcycles, certainly smaller A/ETBs can be airdropped and utilized in a similar manner where more stealth is why am i here in college essay required. Its also common knowledge the multi-billion-dollar Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft is too small to carry even a HMMWV inside and this is a major handicap, forcing SF units to fight at a foot-slog. A/ETBs can be cycled and rolled right off the rear ramp of helicopters/tilt-rotor aircraft so SF units can perform special operations with 10-25 mph mobility----not getting surrounded and decisively engaged as famed SAS patrol Bravo Two-Zero was in Iraq. In Vietnam, U.S. Army Light infantry Divisions like the 25 th Tropic Lightnings had M113 Gavin Armored Fighting Vehicles and light/medium tanks. Today, out of about, spite and jealousy, senior Army officers have blocked repeatedly our light units from getting tracked light tanks like the M8 Armored Gun System to replace the retired M551 Sheridan or even modernized M113A3s out of fear that these units will get all the action and i here in college essay, have nothing left for the heavy units to do to put on career resumes. Protection Sanitary! Thus, we are stuck with trying to why am, airland heavy 70-ton Abrams tanks and 33-ton Bradley Fighting Vehicles 4 hours after Paratroopers have jumped/died to seize a concrete runway for diploma service and management essays, them to airland. This heavy force structure is too slow to deploy by air to i here essay, take down a Kosovo so we ended up bombing 2 million people into refugee status before the enemy gave up after we decided to mass for disposable email report research, a ground invasion. The current misguided Army transformation initiative seeks to why am i here in college, instead of using sound light tracked AFVs like M113A3/4 Gavins -M8 AGS Bufords wants to use road-bound LAV-III type heavy armored cars that will be easily ambushed as this Russian 8x8 BTR armored car was recently blown up in a mockingbird movie essay, Chechnya.
To add insult to why am i here in college, injury, only 2 x LAV-IIIs can be flown per C-17--the same number as M2 BFVs that can fly in about an old house, a single C-17 sortie, and neither can fly by C-130 because the LAV-III is too wide, and at 16.5 tons EMPTY exceeds the USAF's 16-ton forward landing strip limit! The LAV-III is too tall (105 inches) to parachute airdrop from the rear ramp of a C-130 even if it were lighter and narrower. What we need are mobile Airborne/Light Divisions coupled with light Armored Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) like the 10.5-ton air-droppable, swimming M113A3 Gavin with RPG, auto-cannon resistant applique' armor instead of road-bound, ambush vulnerable, 22,000 pound, 5-ton trucks or trucks pretending to be tanks (LAV-III/ Strikers ) now in why am i here in college, use, so we can take down a Kosovo quickly, senior officer jealousies be damned. With light AFVs like the M113A3, the U.S. Airborne can apply bunker/building busting shock action from the drop zone using in-stock M40A2 106mm Recoilless Rifles, Mk-19 40mm grenade cannon from the TC's hatch, and Javelin fire forget ATGMs fired out the rear troop hatch to mac vs essay, overwhelm the enemy while we have the why am i here in college initiative. Descriptive Essay An Old House! The Airborne Assault Echelon with light tracked AFVs can overcome enemy fires to secure the drop zone to enable it to be an assault landing zone for follow-on forces to airland.
ATB-equipped LBI forces would drop away from enemy defenses and fan out to set-up blocking positions and establish the recon security zone to act as a covering force to essay, keep the enemy at bay and out of mortar/artillery range as the airhead builds up. The flight of the 82 nd Airborne Division non-stop across the world by C-17A Globemaster IIIs to central Russia where they parachuted into simulated battle conditions proves the power of the U.S. It Gcse Coursework! Airborne. See photo below. what we need to do now is fully exploit it by giving it the secondary mobility means once they are on the ground. Beginning with LBI and Dragoons in ATVs, and M113A3 AFVs is in college essay a very low-cost way to create these capabilities NOW, before there is another Kosovo-type crisis. 100% of the air is mac vs covered by why am i here in college AIR and vulnerable to AIRBORNE attack. while a tiny fraction borders on and book comparison, watery edges. If that is a Desert Shield type deployment, A/ETBs can enable Light/Airborne units to conduct a mobile, area defense instead of a static, line-in-the-sand. We have been to NTC as OPFOR and why am i here in college, we won. In one battle we were without our M113 Gavins and stuck on foot defending.
ETBs would have worked great so we could have shifted forces to where the attack really ended up instead of being spread all over. We could have been on the reverse slope and used them to rapidly move to firing positions on all about coursework, signal. And we could have had a withdraw capability instead of fighting/dying in place. If I were BlueFor I'd have my men in Bradleys /M113 Gavins close to a position out of sight of the OPFOR defending the high ground. Then, at night close rapidly through a smoke screen (made by M58s--M113s with smoke generators--or artillery barrage in actual war) by essay ETBs to the defenders position and pc contrast, take the why am i here key terrain BEFORE trying to stampede AFVs which only disposable email paper protection research trade, gets everyone killed as the pass gets clogged with dead vehicles. These are exactly the kind of terrain feature-to-terrain feature crossing mobility the Afghanistan Northern Alliance does while mounted on horses. UPDATE 2002: Afghanistan: where all-terrain mobility is a MUST.
Easily ambushed roads must be avoided. 1. Mules to transport long-range rockets/mortars for infantry raids. Special Forces Mounted Operations. FM 31-27, PACK ANIMALS IN SUPPORT OF ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES, 15 FEB 2000. 2. Why Am In College Essay! Video footage of bikes/carts. National Geographic TV special on Northern Alliance legendary rebel leader, Mossoud and most news media reports if you keep a keen eye open. 3. Horse Cavalry that attacks from terrain feature to terrain feature. Ah, that we would open our minds to off-road mobility, including forces using armored TRACKED vehicles flown in by aircraft to then maneuver to compliment the leadership and management lighter forces on why am i here essay, foot, bike, cart, mules, horses, ATVs etc. Whatever infantrymen can do on foot, it can be done better and faster on A/ETBs and descriptive, ATACs. UPDATE 2004: PROGRESS. Amphibious Light Bicycle Infantry.
The LBImen themselves can swim across lakes/rivers with a military color brown or tan version of ShuttleBike pontoon floats. When you consider that the LBIman has an ability to parachute insert and helicopter insert/extract, being able to swim adds an extra dimension for scouts fanning out from their mother M113 Gavin . RIDE YOUR BIKE ON THE WATER WITH THE INFLATABLE BICYCLE BOAT IN A BACKPACK It's easy and fun. set up in 10-15 minutes. up to i here in college, 6 miles per hour. Aluminum alloy frame clamps attach to your bicycle The entire Shuttle-Bike Kit in a backpack! Propeller and rudder Easy and koalas essay, quick float inflation with pedal power. SHUTTLE-BIKING IS THE ULTIMATE PEDAL-POWERED EXPERIENCE! Shuttle-Bike Kit Features and Technical Information: Aluminum alloy frame clamps attach as a permanent accessory to your bike. Stainless steel snap-together bike support frame. Brushed aluminum alloy propeller gear housing.
Propeller/rudder combination attaches to why am i here in college essay, front wheel - steer with your handlebars. Clutch pivot retracts propeller in shallow water. Swivel roller contacts back wheel to email report trade, tranfer power through a flexible drive shaft to why am i here essay, the pump/propeller. 275 pound maximum safe load (450 lb. emergency rescue). 4 miles per hour cruising, 6 miles per hour maximum speed.
Pedal powered rapid inflation pump with pressure relief valve. Dual floats make the Shuttle-Bike(r) more stable than canoes, kayaks and other monohulls. Highly maneuverable - can turn 360 degrees in place. Compact - everything fits in a 25 lb. packpack. No tools required for quick setup on the shore. Economical - lowest priced pedal powered watercraft available. Precision machined mechanical components - fine craftsmanship. The Shuttle-Bike Kit is made in disposable email report, Italy by SBK Engineering.
SHUTTLE-BIKE USA, Inc. is the authorized distributor and exclusive importer for the Shuttle-Bike Kit in the USA. Toll Free USA Order Line: 1-877-725-2329. Information Line: 1-425-823-7763. Most major credit cards accepted. Dealer inquiries welcome. Email address: email@example.com. Mailing address: 9805 NE 116th St. #7139, Kirkland, WA 98034. Stability and Support Operations (SASO) in in college, Iraq. 2. American squad arrives at city/town/village area at unpredictable, different location each day. Infantry dismounts from M113A3 Gavin and re-mount onto all Terrain MounTain Bikes (MTB)s taken off the koalas are dumb Gavin 's sides where they were snap-linked.
Squad fans out into two fireteams, left and right of road with M113A3 Gavin and at least one if not 3 machine gunners riding shotgun with overwatching fires if enemy should ambush. 3. Cycle troops are wearing FULL Interceptor Hard Body Armor and kevlar helmets with clear ballistic face shields to protect in event of in college, grenade/small arms/bomb attack. Because they are pedaling instead of WALKING they can cover patrol area distances with less exertion and water loss. MTBs could also be human pedal or electric-powered eMTBs previously-charged by mac vs pc contrast essay power inverters from the Gavin 's batteries. I Here In College! Yet, the troops are still at ground level to stop and talk to Iraqis and collect intel on their beat.
The question is in a situation of quasi-peace how much more vulnerable are the troops riding and stopping on ATBs with weapons slung at the ready in the same way as they are on foot movement if they can cover larger areas and gain more preventative intel? If the troops can cover larger areas wouldn't this contribute more to their safety than the slight advantage having one hand on the M4/M16/M249 weapon's pistol grip instead of on essay about an old house, a handlebar. The point is that troops wearing IBA are due to weight not patrolling as aggressively on foot and why am essay, covering as large areas as the British are in the south without hard body armor to control and influence their beat. MTB or eMTBs. 4. Patrol complete, the troops rally onto their mother M113A3 Gavin and snap-link their MTBs to the vehicle's sides, remount inside the Gavin weapons facing out through the diploma service essays top troop hatch. Gavin and squad returns to in college, fortified base camp along different route than it came by. 5. Descriptive Essay An Old House! Squad returns to fortified base camp; provides info to S2 intelligence officer during debrief then cleans weapons, eats chow, rests. 6. Why Am I Here In College Essay! And a MTB or eMTB bike can go cross country-tough to predict route, negating IEDs by avoidance.
A British Army officer writes: Interesting. The UK issued bikes for boarder road patrols in Hong Kong. - Never spoke to anyone who did it, but it seemed to koalas essay, work chasing 14 year old Chinese kids! As I see it, the concept has three prime equipment components. The plan as you present it makes sense in the context you stated, but I would add the i here essay following observations. 1.. Would bike borne troops be more or less vulnerable to small arms fire and blast from IED?
2.. How would they cope, in heavy traffic, both with civilian vehicles and those on foot? 3.. An Old! To patrol in the IS environment, you are constantly stopping and talking to in college essay, people, going into shops, stopping vehicles and just holding firm, to await the start of your next phase. 4.. No Squad/Section EVER patrols alone. All IS patrols are at all about coursework least Platoon (+/-) strength, and maybe even Coy operations. Movement is in college always on multiple routes, aimed at the manoeuvre defeat of the bomber or shooter, PRIOR to his engagement. - In very simple terms, this is why the IRA gave up sniping in city centres.
It was just too dangerous for them. 5.. Imagine conducting a patrol in down town LA, with traffic and pedestrians. The safest method is to have your multiple of a mockingbird and book essay, 4-man teams, on the sidewalk amongst the crowds. - watch how the Israelis do it. Why Am! The enemy have to try and track lots of teams snaking around the area. BUT: - I might want to use bikes to quickly and silently exploit manoeuvre opportunities, or infiltrate/saturate areas at night or during silent hours sweep operations. - I'd have 3 x 4 man teams on foot, and a mockingbird movie, 2 x 4 man teams on bikes. Bikes are very quiet and fast, so you'd trade security for activity on a phase/event basis. The bike men would be dismounted most of the time, and why am i here essay, only mount and dash, to descriptive essay about an old, leap frog forward, when required. Like wise, you could foot patrol a small amount of i here in college essay, teams into an area, that once they had secured it, could be rapidly flooded by a Coy on to kill essay, bikes, to conduct sweeps or searches. - no warning sounds of Hummvees of AFV's in the night.
End of OP, M-113's come in to extract everyone, plus the bikes. Good points! We add that LBI troops should carry a very large padlock to why am, clip to a light pole to secure their bikes if they decide to apprehend someone on all about coursework, foot. BICYCLE-INFANTRY AS THE CENTERPIECE OF A FUTURE FORCE DESIGN. The basic unit of the Islandian marine corps is the infantry battalion. All infantry battalions are light infantry, designed to be foot or bicycle mobile ; they have no organic motor vehicles. Careful attention to the marine's load means no man carries more than 50 pounds. As a result, march rates are routinely 40 kilometers per day, sustained; where the terrain permits use of bicycles (mountain bikes), that rate can be as much as tripled.
An Army Captain writes: I'd rather we start placing static patrols into OPs at really good spots for reconnaissance and ambush to why am in college, catch the bad guys with their hands in the cookie jar. Use the a fire team hide position similar to what the Brits devised in it gcse coursework, N. Ireland. Equip with thermals, digital cameras, etc. Dig them in at night for maximum concealment and go silent for about a week. Track the why am i here essay comings and mac vs pc contrast, goings. Then move when they have a juicy target.
A former USAF Combat Control Team (CCT) member and why am, professional bicyclist writes: It sounds feasible. Koalas Are Dumb! Is all of that body armor required equipment for these troops? My thoughts tend to lean more towards the travel light, freeze at night SUT mode because of my CCT background. Bicycle handling is effected greatly by why am i here in college essay weight and it would seem that tight manuevering to get either into, or out of a situation (especially urban) would be paramount in are dumb, reference to individual, or squad mobility. The only way I could make a truly informed decision would be to why am essay, gear-up and get on diploma in police leadership essays, the bicycle(s) to why am in college, be used and ride. Of course, it would have to include live fire exercises. Our efforts over the years have finally paid off, jumping the Montague and Dahon type folding bikes! Montague has finally simplified its frame into a bottom tube-less design aptly titled, The Paratrooper and DaHon has a similar simple single-tube frame that folds, one even with disc brakes---called the Zero-G . The question is at what point will the U.S. military see the light, put some minor RD funds into the effort to widen the mac vs ATB tires akin to Dan Hanebrink's ETB to gain all-terrain travel capabilities for its light infantry? There are also electric motors to compliment the speed/power of ATBs for recon work. WaveCrest Labs: hybrid-electric eBikes for combat.
Mountain Bike Rifle Rack. This Pack Rack design holds large and small items securely and with no damage to why am in college, your gear. The plus is the V-shaped wedge and soft rubber fins. The Single Pack Rack Plus incorporates all of the same features as the Pack Rack Original, and mounts to anything with a tubular or square rail. Includes mounting hardware and Rubber Snubbers. Mounts beautifully to Jack's Rack. Tires that are airless and diploma service and management essays, cannot go flat : 705 Yucca Street.
Boulder City, Nevada, 89005. FAX : (702) 294-3873. Greentyre USA, Inc. Shelter Island, NY 11964. Bike Details below: Finish: Camo Green. Frame: 7005 Aluminum (Alloy Front Section) Chromoly/ Hi-Tensile Steel Rear Triangle. Fork: RST 281 Suspension. Gearing: 24 Speed Shimano Alivio. Shifters: Shimano Gripshift.
Brakes: Alloy V-Brake. Tires: 1.95 Front/Rear Specific Knobbies. Spokes/Rims: Stainless Steel/Alloy. Bar Ends: Kalloy Short Alloy Bar Ends. Saddle: Velo Mountain Bike. Seatpost: Alloy Micro Adjust. Frame Size: 18 and 20 Standover: 29+ and 31+ Folded Size: 36 x 28 x 12 Foldable to 36 x 30 x 12
Portable (folds to a small size for why am, transport) Stealth/Minimal Signature (second only to a walking Soldier) Off Body Load Bearing. Deployable on almost all terrains. Low Initial Cost. Low/No Logistic Support. Up to mac vs essay, 75 miles daily range. Folds without the use of tools. Folds in why am in college, less than 30 seconds.
Increased Loads (lesser reliance on resupply) Patented Technology: Out patented seat tube folding system preserves the mac vs structural integrity and in college, inherent strength of traditional bicycle geometry. Unlike all other folding bikes, there are no wobbly hinges and a mockingbird and book comparison essay, no structural tubes cut in half. Quick Releases: No tools are needed to fold and unfold the Paratrooper. Just open one quick release lever on the top tube and remove the front wheel. In College! Folds in under thirty seconds without tools. Safety Lock: Recessed drop out for quick release prevents frame from folding even with quick release not tightened.
Frame Size: 18-inch 20-inch 26 24 Speed Zero G The sweetest portable MTB on the planet. Paper Protection Report Sanitary Trade! Period. We built the in college essay Zero G for serious riders who need a bike for real off-road riding. Its our steed of choice on our own weekends off. Take a look at to kill and book essay the parts list and you'll see what we mean. I Here! For blasting down Mt. Tam, touring by rail and trail across Europe, or an epic journey in koalas are dumb essay, Vietnam, this is the essay bike you'll want. Paper Report Sanitary! So what are you waiting for?
SuperLite 7005 aluminum frame. ProMax Pro front disc brake. Highly portable folding design. Frame: Custom-drawn 7005 aluminum. Fork: Zokes ProAir, 90mm long travel, air damped. Gearing: 24 spd. SRAM ESP 9.0 rear derailleur/Shimano LX front derailleur. Shifters: SRAM ESP 5.0 HalfPipe.
Headset: WTB Momentum. Stem: Kore Lite 3D. Handlebars: Kore Lite. Front Brake: ProMax mechanical disc brake. Brakes: ProMax Pro V-brake. Brake levers: ProMax Pro V-brake levers, w/ CNC machined pivots and levers. Crank: FSA PowerPro. Pedals: VP, aluminum cage. Saddle: WTB SST-X2 with Comfort Zone base. Seat Post: Ritchey Comp.
Tires: 26 x 1.95 WTB Racing Raptor semi slicks. Rims: Ritchey Rock, black anodized with CNC side walls. Hubs: Front - disc, Rear - Joytech sealed. Spokes: Stainless steel. Pedals: VP Aluminum. Folded Size: 34 x 69 x 91 cm. Weight: 13 kg. In College! ( 28.6 lbs.) Folding Time: 20 seconds. Color: High polish/Black. Folding bike motors. The Airport Shoppe.
2635 Cunningham Avenue, San Jose, CA 95148. 1-800-634-4744 PST; International: 408-923-2625 Fax: 408-929-3726 Se Habla Espaol - pregunte por Marilu Motorized Light Cycle Infantry. As you know we're all over this aspect: 1. Minimalist: the human-powered bike/motor-powered cycle is SMALL enough so that that EVERY Paratrooper can have/use them after aircraft insertion to get UNIT mobility--4x4 ATVs are too big by way of disposable email research, comparison. 2. All-Terrain: the bike/cycles have large airless or tweel fat-tires so they can go cross-country to avoid landmines/roads while surprising the enemy; this compensates somewhat for in college, a lack of armor protection by hugging the terrain. 3. Motorized: the bikes/cycles are simple and easy-to-maintain using JP-8 fuel in powered mode to be safe and in-synch with the rest of the U.S. military or use battery recharging from house a mother M113 Gavin TAFV. The Cushman motor scooter in essay, U.S.
Army WW2 service was too big and heavy to achieve goal #1 so entire main bodies could move faster than a foot slog. How all-terrain mobile (2) it was is another question mark though its tires look wide which is excellent. Koalas Are Dumb Essay! Gasoline-powered it was unsafe and represents the best technologies at why am i here in college the time (3). Result was the concept of all minimalist motorized American Paratrooper infantry has yet to be exploited though we have proposed it repeatedly on all about it gcse, the www and in why am i here in college essay, our book, Air-Mech-Strike: Asymmetric Maneuver Warfare for the 21st Century. The place for such a minimalist, motorized, all-terrain Light Bike/Cycle Infantry (LBI) force is for nation-state or sub-national group war missions where they must surprise the enemy and fan out quickly to surround him or take up positions to block him using 3D aircraft and/or closed terrain mobility. Once gone to ground, this LBI force would fight at an advantage over foot-slogging troops in terms of descriptive about house, firepower and staying power but protection would be inferior to just making the investment in delivering minimalist light tracked armored fighting vehicles (TAFVs) which can advance in the face of enemy fire that the i here LBI unit would have to diploma in police leadership, go to ground against.
I always propose BOTH LBI + TAFV Light Mechanized forces for 3D maneuver. LBI is essential an aircraft-stuffer to get say 40 x LBImen in a C-130 versus 9 x Light TAFVmechmen (M113 Gavin ) in a C-130. What we see with the French 75mm RR motorscooter from Indo-China and Algeria is the why am i here foot-slogging Paratroopers having some HE BUILDING/BUNKER BLASTING WEAPONS SUPPORT MOTORIZED where the internal combustion engine is used to move the heavy RR tube and mac vs, ammo to accompany the men as they march at 1-4 mph and use its 4-25 mph speeds in why am, bursts to GET INTO FIRING POSITIONS in support of the main body still trudging along at about house a snail's pace. As we propose in LBI, the in college ENTIRE FORCE can move up to essay an old, 25-60 mph depending if we use electric or internal combustion power. Tuesday, 26 December 2006. I've got your firepower, right here. Surely, this is the scooter with the highest firepower, ever. Unless someone ever mounted a Davey Crockett on a scooter. And, it was AIRBORNE! Five parachutes would carry the why am i here in college essay two-man gun crew, weapon, ammunition, and two scooters safely to earth, and the men would load the weapon on one scooter and the ammo on the other, then ride away.
More impressively, the recoilless rifle could be fired effectively on the move by the best of the gun crews. Total cost? About $500 for pc contrast, the scooter and the recoilless rifle was war surplus. Were they successful military machines? Well, the French Army deployed about 800 armed scooters in wars conducted in both Algeria and Indochina. Found at i here in college essay Dark Roasted Blend (see history and more photos there), via Hell in a Handbasket, via Defense Tech . Two things ACE would want added: Elevation and traverse adjustment and about an old house, a .50 cal. spotter tracer mounted coaxially, like the jeep-mounted 106 recoilless had. ACE had an why am i here in college essay, Army Surplus Airborne Cushman. as a kid. Bought it for $25 out of a front yard. It had a 4 hp engine, weighed 255 lbs, and was built like a tank (to probably survive even if the chute failed to open). Didn't arm it.
Just delivered newspapers from a metal basket mounted on the back. It had a cracked carburetor. It sometimes took longer to get it running than to deliver the papers, but it was my pride and joy. A Paratrooper from the 506 th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 101 st Airborne Division, somewhere in in police and management, France , 1944. Another photo (with parachute) of the Model 53 U.S. Airborne Cushman from HobbyTech.com . Better still.
The Army bought 4,734 of these beginning in 1944. See Cushman timeline. Illustrated Cushman history shows Airborne ad. Friday, December 15, 2006. Mystery Photo: One Seriously Empowered Motorcycle.
The Little (Vintage) Scooter That Could. Why Am Essay! Maybe. Any ideas what it is exactly? Can it fire?? UPDATE: (see the essay comment below) It's the work of the French Military! El Queso Grande provided the link (thanks!) So, what's the in college essay most unusual military vehicle you can think of? Maybe the are dumb essay Japanese airplane-launching submarine of why am in college, WW2? Or perhaps the Soviet attempts to build a flying tank?
Or perhaps the email paper protection 1000-ton rolling fortress the Germans tried to why am i here in college essay, build in a mockingbird comparison essay, WW2? All quite odd, I agree, but barely made it past the drawing boards. For us, the oddest is a scooter armed with a 75mm cannon. After World War II, there was little money for defense spending while the nations of Europe rebuilt their industry and society. When there was some cash to spend, one had to be creative to why am in college essay, stretch it as far as possible. The French probably accomplished the most astounding example of that with the ACMA Troupes Aerl Portes Mle. 56 . Deployed with their airborne forces, this was essentially a militarized Vespa scooter outfitted with a 75mm recoilless rifle. Five parachutes would carry the two-man gun crew, weapon, ammunition, and two scooters safely to earth, and coursework, the men would load the weapon on one scooter and the ammo on the other, then ride away. More impressively, the recoilless rifle could be fired effectively on the move by why am i here the best of the leadership and management essays gun crews. Total cost?
About $500 for in college essay, the scooter and about an old house, the recoilless rifle was war surplus. Were they successful military machines? Well, the why am i here essay French Army deployed about 800 armed scooters in wars conducted in both Algeria and Indochina. OK, so now I found more pictures: Apparently, recoil was not a problem whatsoever, and this little scooter could (and did) wreak serious havoc. Talk About a Crotch Rocket! I was browsing through the are dumb essay comments over at Bob's place when I came across a link to this blog post. It is all about some serious firepower welded on to a little scooter. Follow that last link for more pictures. Let me tell you, this weapon is a hoot. Seems the French were short of cash after WWII, just like every country in Europe.
They wanted to provide some badly needed artillery support for their airborne troops, so someone came up with the why am idea of welding a surplus 75mm recoilless cannon to a scooter. Lightweight, air-portable, mobile, and really cheap. A recoilless cannon is one of the few weapons that would work in this arrangement without tearing the scooter apart. Originally a cutting edge concept intended to to kill comparison essay, provide anti-tank and artillery capabilities to light vehicles and why am i here essay, infantry forces, recoilless cannons (AKA recoilless rifles) were eventually replaced by RPG's and wire-guided anti-tank missiles. The most famous recoilless rifle in U.S. military history has got to be the Davy Crockett.
This was a nuclear device designed during the it gcse Cold War to be used against advancing Russian armies in an effort to buy time for the mobilization of NATO troops. The way they work is why am i here in college simple enough. They use what looks like traditional cannon shells, but the casing is pierced by a large number of holes. The holes are sealed against moisture by having small disks of plastic or waxed cardboard glued over koalas are dumb, them. When the shell is fired, the holes allow most of the why am i here propellant gases to all about coursework, escape to the rear in order to i here in college, counteract the all about it gcse recoil. The biggest problem with this system is why am essay that it usually produces some rather low muzzle velocities. In Police Leadership! The trajectory of the shell resembles a rainbow, which means it can be tricky to place the round on target. Most of the large caliber recoilless rifles I have seen were equipped with what appeared to me to be some elaborate sighting devices. This begs the question: How did the in college French crews on pc contrast essay, their scooters elevate the muzzle of their gun? If I was one of the why am scooter-riding gunmen, I would bring along some wooden chocks of different sizes for the front wheel. The larger the block, the higher the muzzle and the longer the round would travel.
I would even mark the blocks with ranges in yards so I could find the right one quickly. I don't know how the French did it, though. I mentioned earlier that most recoilless cannon weapons have been replaced by RPG's and TOW's. It seems that at least one major arms manufacturer thinks that it still has a use, but this version is upgraded into an autoloading remote weapon turret. The pioneering concept of the diploma service leadership essays RMK 30 recoilless cannon is opening up completely new horizons in i here in college, terms of essay about an old, protecting military convoys in crisis areas.
The RMK weapon system can be integrated into virtually any conceivable carrier, such as trailers, containers and vehicles, and thanks to its low weight, compactness and simple design, can even be retrofitted into existing vehicles. Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH. Branch Mauser Oberndorf. 78727 Oberndorf am Neckar, Germany. Phone: +49 7423 70-0. Fax: +49 7423 70-670. That is why am i here in college essay what I love about to kill and book comparison living in the 21st Century. High tech often gives new life to stuff that has been junked.
Posted on December 17, 2006 8:03 PM | Permalink. TrackBack URL for this entry: You know, I can kinda see it being useful in the two French wars that it apparently saw action: Indochina and Algeria. I mean, in Vietnam, back when the French owned the whole place in the 50's, they had at least one or two roads that they protected with series of guard posts (read The Quiet American for a mention). I suppose that I'd sure as hell rather take a Vespa with a RR than a motorcycle if I was sent from my post down to the next one to quell some sort of disturbance. And, well, Algeria is pretty self-explanatory. flat desert area with roads don't really require off-road capabilities. Or, hell, watching The Battle of Algiers makes it look like they might want it to create extra doors in why am i here essay, urban fighting. The U.S. Are Dumb! had Cushman scooters for our airborne troops in WWII, and in the cold war we had MULES, and we still use JD Gators and similar, so the light transport idea isn't dead. Do you know if the French issued a 75mm anti-personnel round like the U.S.
106mm flechette round? It would be a pretty nasty weapon with those. Especially for i here, quelling riots and similar, where the lack of armor wouldn't be a huge deal. Posted by Bob | December 18, 2006 3:43 AM. Recoilless guns are still in service: . including the U.S. Army. Posted by J.M. Heinrichs | December 25, 2006 8:13 PM.
Carl Gustav is not a classical recoilless gun, it use a small rocket to propel it out of the barrel and leadership and management essays, the rocket. The rocket burn out inside the barrel to avoid burning the operator. This is done for all RPG-like weapons the advances of this is that you get a smooth acceleration in the barrel to why am, get more speed and almost no pressure in the barrel so it can be kept thin and diploma in police service leadership essays, light. Longer-range recoilless weapons like TOW, Milan or Stinger has a second larger rocket who start at some distance after firing to give more speed and control. Posted by mags | December 26, 2006 8:48 AM. British WelBike: The WW2 Paras' Motor Scooter. Military MotorBikes are in use Today around the World, but Commanders Fear there Men Getting Hurt so Use is Limited.
Fabled Guerrilla Warfare Leader T.E. Lawrence of Arabia was killed in a Motorcycle crash. pedal bikes with at in college the most electrical assists are much safer for mass troop formation use. Australian Army Scout-Motorcyclist in Afghanistan. Lawrence of koalas, Arabia on why am i here in college essay, motorcycle. An active-duty U.S. Army Cav Scout: Hello, my name is SGT XXX XXXXX, I am a cav scout in A troop XX/XXX cav at koalas are dumb essay fort XXXXX. My squadron commander and I were talking about the concept of adding mountain bikes to i here, the scout platoons in are dumb essay, my unit.
I told him I'd research the idea and happened upon i here in college, your website during my research. I am hoping you would be able to send me some information by hardcopy on protection report research sanitary, specifications and costs for both the bike types. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Please send to essay, SGT XXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXX. A CAP Search and Rescue (SAR) team leader: I would like to ask you to check out a professional paper at www.inwingcap.org/capleader/index.htm look under Year 2000 articles at the article A Ground Team Force Multiplier. About! This article was inspired in part by your LBI page. (though not completely)This concept is in college now seriously under consideration by the United States Air Force Auxiliary, Civil Air Patrol. I wrote a letter once before, asking for the parts list you mention in the LBI page for a $500 militarized bicycle that could be assembled in a local bike shop. I would like to respectfully again request the parts list/instructions.
Thank you. Folding ATB details: 1. Descriptive An Old House! Folding ATB types: DaHon types approximately $500. 2. Non-Folding Extreme Terrain bike (ETB): Hanebrink Bikes, Ca. 3. No-More Flats solid rubber inner tubes $30 each.
1438 S. Cherokee St. Denver, CO 80223. 4. Blackburn rear rack $30. 5. I Here In College Essay! Aerospoke wheels $500 each. 6. Rok-Shox front suspension forks $250 (if ATB doesn't have these) 7. A Mockingbird And Book Comparison! Electric motor. On this web page the links to in college, these parts are offered: 1 st TSG (A) Dark Claw Team Leader. A Super Soldier writes: Like your site, and your points.
Will be working on my own site soon. I feel there is a use for band tracks but wheels in diploma leadership, a recon role would be good (Fox vehicle with external .50 cal weapons station, C-130 loadable, quiet, fast, mast site on the back. Big? Maybe, but equipped for long-range, long-time surveillance. 5 Troops, 2 mountain bikes gives option of 2 short OPs. Just a thought, it will be on my sight.
Oh, a chem PL said you can't load a Fox on a C-130 due to the EPLRS mount on the back - I say move it! Good remarks on wheeled recon. We concur that wheels can work in why am i here in college essay, recon roles though we prefer band-tracks. Mac Vs! We insist that intended-for-COMBAT vehicles must be tracked. I like your energy to why am i here in college essay, get the a mockingbird movie comparison job done--the Army already has Fox armored cars for NBC recon--why buy LAV-IIIs?---use them them for peacekeeping brigades (should be MPs). Keep up the fire! An Army NCO writes: This site rocks!
I have been riding an i here in college, electric-assist bike to and from work, up and disposable paper sanitary, down flightlines, and to the store for over 5 years. I have been trying to sell the military electric bikes for 3 years but have always had trouble with the durability of the motors available, range and why am in college essay, weight of mac vs pc contrast essay, lead-acid and NiCad batteries, and the recharging problems. Now I have been asked by a DARPA funded company to help develop and market a military scout bike that meets all these challenges head-on. As development proceeds I would like to explore the why am i here essay possibility of using your website as an educational link for the commanders that have very little idea of how to think out of the diploma in police service leadership and management box. Your website is of museum quality and will take me several weeks to digest all of the i here essay information available. Of course when we are ready I would like to showcase our capabilities within the pages of your website as well. Disposable Email Research Sanitary! So far we are able to sustain (and these numbers are subdued) speeds of 19+ mph, range in excess of 20 miles, with a trailer towing capacity of greater than 80 lbs. US Pro Drive is the best motor for essay, bicycles on the market right now and a mockingbird comparison essay, we have smoked it.
Literally! Can't say too much but suffice it to say the motor got warm trying to essay, keep up with ours. I am very familiar with SKEDCO/FERNO products and would love the military medics to use them more often. All About It Gcse Coursework! Medics on Bikes could stow quite a lot of equipment in a trailer. SKEDS would be a lot easier for me to why am i here, medevac in pc contrast, my CH-47. I've been in why am i here, JRTC exercises where we have run out of stretchers but not casualties. I'd like to suggest going to www.pacasaurus.com and see everything they have to offer the common Soldier sleeping in a GP Medium (or in the open), Quick React Force having to run all over a company area with the M60s trying to reinforce the guardpoints, and the bike mounted scouts that have to carry a MULE, water, food, ammo, NVDs, overhead cover, days worth of batteries, and the radios that eat them.
The white trailers pictured are now black in color. Pc Contrast! Camouflage may be available. The owner of the company is a retired marine EA-6B squadron commander turned airline pilot. Reply: Bring on the Hybrid-Electric Scout Bike. Teledyne Brown Engineering THELLIE FLIR camo Paratrooper suit. Technological advances have greatly reduced the essay cost of infrared sensors, resulting in widespread use of very sophisticated surveillance and targeting devices by military forces throughout the world--including America's enemies.
Teledyne Brown Engineering, long an RD leader in camouflage for visual and RF suppression, has developed products for countering these infrared devices. Of particular value is email protection report research sanitary our Thellie Suit, designed to suppress the signature of the human body in the visual through thermal infrared bands. This suit enables the wearer to why am, blend into the background when viewed through the best performing infrared imaging devices. The alternating pictures show images from visible and infrared sensors of a Soldier in standard field uniform (left) and in the Thellie Suit (right). Constructed of lightweight fabrics in configurations that allow proper ventilation of body-produced heat, the Thellie Suit enables the wearer to freely and koalas are dumb, comfortably accomplish mission demands.
The suit conforms to normal criteria placed on why am i here in college essay, qualified military equipment. Essay! The material can also be in a poncho or blanket configuration. The name thellie is a combination of thermal -- denoting the suit's IR suppression capability -- and ghillie -- the name for Irish and Scottish gamekeepers who used homemade camouflage suits to stalk game poachers. This product is i here in college available only to authorized customers in U.S. Government agencies. For additional information, contact: Jerry C. Edwards. (256) 726-1000 ask operator to koalas, connect you. BICYCLES IN WAR.
By Martin Caidin and Jay Barbree. Illustrated with 24 pages of photographs and drawings. Researching this book and its illustrations presented the unusual problem of i here in college, disturbing dust that hadn't been moved for a long time. The project of digging out the details of the a mockingbird movie and book comparison essay use of bicycles in why am i here essay, war invariably provoked glassy-eyed stares of disbelief. After the disposable report research sanitary initial reaction, a number of people did everything possible to help us in bringing this story to light.
We wish especially to thank John J. Slonaker, research historian of the Department of the Army, Military History Research Collection at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, for many hours spent in researching historical material and photographs. John Chris Reisinger, vice-president of AUTOCOMP, for his time and effort in disturbing ancient files in Washington, D.C., to why am i here, unearth photographs. Miss Denise Myhill for spending much time and effort in London, England, especially in all about it gcse, the Imperial War Museum, and for her invaluable information and illustrations. Mr. Robert S. Kohn of the Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, who was most helpful with his steady supply of historical facts on the military bicycle. And a kind word to Dame Sybil Leek, Dr. William E. Bagwell, and Edward Hymoff for their assistance.
Military cyclists have gone into battle from rubber rafts paddled silently to enemy shorelines. from airplanes that have dropped them by parachute behind enemy lines. and why am essay, from on-the-ground attack points. Bicyclists formed military units in the armies of many nations. Are Dumb Essay! They rode on bicycles, tricycles, and quadricycles, carrying everything from pistols to heavy machine guns and why am, cannon. They have transported food and weapons; carried out patrol, convoy, and escort duty; conducted secret missions of demolition and sabotage; and launched surprise attacks on email report research sanitary, enemy installations. With the aid of many human-interest anecdotes, the authors of this unique book about a little-known aspect of war trace the evolution of the why am in college essay bicycle and describe the role cyclist troops have played in conflicts ranging from the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to descriptive essay about an old house, the jungles of Vietnam. There are graphic accounts of the Belgian underground operating via bicycles against the Germans in why am i here, both world wars; the successful use of cyclist transport by Vietminh guerrillas in overwhelming the French at Dien Bien Phu; the significant part played by bicycles in the Japanese victory against the British in Malaya and Singapore; and the unstoppable resupply of to kill a mockingbird movie comparison, Vietcong and why am in college, North Vietnamese military units by it gcse bicycle coolies (despite massive U.S. aerial bombing) in the abortive Vietnam war. MARTIN CAIDIN is recognized as one of the outstanding authorities in the areas of science, aviation, astronautics, and military history and i here essay, is the author of eighty published books.
The National War College, the U.S. Air Force's Air University, and other government institutions use (Bruce I. Gerard) Caidin books as doctrine and strategy guides. He has been an active parachutist; has trained in centrifuges; has flown at a mockingbird and book supersonic speeds; has covered the launching of hundreds of satellites, lunar and planetary probes, and ICBMs; and i here essay, has broadcast the launching and mission of almost every manned space flight in the United States. Among his successful books are The Tigers Are Burning , Samurai !, Cyborg , Countdown for Tomorrow , and The Night Hamburg Died . JAY BARBREE is currently in his fifteenth year with NBC News as their Cape Kennedy correspondent. He covers national stories that break in the southeastern sector of the country, and all about it gcse coursework, has handled anchorman assignments for the past Apollo moon landing missions and the Skylab flights for the entire NBC-Radio network. He has published stories in Time and Life and i here in college essay, narrated a thirty-minute TV film for USIA about coursework Project Mercury . During 1963 and 1964 he wrote and essay, voiced fifty-two space programs for the Voice of America. I.
Acknowledgments Page vii. Chapter 1 Death Ride Page 3. Chapter 2 The First One Hundred and Five Years Page 10. Chapter 3 The Oddballs Page 32. Chapter 4 The Biscuit-and-Bean March Page 43. Chapter 5 The Bicycle Goes to War Page 60. Chapter 6 Along the Trenches Page 69. Chapter 7 Between Wars Page 86. Chapter 8 The Bike and the Blitzkrieg Page 98. Chapter 9 The Great Bicycle Commando Raid Page 111. Chapter 10 The Other Side of the World Page 124.
Chapter 11 History Relearned Page 137. Chapter 12 And Now, Tomorrow Page 147. Bibliography and References Page 151. Chapter 1: Death Ride. The first chill of October rode a gentle breeze across the scarred trenches. The wind carried to Private Henri Roget with its stink of burnt powder. The French Soldier sniffed and wrinkled his nose with distaste, for the wind also bore the smell of death. Roget slumped along the walls of his trench and looked at the men trapped with him on the muddy battlefield.
The Soldiers in the 5 th Infantry of the French Army had huddled low in their trenches since first light, pinned to sticky mud by descriptive an old house an unending rain of German artillery and mortar shells. They were in a race for essay, time. Coursework! A reinforcement column of two thousand men was on its way. Would it reach them before the why am i here in college Germans opened the it gcse coursework final assault on the trenches? The year was 1914 and in college essay, the Great War (which would become known as World War I) had been under way for several months. But terrible battles were already decimating the armies of both sides. Diploma In Police And Management Essays! On the in college northwestern front, seesaw battles had cut a bloody swath through such fighting units as the French 5 th Infantry. For nine days and nine nights the French and British struggled to turn the flank of the mac vs German forces opposing them. Private Roget and his comrades had stormed the German defenses again and i here in college, again.
The Germans, well dug in, threw them back every time. The French and British retired finally to their own lines, nursing severe losses. They needed reinforcements desperately. But the Germans had strengthened their own battle units first. They rushed in fresh troops, with heavy artillery and mortar support. Now they were preparing to smash the French and British, huddled in essay, hastily dug trenches.
Private Roget was a brave man, but he worried about the dangerous position into which his unit had fallen. Until two months before this moment, life had been pleasant. He had worked in why am essay, the warm country vineyards south of essay, Toulouse. Now he crouched in a battle trench in northern France, where autumn comes early. With shells bursting about him, Roget pressed himself against the damp earth of his trench and wondered if he would still be alive at the end of the day. The heavy barrage fell away and Roget eased himself cautiously to the rim of the trench.
For a moment the war seemed far away. To his right a hill lifted gently above the ground, the trees were diffused with a golden hue from sunbathed dust in the air. It was a strange moment of peace. Suddenly something moved within the woods. The movement at first startled him; then he relaxed. Essay! He knew that a strong body of are dumb essay, British troops, including a full company of why am in college essay, cyclist Soldiers, was concealed in essay house, the woods. They, too, were waiting for reinforcements. But there was movement away from the point where the British had dug-in.
The activity Private Roget saw was to why am in college, the rear of the British position. Roget studied the all about it gcse area. There! He noticed it again. Something was definitely stirring about under heavy cover and it was not part of the i here essay British encampment. Private Roget, motioning frantically for his commanding officer to join him, pointed toward the heavy growth of trees. The French officer brought powerful field glasses to movie and book, his eyes. He scanned the essay area, then concentrated on a small break in the growth. After a moment, he was able to make out a helmet. Several more moved into descriptive an old, the range of his glasses. There was no longer any doubt.
The helmets were worn by German troops who had somehow maneuvered to get behind the Allied lines, and were now waiting in ambush for the Allied reinforcements. The French officer turned about and swept the road running past the wooded hill with his field glasses. In the valley below he saw the in college French relief column approaching the mac vs essay battlefield-two thousand Soldiers marching behind their mounted officers into certain death. Private Roget's officer pointed to the approaching column. We must warn them! he shouted to his men. A signalman crawled from the trench. For a moment he looked nervously toward the woods, where the i here in college Germans waited in concealment. Then he leaped to his feet, his signal flags snapping through the air in, frantic motions. All he needed was enough time for the approaching column to see the flags. Only a few more seconds. From the copse where the Germans hid in a mockingbird movie comparison, the heavy growth came a stuttering roar-a machine gun firing a long burst.
The signalman's body jerked violently, spun. about. Why Am! Dead before he struck the about an old house ground, the Soldier tumbled back into the trench. Roget rushed to help him, then glanced at the officer and i here in college essay, shook his head. The French commander looked at the dismayed faces of his men. Descriptive House! He hesitated a moment before again giving the order to signal the oncoming force. A second signalman crouched, then rushed from the trench and why am i here, scooped up the flags from the muddy ground. In an instant he stood erect, the semaphore flags moving quickly. Mac Vs Essay! As quickly as the first man had died, the second signalman met his death as German machine-gun bullets slammed into his body. I Here In College! He was hurled violently to the mud, his face a bright red flower. The French officer rushed to diploma in police leadership essays, his command post.
Another way must be found to warn the i here in college essay reinforcing column of its danger. Yet to climb from the trenches was certain death. Abruptly, the assembled officers turned at a shout from Private Roget, who was gesturing toward the wooded hill. From the paper protection research trees where the British had dug in, the French saw a British Soldier race suddenly from the undergrowth. He moved with uncommon speed and the French stared in wonder as the trooper tore down the hill on a bicycle, leaning sharply from why am in college one side to the other as he rode in zigzag spurts to confuse the aim of the German gunners. Koalas Are Dumb! Almost at i here in college essay once the mac vs pc contrast Germans opened fire. The first burst went high. Tree trunks and branches exploded as a lethal spray of machine-gun bullets shredded the woods. The cyclist bent low, swerving sharply, pedaling even faster. A second long burst sent dust and mud flying all about him-but most of the bullets fell behind the speeding trooper. The Frenchmen began to cheer, but only for a moment.
Their sudden shouting froze in why am i here essay, their throats. The Germans had the range now. It Gcse Coursework! The heavy gun erupted with its deadly. cough and bullets tore into the body of the British Soldier. As if struck by a huge physical blow, he was hurled from the speeding bicycle, his body hitting the ground with terrible impact. Blood poured from in college essay a dozen wounds as the all about it gcse dying man rolled through leaves and mud. As suddenly as the first cyclist had rushed from the undergrowth, a second British Soldier pedaled madly down the hill, following the same evasive pattern of swift changes in his path.
Again the cheering rose from the trenches where the French watched, and essay, again the heavy machine gun sought the range. The second rider managed another fifty yards before the koalas essay blast of lead caught him. Man and cycle catapulted through the in college essay air in an awkward sprawl, with bicycle wheels spinning madly. The British cyclist crawled to his feet and staggered forward, blood staining his uniform. He moved three steps in the direction of the all about coursework German machine gun, then collapsed slowly. Lying down as if he were tired, he died on the spot. Private Roget and his comrades gaped and shook their heads in wonder.
Surely even these mad, brave Soldiers must abandon further attempts to warn the unsuspecting French column. To expose oneself before that machine gun was suicide. The situation had become utterly hopeless. And so they were all caught by surprise when a third British Soldier dashed from the trees, riding full speed down the why am i here in college hill-right into the teeth of the enemy machine gun. Immediately the familiar deadly roar of the machine gun erupted from its hiding place.
Again the bullets slashed the air and ripped through trees. But this time they failed to disposable protection report research sanitary, find their target. The cyclist raced on. Unlike the first two men, the i here in college essay third took full advantage of the forest line along the slope . Head bent low, he raced his. bicycle expertly between the trees, constantly changing position, offering a poor, fleeting target. The German gunner did his best to track his elusive quarry but could not keep pace with the agility and mac vs essay, swiftness of the adroit cyclist . The cheering, which had died out in the French trenches, burst anew over the fields. Machine-gun bullets tore into why am i here, trees, buzzing like hornets about the British Soldier. Other German Soldiers took up the firing-and now a second machine gun blasted into action. In the valley below, the heavy fire had alerted the column of reinfor cements.
The brigade commander, at the head of his troops, reined his horse to a halt. The column stopped, alert for any danger. They could see nothing, but the awesome sound of the chattering machine guns reached them clearly. Without warning, startling the French, the paper protection research British cyclist exploded into sight. One moment nothing was there, the i here in college next second the French saw the Soldier pedaling furiously from the shelter of the trees. They stared in astonishment as he raced toward them, crossing the open field between the forest and the road, where the French column had halted. Another machine gun coughed heavily, and again bullets sought their target. Email Paper Protection Research Trade! The gunner stitched a straight line through thick grass. This time he had the range.
Bullets slammed into the front wheel of the speeding bicycle! But the cyclist was ready for this moment. He had already crossed the why am i here in college essay field to the road, and the instant he felt the wheel spokes cut by bullets, he lunged from the bicycle into the ditch. The watching French troops fell silent. And now the Germans took up the cheering, certain the coursework British bicyclist was dead.
But they couldn't see into the ditch. Hidden from view, the British trooper was a long way from i here in college essay being dead. Staying low he crawled along the house ditch, dragging his bicycle with him. I Here Essay! A hundred yards further along, convinced the Germans would never look for him there, he bounded from the ditch, climbed upon his bicycle, and rode with all speed toward the to kill movie and book essay waiting French column. Sudden shouts came from the German position. Men cursed and i here in college essay, swung their heavy weapons about to take new aim.
The machine guns roared again. Koalas! But by this time the cyclist had made good his escape. He was beyond their range. Dirt spattered wildly along the i here in college essay road from falling bullets-all of them striking behind the all about coursework speeding Soldier. The French commander dismounted and stood before his horse as the cyclist screeched to a stop. Gasping for air, nearly exhausted, he snapped out a salute and transmitted his warning of the German ambush ahead. The French officer looked down the road toward the why am in college copse of trees, where certain death had awaited his troops. This one man, this wild-riding Soldier on his bicycle, had undoubtedly saved the lives of his men. A Mockingbird Movie Comparison! Stepping forward, the Frenchman took from his own tunic the medal he himself had won for bravery under fire. This medal was given to essay, me, man camarade, for saving one life , he said to the astonished Briton. Quickly pinning the medal to the Soldier's uniform, the French officer stepped back and saluted smartly.
I have the honor, he declared, of presenting it to you today for saving the lives of hundreds . Chapter 2: The First One Hundred and in police service and management essays, Five Years. There's something stirring and dramatic in the sight of why am in college, men flying, sailing, or driving off to war. Well, it's far better than walking. Ask any foot slogger and you won't lack an answer. Bicycles as weapons, and as support vehicles, have been on the military scene for more than a century. Mac Vs! In their long period of development they have been heralded and scorned, praised and derided. At times they've proven cumbersome and unwieldy enough to why am i here, be thrown onto the nearest trash heap. Disposable Paper Protection Trade! On other occasions they've been in such great demand that men have been killed defending their machines. And, as we saw in the first chapter, they have also proved vital in the outcome of major battles . If nothing else, the history of the military bicycle has always been interesting and, more often than not, exciting. Bicycles in the military have been used as a means of striking silently and unexpectedly to seize enemy strongpoints, where such attacks were believed impossible.
Special teams, as well as individuals, have used cycles to in college essay, carry. out successful long-range forays and koalas are dumb essay, behind-the-lines demolition and sabotage. They have proved their worth time and again in patrol, convoy, and escort duty. Why Am In College Essay! Their speed in emergencies has made them especially valuable in performing defense and delayed-action missions. Riot police have testified to the merit of bicycles in controlling crowds, moving swiftly over ground impassable to other forms of transport.
Bicycles have been unspindled, folded, and racked into compact packages for essay, paratroopers and in college, mountain forces. In modern times, the lowly bicycle, sans the glitter of weaponry, has been at all about it gcse times virtually the why am i here in college essay sole logistics force of entire armies. Without the bicycle the Vietminh would never have been able to overwhelm the French defenders at Dien Bien Phu . And without the bicycle in the hands of the descriptive an old Vietcong and the North Vietnamese, the United States would have ended the war in Vietnam years before if dragged to its unsuccessful non-conclusion. In Asia, more than in any other part of the world, the bicycle survived against i here in college essay, a massive assault by the most advanced and sophisticated weapons in koalas essay, history. It was the i here in college simple bicycle that reigned supreme in jungle logistics, and finally became, through its consistent success, one of the most-sought-after targets along the supply trails of the Vietnamese jungles. History has recorded some strange conflicts, but few David-and-Goliath stories will ever match the sight of a massive American jet fighter-bomber, costing upward of $6 million, trying to destroy a string of bicycles costing no more than $20 each.
The bicycle had been around for a century before it earned its greatest success in the wars that have plagued Indochina in the last few decades. In Police Service Leadership Essays! In the intervening hun- dred years the military bicycle has seen many ups and why am in college essay, downs in its development. It all began during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. At that time, an koalas essay, enterprising tactician approached military officials of the French government with the proposition of why am i here in college, using bicycles to conduct armed scouting expeditions in enemy territory. What a surprise it would be! First the armed scouts gliding noiselessly through the fortifications and camps of the enemy, gathering vital information about their weak points.
Then, the weaknesses well-recorded, task forces of specially trained Soldiers racing deep into the enemy's land-to strike and all about coursework, disappear as silently and as mysteriously as they had come . Like many ideas, everything looked good on why am i here in college, paper, but this one came a cropper when the tacticians faced up to the harsh problems of reality. To begin with, the bicycles of protection research sanitary trade, 1870 were, by today's standards, crude in design, clumsy in use, distressingly heavy, and notoriously unreliable in their ability to why am i here in college, survive in rough country. Soldiers burdened with rifle, pack, and supplies needed acrobatic agility, great strength, and infinite patience simply to wobble their way along the cowpaths that served for diploma, roads in those days. More often than not, Soldiers on why am, foot, overtaking the speedy cyclists , found them panting in total exhaustion in a ditch by the road. Initial experiments with the bicycle as a swift and silent weapon proved it to have all the a mockingbird essay bad characteristics of a mule with none of its advantages.
Well-no guts, no glory. The Italian army, studying the experiences of the French, responded with many a sneer at the northerners . What could one expect from the. French? After all, the intrinsic advantages of the bicycle could hardly be denied, said the Italians. Without fuel or servicing , it promised far-ranging speed and mobility. One needed only to know how to improve the clumsy machines. French bicycles were still rusting by the roadside, where they had been flung in disdain, when the Italian army put its theories into why am i here essay, practice. In 1870, taking the descriptive house best bicycles to be had on the open market, the Italians introduced the two-wheelers to their famed bersaglieri , the crack sharpshooters of the army infantry corps. For five years grinning riflemen wheeled their cycles up and down the in college essay roads of mac vs, Italy, waving to pretty girls-and pedaling off to meet those same girls under cover of darkness. But would the i here essay machines that encouraged such clandestine meetings also function under the adversities of an army in the field? In 1875 the Italian army carried out large-scale maneuvers, duplicating battle conditions as closely as possible-and to everyone's surprise, especially that of the French, the bicycle came out a winner.
Italian military cyclists were used to carry dispatches to units isolated in the field. Notwithstanding the fact that even the best machines of that period were clumsy, heavy, and a nightmare of about an old, crude gearing, the cyclists averaged a speed of twelve miles an hour across open country . They achieved this feat despite the heavy machines, and of being outfitted, as well, with a brake, lantern, knapsack, rifle in a support, ammunition, and a leather pouch for military orders (and, no doubt, cheese and wine). Reports of the bicycle's success in in college essay, the Italian field maneuvers of 1875 sparked a rush by other countries to begin their own experimental programs. As inventors and tinkerers were turned loose, the bicycle showed up in to kill movie essay, a be- wildering variety of why am, designs and shapes. To Kill Movie And Book Essay! It grew in size and complexity as rapidly as the enthusiasm of its supporters could be translated into physical hardware. Such progression is inevitable. The lure of bigger and why am in college, better is trade irresistible. Thus the line of reasoning that if the bicycle, with its constant demand for balance on why am i here in college essay, thin and to kill a mockingbird, hard tires, still had advantages over walking, what might not be done with the tricycle? So the in college three-wheeler was rushed from the email paper protection factory to the army for field tests, and bore immediate fruit in reports that over good roads it could carry heavy loads with reasonable speed. The tricycle was better than the bicycle for carrying heavy loads over distances.
What might be the next, step? You guessed it. Why Am I Here In College Essay! The quadricycle lumbered away from the assembly shop, a contraption of machinery demanding the leg power and body stamina of to kill movie and book comparison, two men. The concept itself could hardly be faulted. But practicality lagged sadly behind concept-and the i here in college essay quadricycles that emerged were mechanical monstrosities. Lumbering on thin tires, and with ungainly bodies desperately in need of spring action, they jolted and rocked wildly over the rutted and potholed roads in battle areas. All About Coursework! However, despite their staggering faults, they proved even more dangerous to the enemy than to in college, their riders-for there was nothing preposterous in koalas essay, the mounting of machine guns or other weapons on i here essay, the quadricycles' bulky frames. The improvisor is descriptive essay an old house a hardy breed, and, when the tinkerers reached their limit on essay, the four-wheels, they gravitated naturally to the next step-two quadricycles in tandem. The trailing or towed vehicle was a perfect means of transporting machine guns, small cannon, ammunition, or any kind of diploma in police leadership and management, supplies.
By 1890, the British army was well into in college essay, field tests on these eight-wheeled monsters. It didn't take long for them to in police service and management essays, become known as the hernia horrors . I Here In College! The Soldiers gasping their way cross-country, with leg muscles in knots, could have told the experts what was wrong with these mechanical uglies. Unless the koalas are dumb essay road surface was of high quality, both men and machines took a beating that all too quickly put them out of action. Why Am! There was little joking about the problem-the men were literally being shaken into injury and illness. Everyone was really waiting for an invention that would make the bicycle practical. Solid tires had never been the answer and coursework, never would be. Something better was needed for i here, rolling across the countryside.
Unknown to those with battered bladders, that new invention had already been created by mac vs essay a horse doctor in Belfast, Ireland. John Boyd Dunlap was his name, and in 1888 he produced the invention that was to make him famous. It was the pneumatic tire-the inflated tire that gave a cushion of air to essay, jolting jenny. Overnight a new wave of enthusiasm carried bicycle testing to new heights. The pneumatic tire was actually the turning point for disposable email protection report research sanitary, the military bicycle, since it gave the machine unexcelled mobility over roads that had proved impassable for the earlier machines. In 1892 the United States Army joined the parade of why am i here, bicycle improvisors, beginning a series of extensive military field tests that offered fertile territory to all about coursework, the tinkerers. Military bicycles appeared on roads, with large umbrellas that could be used as sunshades and that also could be rotated 90° to act as sails to catch' a favorable wind.
Farmers gaped at essay these apparitions-two-wheeled sailing ships flitting over narrow country roads and gliding effortlessly over distant hills. Unfortunately, that was the ideal. Mac Vs Pc Contrast Essay! All too often the in college essay um- brella-sails dragged their kicking riders into ditches and descriptive essay about, off bridges into streams. They twisted and, more than once, folded with a sudden whack across the heads of i here essay, hapless riders. Someone in headquarters decided there had been enough tomfoolery with inventions.
It was time to concentrate on using the bicycle as it had been designed for simple, reliable, and comparison essay, fast transportation. The 15 th Infantry was given the job of developing the i here essay bicycle as a useful weapon. Few military projects have enjoyed the success that the bicycle met with this organization. Diploma In Police Leadership! A detachment of eight Soldiers, under the command of 1st Lt . W. T. May, spent several weeks becoming accustomed to their two-wheelers. They practiced loading with rifles and i here, supplies until they could mount up and be on their way cross-country with only a few minutes warning-as Soldiers, not sightseers. While the army went through its testing program, history was being made by members of the American Wheelman's Association. Relays of bicycle carriers posted by the AWA covered a distance of 975 miles in the amazing time of only four days and thirteen hours, carrying a dispatch from the Headquarters Department of the Missouri in Chicago to the Headquarters Department of the East in New York. Another organization also had begun its own development program.
The National Guard of Connecticut was the first unit of its kind officially to deploy cyclists within its ranks. This same guard outfit was actually the first American military organization to use the bicycle as standard equipment assigned to its troops. But the purists will argue that peacetime training just isn't in disposable report trade, the same league as roughing it in the field. It, was Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles (who had commanded army. field units during the Indian Wars and had defeated the Chiricahua Apaches under Geronimo)who first used cyclists under realistic field conditions.
Working under special handicaps of why am essay, mountain country, Miles organized the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps in to kill movie comparison, July 1896 at Fort Missoula, Montana. Second Lieutenant James A. Moss was assigned as commander. Moss not only why am i here in college, was the first man to command a cycle corps, he was the only white man in the outfit, which was all-Negro in its ranks. They were also a brilliant team. In 1897 they performed an astonishing cross-country cycling feat that took them from all about it gcse coursework Fort Missoula to St. Louis, Missouri, in thirty-four days. There were many tests other than racing cross-country.
In 1896, Capt. I Here! R. E. Thompson of the United States Army Signal Corps proposed using the bicycle for laying and retrieving temporary telegraph and telephone wires under combat conditions. He invented a special device, to be attached to an old house, a bicycle, that could run a length of wire over in college essay, a distance of 1,800 yards, and could reel it back, within two minutes. Thompson received authorization to test his invention in to kill a mockingbird and book comparison, the field. In the interim, mountain troops of several European armies were trying to evolve a new military use for the bicycle-one that so far had eluded all military organizations.
Much of in college, Europe consists of descriptive essay house, steep and mountainous country, often plagued with sucking mud and laced with impassable terrain, as well as countrysides abounding in walls and fences. Troops on the move often had to struggle through both natural and man-made obstacles. If there was any hope for the bicycle as a means of individual transport, it must be able to go where the i here in college Soldier went hen he was walking or climbing. Descriptive House! Austrian and French in- ventors introduced machines that could be folded easily and secured to a pack , to be carried on the back of a Soldier when he had to leave the road. The first folding bicycles weighed about twenty-eight pounds. In the United States the folding bicycle received short shrift from the military. Ignoring the built-in problems of sliding and folding parts, Maj. R. Why Am I Here! P. All About! Davidson of Northwestern Military Academy at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, launched his own development program. The major was convinced that brawn and essay, skill could easily prove superior to folding apparatus that; once unfolded, might never again be properly reassembled. Davidson organized sixteen cadets into a bicycle corps.
Each cadet was given a standard bicycle, equipped with clips to hold rifles and other military gear . Descriptive Essay An Old! Davidson wasn't content simply to have his cadets race along roads. He wanted them to be able to go virtually anywhere, and his cadets soon discovered the major meant what he said. They practiced slinging the cycles onto their backs and fording streams . They climbed hills and clambered along gullies. And then they went to scaling walls-carrying full bicycles strapped to their backs! The first attempts to clamber over walls, each man encumbered by the weight and clumsy mass of his bicycle, produced a rash of skinned knees, elbows, and i here essay, bleeding fingers.
Dressed in full battle gear, with the heavy bicycles on their backs, the cadets cut loose with some remarks a bit too ripe for these pages. Davidson permitted no slack as he hammered at to kill a mockingbird comparison essay his charges. Within a few days, having caught the knack of it, each cadet managed to assault and scale a sixteen-foot wall in full gear, including his bicycle. Once they knew it could be done, they redoubled their efforts. Within a week they were functioning as a smooth.
and unstoppable team, carrying their bicycles with them over, across, or around every obstacle they met. Major; Davidson, initially the laughingstock of the army with his program, reaped his full reward when he was recognized for his leadership and was told his efforts with his cadets had led directly to why am i here, at new program of military bicycle development. Before the year was out the army had commissioned the all about it gcse Pope Manufacturing Company to i here in college, produce a bicycle on which a Colt automatic machine gun was to be mounted . The machine-gun cycle proved surprisingly effective in field maneuvers , and soon Pope was hard at work on a tandem bicycle that was a rolling fortress-bristling with a 12-shot repeating rifle, two Colt quick-action revolvers, a case of signal flags, ammunition, two rolled overcoats, and essay about an old house, two rolled blankets . Again the specter of runaway innovation reared its mechanical head. Why Am In College Essay! Delighted with the results of the Pope bicycles, the army, in 1898, used a light tubing framework to about, connect two tandem bicycles into a single machine. In College Essay! Across the connecting tubes they placed a detachable stretcher of light steel tubing, with handles made from handlebar grips. Koalas! Thus the bicycle ambulance was born.
On February 15, 1898, the battleship USS Maine went to the bottom of why am in college essay, Havana harbor, after a violent explosion that claimed the lives of 266, men aboard. Five weeks later demolition experts reported that the it gcse coursework Maine had been the victim of a mine placed deliberately against the hull, and one month later the United States declared war against Spain. Cuban ports were blockaded, Theodore Roosevelt led his famed Rough Riders in a thundering charge up San Juan hill, and within three months the i here in college war no one really. wanted had lurched to its conclusion: The United States Army occupied Cuba. The occupation brought more misery, grief, and death than was occasioned by the short-lived war. Without necessary preparations for bivouac in the tropics , especially during the mac vs wet summer season, yellow fever and in college, malaria swept through both military and civilian ranks. Koalas Essay! As the Cubans fell victim by the thousands, they reacted with mob violence. Why Am I Here Essay! Riots turned the streets into shambles.
Stricken United States Soldiers were removed from the koalas are dumb essay island, and why am, a call went out for Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles to send in troops for riot-control duty. Lt. James A. Moss and the black troops of the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps had their chance.
They sailed at once for Cuba and went immediately on riot-control duty, using their bicycles in leadership and management essays, loose formation to patrol the troubled city of Havana. The complete story of the why am in college corps' operations in Cuba is told later on coursework, in this narrative, but it is sufficient to why am i here in college essay, say now that there have been few times when the military bicycle was better proven as an instrument for preventing violence. War is one of man's more active pursuits, and within a year of the Spanish-American War a new conflict erupted across the plains of South Africa. The Boer War, which started in 1899, also provided a fertile ground for new developments of the military bicycle. Pedersen Folding Bicycle. The key was modifying the standard assembly of the it gcse coursework bicycle, and the new hero of the day was an English manufacturer, Dursley Pedersen, whose folding bicycle was a vast improvement over the bulky machines with which most Soldiers had been burdened. The compact shape of the folded bicycle and its light. weight meant that British and South African cyclists could carry their machines across their shoulders when moving across rough terrain impassable to i here, a wheeled vehicle. The success of the Pedersen bicycle in essay, the Boer War galvanized other countries to conduct renewed tests. Within a year, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Switzerland, and why am in college essay, Japan had adopted the folding bicycle as standard military equipment . Coursework! Innovation had given way to steady, reliable improvement, and why am i here, bicycle brigades became an integral element in most armed forces.
French Captain Gerard's Folding Military Bike. By the time the Great War flamed across Europe in disposable email paper protection sanitary trade, 1914, folding bicycles were as common as other transport or weapons. The British army supplied 100,000 bicycles to its infantry on the premise that trucks and other vehicles could be stopped by adverse terrain, but that bicycle troops, who could pick up their machines and press on, would always get through . It was a procedure followed by why am essay other armies, and when the great battles raged across Europe, bicycle troops were often in the spearhead of email trade, clashing forces. Why Am In College Essay! The British began the move with 100,000 machines, and are dumb, the French and i here, Belgian armies quickly added another 150,000 bicycles. Mac Vs Pc Contrast Essay! It didn't take long for in college essay, the Germans to counter the quarter million bicycle troops with similar forces of their own. Throughout the early operations in the Ardennes, French observers often called for descriptive about an old house, immediate pursuit and destruction of in college, German cyclists on reconnaissance and security missions. By the time the United States entered the war with the first troops of the American Expeditionary Force, hundreds of thousands of bicycles were in use along the front. The AEF crossed the Atlantic with 29,000 bicycles assigned to it gcse, frontline operations. Why Am Essay! Unlike the European forces, how- ever, the it gcse United States Army lacked a specifically designated bicycle corps , and its two-wheelers were used for communication, unit reconnaissance, recreation, and i here, as a means of supplementary transport. Of all the successes achieved with bicycle forces in World War I, the most outstanding was claimed by the Belgians.
In late September 1914, a Belgian commander who had a special fondness for email report sanitary, striking at German communications lines-organized a commando-like force of seven volunteer cyclist detachments. Each detachment was made up of two officers and about 100 enlisted men. I Here Essay! A small demolitions team filled out the individual force. During the an old two-week period between September 25 and October 9, 1914, the Belgian bicycle commandos launched five major raids behind German lines . I Here In College! Railroads especially came in for their attention, and the demolition squads blew apart tracks and switching points of German railways at sixteen separate key points. To Kill A Mockingbird And Book Comparison Essay! Other cyclist teams gathered valuable information on German troop movements, supplies, and fortifications, and, as an incidental aside to reconnaissance, killed several dozen German Soldiers whom they encountered. Only one bicycle commando team suffered heavy losses. The detachment was well behind German lines when it ran into an unexpectedly heavy infantry force. In the raging fight that broke out, sixty Belgians were killed-but not before they inflicted heavy casualties on the Germans, and succeeded in blowing up both ends of a key tunnel on the rail line between Brussels and Mons.
The bicycle as a military auxiliary faded from the front pages after 1914, but not from continued widespread use. In College Essay! In the summer of 1917, an entire German cyclist brigade was transferred to the eastern front to augment the force. General von Hutier was assembling for the invasion of the Baltic Islands. In this unusual and carefully planned operation, two complete German cyclist battalions participated in the initial assault against Oesel Island, and email report research sanitary, distinguished themselves in the capture of that island, where a high degree of mobility was essential. One of the most noted military leaders of World War 1 General von Lettow Vorbeck, the German commander in why am i here, East Africa-paid special tribute to essays, the effectiveness of the in college essay bicycle as a key element in his operations. Vorbeck had been equipped with only a few motorized vehicles in East Africa, and when these wore out or were destroyed the entire military staff was left without transport-except for the bicycle . The general and and management, his complete staff quickly gained mobility by pedaling their own way during operations.
They were still at it, and astonishingly mobile, when the Armistice was signed. Certain people, who were interested in military strife after World War I came to why am i here, its final, bloodied halt, had taken special note of the effectiveness of the bicycle in some forms of military operations. It didn't take too long to realize that the bicycle was ideally suited for what was to become known as guerrilla warfare . The booming echoes of disposable paper report, a world war were still being heard when Ireland renewed its bitter internal struggles, and a group known as the i here in college essay Irish Volunteers launched a guerrilla war campaign against armed police and military forces. Under the diploma service leadership and management essays banner of the why am in college essay IRA (Irish Republican Army) they were soon terrorizing the countryside with deadly ambushes. The bushwhacking tactics graduated to full-scale assaults against troop barracks and convoys. Violence invariably begets violence and all about, the government. retaliated in kind. Swiftly and bloodily, Ireland was politically sundered. When a large number of the Irish police threw off their uniforms, they were replaced swiftly with recruits from why am in college England, who became known as the Black-and-Tans because of the color of diploma service essays, their uniforms. The Black-and-Tans, embarked on a campaign of vicious reprisals for the hit-and-run strikes. Violence flared to the extent that the Black-and-Tans set fire to i here in college, a large section of Cork when it seemed that reprisals were the only way to diploma in police essays, deal with the continued uprising.
Because government forces were growing in strength and striking back with any means at their disposal, the IRA found it critical to move silently and swiftly. Why Am I Here Essay! And for the purposes of guerrilla, conflict, especially in rough country , there was no better machine than the bicycle. On a dark night without any lights to give away their position, the IRA cyclists were able to move with great speed and stealth. Movie Essay! Hidden by the cloak of in college essay, darkness they sabotaged communications lines, destroyed bridges, cut railways, and struck with telling effect against police and military centers. The government authorities never knew when shadowy forms would emerge from the cover of darkness shatter the quiet gloom with flaming explosions or bursts of gunfire, and then disappear on their bicycles without a sound.
There were other vital missions for the cyclists besides overt military strikes, of course. A Mockingbird And Book Essay! A perfectly innocent man or woman riding a bicycle could easily transport all manner of secret documents, which had been stuffed into the tubular handlebars or into the bicycle frame. All smuggling didn't take place at i here in college night, for the guerrillas were bold and brazen. There's the famous story in Ireland of the shapely lass who rode her bicycle frequently. down heavily guarded roads, nodding and smiling at delighted guards. She became so well-known that passing nods blossomed into koalas essay, open recognition, and soon the friendships were so many that the guards would often wave her through their checkpoints and barricades without any inspection or question. Finally there came the one occasion when this carefully sustained charade came unglued. The woman had stopped before she was waved on, but the guards noted she was having great difficulty in remounting her bicycle. Stumbling, she lost control of her machine, which struck the ground with a surprisingly heavy thud. One of the friendly guards hurried to her aid.
We can imagine the shock on his face when he found it impossible to lift the bicycle from where it lay on the ground. Other guards came up and surprise turned at once to i here, suspicion. They opened the tubular steel sections of the bicycle-and found them lined solidly with gold that had been melted down and poured into them. Disposable Protection Report! Swiftly friendship flew out the nearest window and they turned to seize the girl. The shapely lass, however, had already vanished from the scene. The bicycle, as used by i here essay the IRA, so bedeviled the English-and its success was so widespread-that army leaders throughout Europe renewed their interest in developing special-purpose forces that could put the bicycle to greater military advantage.
Aiding this new concentration on the bicycle was a series of are dumb essay, factors: first, there was the why am i here extensive experience and disposable email report research sanitary trade, success of bicycles as used by the IRA; second, bicycles had improved greatly in design. They were lighter, more durable than ever before, and their reliability had improved greatly; third, automatic, weapons also had im- proved to the point where they were much lighter and boasted higher firing rates; and fourth, with advances in weapons, mobility had become increasingly critical to any military operation. Thus the new demands emerged. The well-trained and well-equipped Soldier on a bicycle was a more dangerous and effective fighting man than the same Soldier on why am i here essay, foot. By the time everyone had taken a long breath between fighting, the world was on the verge of another world war. This time experience stood behind the cyclist Soldier as a keenly honed fighting unit. He appeared in mac vs essay, special brigades to why am essay, rush to it gcse, the scene of conflict with machine guns and grenade-firing rifles. He was a dangerous force in silent wars of sabotage. And when mechanized vehicles broke down or stopped for lack of fuel, men on bicycles could always get through with needed supplies. What worked in why am i here in college essay, Europe was just as meaningful elsewhere, of course.
The bicycle as a weapon appeared in force in the Far East, where troops were training as advanced fighting units to service essays, use bicycles in thick jungle areas. Where the truck or tank could not go, where only jungle trails were available, the in college man on a bicycle could move with surprising speed. And, for the first time, the essay about an old house bicycle Soldier had the ability to why am i here, leap oceans, rivers, plains, and mountains-in the form of the Paratrooper who jumped from his plane with a folded bicycle secured to his back. By the time World War II was getting into full swing the Soldier-bicyclist was an accepted and major force in essay, European and Asian armies. But not in the United States. In this country, as the world plunged deeper into war, the Soldier on his bicycle was a matter only of history. No plans existed for cyclist troops.
The mechanized vehicle. reigned supreme in military thinking. Troops would be moved by sea, they would roll on in college, trucks and trains, they would fly-and when they reached their destinations, they would walk. In 1941, with the war already several years old, a single exception was made. The 88 th Infantry Airborne Battalion was formed at paper protection research sanitary trade Fort Benning, Georgia. Five hundred men made up the battalion, and essay, it was equipped with 280 bicycles , 140 motorcycles and a small number of jeeps. The idea was to koalas, move with as little weight, and with as much speed, as possible.
The troops were trained to i here in college, parachute from diploma in police and management essays their transport aircraft with bicycles secured to their backs . As soon as they touched down, they would mount their bicycles and set off as a fast-moving, silent force, to strike pre-assigned objectives. But the why am i here in college essay battalion never got further than the red clay hills of Georgia. The outfit sat out the entire war without foreign assignment. Not so the Soldier and guerrilla forces in other parts of the email sanitary world. Sabotage and espionage teams were dropped in large numbers behind enemy lines-complete with folding bicycles . A British War Department training film paid special attention to in college, this danger, warning British civilians to be on the lookout for German Paratroopers in diploma in police service essays, disguise. One scene dramatized the danger by showing a nun walking sedately on why am in college essay, a quiet city street. Suddenly, the nun-who turns out to be a German Soldier in disguise-slips a folding bicycle from beneath her habit, assembles it, and email paper protection, rides off! But while German cyclists were a daily fear in England, in France, and in Belgium, it was the Germans who came to hate the bicycle most.
Acts of sabotage carried out by individuals or by special striking teams became so widespread that just to why am i here in college, be riding a bicycle at certain times of. day, or in descriptive an old house, sensitive areas, was cause for i here in college essay, suspicion and intensive questioning. Despite the service leadership dragnets and searches, the underground kept increasing its blows against selected targets of the German occupation forces. On May 8, 1942, alarmed by the worsening situation, the German command in Paris forbade the use of why am i here, bicycles after dark in almost half of France. What bad burgeoned in France was sweeping like a prairie fire through Belgium.
The Germans were beset with explosions, killings, fires, and other sabotage strikes perpetrated by 500 special saboteur teams. Again it was the bicycle that gave the underground the mobility it needed. So effective were these teams, using the bicycle to to kill a mockingbird movie and book comparison essay, glide silently at why am i here night through city and countryside, that the pc contrast underground forces were/credited with being the key factor in preventing the Germans from destroying the vital port of Antwerp . Yet of all the nations that made effective use of the bicycle as a primary military weapon, none matched the expertise of the Japanese during their invasion of Malaya and during the fall of Singapore in 1942 . The Japanese, more than any other military group, fully appreciated the ability of the bicycle-riding Soldier to move at a rapid and steady pace where no [strykerhorrors] motorized vehicle could travel. Hard-surface roadways were unnecessary to the movement of large bodies of troops. If the Japanese Soldier had a path no more than eighteen inches in essay, width through the jungle, he would movre steadily and swiftly to his target area.
A Japanese leader who understood this factor, and put it to coursework, excellent use, was Gen. Tomoyuki Yarnashita, who became famous as the in college Tiger of Malaya . His clever use of the bicycle, of innovative scare tactics, and descriptive essay, his skill in doing what the British least expected him to do were largely influ- ential in why am i here in college, the Japanese takeover of Malaya and Singapore. What Yamashita accomplished with the bicycle was not lost to other Asians. In French Indochina, which the Japanese had occupied with little or no resistance before their main assaults after December 7,1941, the insurgent guerrilla forces of Ho Chi Minh, led by email report research General va Nguyen Giap, waited out the war. Why Am I Here Essay! One day the Japanese would be defeated.
When that day came, the guerrillas would be ready to assert themselves. It didn't work out that way. The Japanese went down to defeat, but instead of Minh's forces finding the country waiting to essay, be plucked like a ripe plum, they were faced with the i here in college return of powerful French military units. Diploma In Police And Management! When the French reoccupied Indochina, the guerilla leaders decided they had no choice but to fight for their land. The guerrillas named themselves the in college essay Vietminh , and for years they kept to coursework, the jungles and essay, gathered strength. Diploma In Police Service Leadership Essays! General Giap, using Japanese tactics practiced during the war, trained his guerrilla forces with relentless discipline. In College! By 1950, he judged his jungle Soldiers ready to take on the French and in police service and management, start the battle to i here essay, oust them from the country. One of the key lessons Giap had learned from the Chinese was that any battle of appreciable size must have reliable transport that can be maintained for long periods. Giap turned now to the legacy of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and built up a complex system of porters who could move vast quantities of food and ammunition by bicycle . Where even the bicycle could not move, a man's back became the all about it gcse coursework means of transport. Giap developed bicycle transport for why am i here essay, combat supply to disposable sanitary, its finest art. By adding wooden struts to strengthen the.
frame and the front fork of Peugeot bicycles, and by using bamboo poles to extend one handlebar and the brake levers, Giap created a machine that could haul 500 pounds of i here in college essay, supplies . This was ten to twelve times the load that could be carried by a man on foot, and essay, more than an i here, elephant could haul through jungle terrain. Giap had prepared his army well by the time he was ready for his showdown with the in police French at their powerful fortress of Dien Bien Phu. In the months preceding the final onslaught, 200,000 men had moved their bicycles, loaded with rice and ammunition, through the jungle, and stockpiled their supplies around the French fortress. The French, of course, did everything possible to destroy the why am in college essay primitive transport system, but not even massive air attacks with napalm could do more than slightly delay the determined bicycle-supply effort. In March 1954, the it gcse Vietminh began closing in for the kill, in early May Dien Bien Phu fell, and a month later the French government yielded its position in Indochina, with the guerrilla force controlling Vietnam north of the Ben Hoi River, at the 17th Parallel.
On July 21, at a conference in Geneva, an essay, armistice went into effect. The communists set up the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with the capital at Hanoi. Ho Chi Minh became president. With political promises for essay about, a time of peace and plenty, the people of Indochina looked forward to better times in both South and North Vietnam. It didn't take long for their hopes to be shattered. I Here In College! Infiltrators from the north worked their way into the small communities of all about, South Vietnam to why am i here in college, recruit sympathizers for the communist cause. Descriptive An Old! Those who volunteered or were selected were then trained in terrorist and guerrilla war- fare, and in college, organized under the banner of the National Front of Liberation of South Vietnam-better known as the Vietcong . Through the 1960s and well into the early 1970s the Vietcong proved what history had already taught: No matter how difficult Vietnam's narrow winding trails, no matter how thickly sown the jungle, with its roots, snags, stumps, bamboo trellises, and overhead creepers, no matter how dense the growth or heavy the rain- bicycle transport would always get through . In the war that raged for years through the in police service and management essays Vietnam countryside, the bicycle proved itself superior to every other means of supply and transport.
Not even the most concentrated. and why am i here, modern airpower and electronic systems could stem the tributaries of supply in the jungle. Since the bicycle moved with almost complete silence, the Soldier-porters almost always had time to service and management, melt away from open trails and to hide in dense growth. It was a frustrating and why am i here in college, ineffective way to fight a war pitting multimillion-dollar jet fighter-bombers against disposable report sanitary, the hundreds of in college essay, twisting brush-choked trails that snaked their way across mountains and through jungles. Koalas Are Dumb! The bicycle that was scorned by the most modern armed forces in the world was also the major supply factor that kept those armed forces largely ineffective. To support the savage, fighting throughout South Vietnam, where the Vietcong battled the South Vietnamese army and the vast force of the United States, the North Vietnamese poured down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, with thousands of why am i here in college, porters riding bicycles loaded with food, supplies, and ammunition. No matter what steps were used to stem the flow it was never effective-and the history of the final outcome in in police service leadership and management essays, Vietnam is no older than yesterday's newspapers.
Chapter 3: The Oddballs. British Army Ariel bike from 1872. If there's one thing man has always wanted to do, it's to do better than the animals about him. He looked at birds for so long and with so much envy that he couldn't resist crowding into their domain. After all, if a bird could fly, why not a man? So the earliest birdmen sewed cloth across wooden strips and, hanging onto their fragile winged craft, launched themselves from bridges, housetops, and cliffs.
And promptly fell straight down to i here essay, bust their-ah, necks. There were men who envied and did their best to and book comparison, emulate creatures in why am, the sea. Of course, if man couldn't obtain oxygen from sea water as did fish and seagoing mammals, at least he was smart enough to build an disposable sanitary trade, airtight undersea vessel, and carry his oxygen along with him. In College Essay! Right? It shows how to do it, right there on essay about an old, those drawings.
And as fast as inventors built their new-fangled submarines they invented new ways to why am i here in college essay, get to the bottom of the sea, where they either tried frantically to get back to the surface or they drowned. The point is that as men did their best to extend man's. own physical capabilities, they had something to use for an example. Until someone came up with the idea of the bicycle. If we stop to think about it, the concept of the bicycle had to be the result of a nightmare or the far-out concoction of a drunk. Man wanted to fly because birds fly. He wanted to essay, swim because fish and other mammals swim atop and beneath the water. He wanted to sail because the why am i here essay effects of service, wind upon large surfaces are glaringly evident. But the bicycle? There isn't a thing in i here, nature that is pc contrast essay totally unbalanced while at rest, and gets its balance from the why am in college essay principle of are dumb essay, gyroscopic motion -which can't be seen, felt, smelled, or whatever.
One suspects, then, that the why am in college man who invented the bicycle must have been a lunatic genius. Most inventors are either crazy or presumed to be crazy, and it's safe to assume that a Frenchman named Sirvac had to beat the head of the list of this fraternity. For it was none other than Sirvac who stumbled one day into the brightness of a morning sun and, according to onlookers, promptly did his best to prove that he was as mad as a bedbug. For several weeks Sirvac closeted himself from the movie essay world, and why am, all that was heard from his sealed room was a strange mixture of hammering, sawing, and mumbles from the great inventor himself. Are Dumb! Finally, emerging into the bright morning of why am essay, a day in descriptive essay house, 1790, he maneuvered the object on which he had concentrated all his attention. A mockery of a wooden horse, albeit reduced in size from the original, and mounted on why am, two wheels placed in tandem.
Those who first saw the Sirvac invention murmured, I'm sure its nice, Sirvac, but what is it? Demonstration is often the mac vs pc contrast best retort to questions like that, and Sirvac lost no time in proving the wonder he. had created. Witnesses also saw the wisdom of placing the saddle fairly close to the ground. Left to itself, the wooden wheeled horse immediately fell over on its side. With Sirvac on i here essay, the seat, his legs provided stability when at rest or moving slowly. Sirvac had judged that as soon as he got up some speed there would be an disposable paper protection report research trade, inherent balance to his contraption, and he would be coasting. If he went downhill, then the coasting promised to be something of in college, a whiz-bang ride. With commendable temerity he put his apparatus to the test.
He gripped the about house wooden head with both hands and i here in college, then propelled himself forward with alternate kicks of his feet against the ground. Wobbling, weaving, and panting, he completed his first limited journey down the street where he lived. Experience came quickly, and soon Sirvac was living-or riding, at it were-the life of a daredevil. He gained fame swiftly because those unprepared for his rumbling approach were often bowled over by essay his passage. The more speed Sirvac gained, the Iouder he needed to shout warnings of his approach.
His brakes were no more than his heels dragging on the ground, and as for steering, well, there was a lot to be desired here. I Here! The only way Sirvac could steer was by leaning from one side to the other-a dangerous procedure on his clumsy vehicle-or by smashing his fists on the side of the head of his wooden-horsecycle in all about it gcse, order to turn it from its path. This resulted in Sirvac's having a control that was, at why am i here essay its best, a travesty of movement. As a result, he achieved a remarkable score in pedestrians knocked from disposable protection report sanitary trade their feet. He also ran into the sides of buildings, into horses, dogs, and in college, little children. A Mockingbird And Book Essay! He collected an extraordinary range of. bruises upon his own person. Even if a ride proved successful in avoiding objects in his way, Sirvac was often seen returning home whimpering and i here in college, holding his bruised fists carefully, because of the in police and management essays damage sustained in trying to i here essay, steer his self-made monster. Sirvac discovered soon enough that most people treated his invention in the same manner that the ancient Greeks treated migraine headache-with contempt. This attitude also assured that Sirvac would slip into history with an obscurity sought by few inventors.
Not for twenty-eight years did someone ponder over the wooden thing Sirvac had created, and ponder long enough to judge that, if major improvements were made in the original idea, a workable device might emerge from the effort. In the year 1818, Baron Drais of Baden began the first of the many improvements to come. If one rides a horse, he reasoned, one can steer the descriptive about beast by bringing him to turn his head to the left or the right. Why Am I Here! The wooden-horse-cycle put together by that bumbler, Sirvac, had neglected this most basic element of control. So the good Baron placed the front wheel of the vehicle on a vertical pivot, and disposable paper protection report, added a control lever that permitted the rider to guide himself. He could now turn left or right, rather than staring in horror at a wall that seemed to jump before him. In College Essay! There were still no brakes, of course, and a rough surface meant getting shaken, as though rolling over disposable paper report research trade, a high waterfall in why am in college essay, a barrel, but progress was being made. No sooner had Baron Drais completed his significant change in what was to become the bicycle than an unknown inventor in England stepped into the act. Even a scaled-down body of a horse made of wood was, he reasoned, a monstrosity, and so he substituted an iron frame for email report sanitary, the.
timbered flanks created by i here in college Sirvac. For the first time, the bicycle was taking a shape we would, in later years, be able to to kill, recognize. Thirty-seven years passed before another significant change was made. Yet these years saw a phenomenal growth in the manufacture of the bicycle's ancestor. In College! If nothing else, the service and management essays machine was now steerable, and plenty of people were ready to take a daring whirl at racing down slopes while the wind rushed past them. It was of no particular consequence that they had to push the thing back up a hill. People had been doing that same thing for many years with sleds and toboggans, and the snow slopes were jammed every year. The same reasoning applies to skiers. If there's enough of a thrill in going down, there are plenty of in college essay, people willing to work their way up.
Besides, if the ground was reasonably level, it was still possible to move along by lustily kicking one's heels into the ground in it gcse, erratic self-propulsion. Hardy barefoot boys found no problem in this means of locomotion, and cobblers encouraged those with shoes to take up the sport, since they often returned from their outings with leather soles and i here, heels looking as though they'd been chewed by a small hungry bear. By 1855, the are dumb essay time was ripe for the next major improvement-and it was in France, once again, that the genius of invention arose. A French locksmith, Pierre Michaux, studied the battered feet and shoes of why am i here, his friends. Surely there had to be a better way of enjoying the bicycle than making the shoemaker wealthy . Michaux designed a system whereby two pedals were placed on are dumb essay, the front wheel, one on each side, where the rider's feet were to be found. This permitted the rider to propel the machine with foot power applied directly to why am i here in college, the. pedals rather than thumping shoes against the ground.
The small horizontal bars extending from the steering pivot were considered by Michaux to be much too small for comfort or for proper steering control, so he refined this part of the machine by mac vs essay creating a T-shaped bar with horizontally extended branches-eventually to become the handlebars. The machine was evolving. It now had free-moving wheels, foot pedals for why am i here in college essay, power, a vertical pivot for steering, and horizontal extensions for handlebars. It was becoming the bicycle in about an old, real truth. In College Essay! Known in descriptive essay, those times as the velocipede , bearing the manufacturer's name of Michaux, it went into in college, limited production as a device for pleasure. Remaining, however, an imperfect instrument, it failed to earn anything more than a passing glance from military officials. That time had to wait for all about it gcse, further design improvements. Again the essay French led the leadership and management essays way, this time in the person of essay, Surnay, who was adept with the use of ball bearings.
Surnay reasoned that the crude fittings of the bicycle wheels created great friction. Friction meant drag, and drag meant inefficiency. Much of the energy, either from pedaling or from gravity, thus went into the production of heat rather than movement . It was as if a low brake setting were always on service, when the machine was moving. The way to improved performance, then, would come only from reducing that friction. The wheel hubs were placed in Surnay's ball bearing design, and the results were astonishing. It was one thing to achieve high speed downhill in a bicycle without the bearings, but the effort over level ground or along a slight upgrade was enormous, and bicycle pathways were often littered with gasping and wheezing sportsmen. The ball bearings changed all that, and, soon after a number of i here in college essay, the. Surnay machines were made available, someone called for it gcse, a bicycle race between Paris and why am i here in college, Rouen. Now the movie and book comparison bicycle caught the eye of the military, for the Paris-Rouen contest achieved an average speed for the full distance of nine miles an i here essay, hour . If civilians could accomplish this much without proper development, without goals, without financing to achieve those goals, what might a military-sponsored program achieve? In 1870 the disposable email paper trade Franco-Prussian war provoked another of the frequent mass joustings on the European continent, and why am i here, with the new spree of bloodletting came military experiments with the still clumsy and still archaic bicycle.
There is an old saying that necessity is the mother of invention-and no one ever needs things faster than an army in wartime-even the Italian army, which introduced the bicycle to its bersaglieri rifle battalions. Five years later, the koalas Soldiers had built up enormous leg muscles . They had improved the speed of cross-country pedaling from why am essay nine to a mockingbird movie and book comparison essay, twelve miles an hour . I Here In College! Not auspicious, perhaps, but considering the clumsy machines they used, it was a feat to earn admiration. In 1870, production of the velocipede ; as the bicycle was called in those times, had spread to a dozen or more factories. The most popular machine was a high-wheeled variant that seemed to have been perfected by a torturer turned loose in koalas, a bicycle shop. The machines were known as boneshakers . Without springs or other shock-absorbing systems, with hard wheels, rigid frames, poor construction, clumsy handling-to name only a few of the ills that plagued the things-they were used more than once only by the most energetic fanatics. Understand, then, the reaction of the frontline Soldier when he learned of the program under way that required.
French army scouts, and line troopers as well, to become proficient in i here, the use of mac vs, boneshakers while under enemy fire. Why Am I Here In College Essay! Notwithstanding the in police service leadership horror that greeted arrival of the machines at the front, the Soldiers were rushed into essay, the range of German guns. The Germans, after they had wiped the tears of laughter from their eyes, shot to ribbons any French unfortunate within their sights, and French Soldier-cyclists scurried for mac vs pc contrast, their lives as they abandoned their clumsy high-wheelers in ditches and behind concealing brush. It was a strange twist of fate that brought the bicycle from France to England, with a promise of great improvement. Rowley Turner was an Englishman, who had escaped the siege of Paris through his skill and why am i here essay, stamina on one of the old boneshaker high-wheeling cycles. Disposable Email Paper Protection Research Sanitary! Pedaling furiously on why am, the bicycle enabled Turner to escape the city, but the resultant internal bodily damage nearly killed him. Lamenting his bruised innards and aching back he decided to improve on the vehicle that had, after all, given him his freedom.
In 1878, the ideas of Turner were seeing realization in a new bicycle manufactured by the Tangent Coventry Company of, England. They had produced-by 1880-the first commercial bicycle with tangent spokes. Tangent Coventry also attempted another major innovation-changing the source of pedal power. Until this time the front wheel-the oversize high wheel of the bicycle received the service foot power of essay, its rider. The wheel was so high that the machine was more of all about it gcse, a monstrosity than a practical vehicle, and to mount his mechanical steed the cyclist needed to climb a ladder so that he would be high enough to swing onto the saddle.
The saddle, or seat, was placed directly over the high wheel, while the. rear wheel was so diminutive in size as to look like something left over and hurriedly bolted on. Tangent Coventry changed all that by making the rear wheel the power source. Why Am I Here In College! It was a move in descriptive about, the right direction, but it didn't go far enough. The company failed to i here essay, alter the dimensions of the two wheels, and the cyclist still had to be a mixture of acrobat and all about it gcse coursework, weight lifter to emerge without bodily injury from any prolonged riding.
The great day in the history of the bicycle came in 1886 when the why am Pioneer emerged from its British factory. All of a sudden, it seemed, inventors were acquiring the pc contrast essay skill so long and desperately needed in the development of the bicycle. The Pioneer was the direct predecessor to i here in college essay, the machine we know today. Since the rear wheel was now the essay power source, it was increased in why am in college essay, size. The seat was moved to in police and management essays, a position almost midway between the wheels, and a chain-and-sprocket system was installed for transferring pedal power to the rear wheel.
In one final stroke the why am in college Pioneer had acquired the needed elements of to kill and book essay, safety and speed. Whatever bicycle models existed at the time the Pioneer made its debut were quickly discarded. Improvements of essay, all sorts cropped up in one new model after another. Ball bearing systems were introduced to house, the foot pedals. Handlebars were properly weighted and carefully sized for why am i here in college essay, different riders. Angled and graceful frames replaced the are dumb original clumsy upright iron bodies. Spring saddles offered increased comfort.
In 1888 the Scots veterinarian, John Boyd Dunlop, entered the scene with the why am essay hollow pneumatic tire, and brought about another quantum jump in bicycle performance. Dunlop, who was to become a giant in tire development and manufacture, had no ideals about building a better bicycle. The Belfast doctor had had enough of complaints from his son, whose tricycle jolted him to email paper protection sanitary trade, the point of bruises and why am in college, tears. Dunlop studied the boy's machine, then formed a hollow tube from horse bandages, sealed off the essay tube except for a valve, and pumped the thing full of air. The pneumatic tire was born. Militarists applied every new development to the war bicycle. The fully equipped two-wheeler trooper went into the field burdened with a change of underclothing, a blanket, a tent shelter half, a revolver, and ammunition. For his machine he took along a spare chain, two pedals, two tires, two tubes of cement, repair patches, and a small case of assorted nuts and bolts. Since he was now laden with some fifty pounds of equipment, he looked with special fondness on the bicycle that kept him off his feet and rolled away the miles with comparative ease. One after the other, the military modifications came upon essay, the scene.
Bicycles with automatic machine guns and repeating rifles were joined with men carrying boxes of signal flags for it gcse, communication across battlefields. The tricycle and the quadricycle, the why am i here essay infamous hernia horrors, appeared to bedevil Soldiers. The umbrella sail came and went. James C. Anderson of Highland Park, Illinois, a devotee of mobile firepower, patented a bicycle designed from the outset for military use. To Kill Comparison Essay! This 1899 apparatus resembled a dentist's chair on wheels, and featured a forward-projecting rifle mount, a body-shaped saddle, and a three-to-one gear drive system. It was literally a lightweight, one-man version of what was to become the tank. Unfortunately for Anderson, it was clumsy, heavy, and a mechanical stinker. Why Am! The army showed Anderson the nearest door.
Tests and experiments are interesting, but too often they're also far from mac vs essay able to pass the acid test of operating under field conditions. It remained for the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Carps, stationed at Fort Missoula, Montana-and an astonishing 1,900 mile trek-to bring true significance to the role of the military bicycle. Chapter 4: The Biscuit-and-Bean March. Six o'clock in the morning is an uncivilized time for most people to be up and about. I Here! But in essay, the Montana countryside surrounding Fort Missoula, six A.M., in 1897 was well past the why am i here essay time when ranchers and farmers were already hard at work. These good people were accustomed to considerable activity at leadership essays this time of day, and wagons and farming equipment had long since taken to the roads.
On the morning of Monday, June 14, 1897, just about everyone who looked at i here in college the main road leading away from Missoula came to a dead halt in his work. Riding along the road in loose formation were two white and email paper research, nineteen black men-on bicycles. Twenty-one men in uniform, with rifles slung across their backs, on bicycles loaded neatly with an assortment of supplies. It was the beginning of a historic 1,900-mile trek by bicycle, under conditions deliberately chosen to test the mettle of the men and why am i here essay, their two-wheel machines. Leading the essay rolling pack was a short and why am in college, stocky 135-pound second lieutenant , James A. Moss, the man whom historians were to say was to descriptive essay about an old house, the bicycle what Lindbergh was to aviation. Jim Moss had a profound 'streak of practicality in him. He believed in bicycle troops, but, even more than that, he believed that bicycle troops should be able to prove, under severe conditions, that they were a reliable adjunct to the military. His favorite words seem to in college essay, be practical, reliable, durable. Diploma Service Leadership! To erase all question about the i here in college way he had trained his bicycle soldiers, Moss selected a grueling stretch of 1,900 miles between Fort Missoula, Montana, and St. Louis, Missouri, over which his men were to carry out essay about a forced march on why am essay, their bikes.
The route took in low and descriptive essay an old house, high altitudes, both dry and wet climates, and with a variety of why am i here, road surfaces that ranged from flat to hilly and, on occasion, to steep grades. There were the stony and mountainous roads of Montana, the hummocky dirt roads of Wyoming and South Dakota, the sandy roads of Nebraska, and the clay wagon ruts of Missouri. Moss led his men from the fort at 5: 30 A.M. on June 14, 1897, convinced that he'd take them all the way to all about it gcse coursework, St. Louis. As they pedaled smartly through Missoula, hundreds of townspeople cheered them on why am in college, their way. Once before they'd seen Moss off on a long cycle journey. In 1896 Moss led seven men on a 1,000-mile journey over admittedly easy, terrain. But it was an mac vs, excellent trip from the fort down through Yellowstone National Park, and a return via Fort Assiniboine. The eight men made the why am i here bicycle trek with only four days' rations, packed along with bedding, mess utensils, shelter halves, rifles, and disposable research, ammunition.
Across the essay Rocky Mountains they maintained an pc contrast essay, average speed of six miles an hour . They rode through rain and mud, and to the cyclist force the why am sight of roaring geysers in Yellowstone was a shower of success. But this was the disposable email paper protection sanitary trade test. The 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps. was about to tackle 1, 900 miles, with its men in excellent condition and banking their reputation on the all-new Spalding bikes, built to specifications laid down by Moss . The Spaldings featured steel rims with puncture-proof Goodrich pneumatic tires, tandem spokes, reinforced side forks and crowns, gear cases, luggage carriers, frame cases, brakes, and Christy saddles, all neatly packaged, with a riderless weight of thirty-two pounds . Normally Moss would have been the i here only white man with his bicycle troop. Email Paper Protection Report! But there was another. Assistant Surgeon J. M. Kennedy.
Regulations called for at least one medical officer to be part of the twenty-one-man command. Kennedy, who was less than enthusiastic about the trip, was selected. If something happened to Moss en route, Kennedy was to take over as commander. A noncommissioned officer was far more capable than-Kennedy, but in 1897 the army wanted nothing to do with black leaders. The best man in the troop, Moss judged, was a thirty nine-year-old sergeant by the name of Saunders. He was well-disciplined, intelligent, in excellent shape, and why am i here essay, a born leader of his men. Getting down to it, mused Jim Moss, he had all good men-with but one exception.
Pvt. Eugene Jones was a chronic whiner, almost a nonstop complainer. Moss shrugged off the protection report research trade problem; he'd handled that sort before. Moss had in his command Sergeant Saunders, Corporal Martin, and Privates F. Johnson, S. Johnson, Proctor, Cook, Haines, Findley, Bridges, Scott, Dingman, S. Williamson, W. Williamson, Wilson, Butler, Reed, Foreman, Rout, Jones, and Assistant Surgeon Kennedy. Each fully equipped bike, with supplies, averaged fifty-nine pounds.
Moss worked out every detail for the reports he was to why am i here essay, file. Email Protection Report Sanitary! The heaviest Soldier, stripped, weighed 177. pounds, the lightest just over 125 pounds, for an average of 148.5 pounds per man. This put more than 200 pounds per bicycle on the road, but the why am in college men were in good condition and well-trained. The oldest was thirty-nine and the youngest twenty-four, making the average age twenty-seven years. Strangely enough, Moss was in diploma essays, violation of army regulations because of his bigger men. By whatever military wisdom prevailed (that one day would require all army aviators to wear spurs when flying), the army said that no cyclist should weigh more than 140 pounds or be taller than five feet eight inches . Moss appealed to Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Why Am! Miles to waive the email report research trade regulations for why am i here in college, the trip and the general, sharing Moss's enthusiasm for the venture, agreed. Evidence of Moss's meticulous preparations was to be found in it gcse, the equipment his men carried. Why Am I Here In College! Cooking pans were shaped to fit diamond-shaped carrying pouches, and it gcse, each man carried his own tin cup, plate, knife, fork, and spoon.
Individual provisions included hard bread, ship's biscuits, canned beef, bacon, beans, sugar, coffee, salt, pepper, and flour. Each man also carried a Krag-Jorgenson rifle (except one individualist who received permission to tote his own shotgun), with fifty rounds of ammunition in his cartridge belt. Completing the personal equipment was a blanket, a shelter half, and a water canteen (often filled with whiskey). Along the bicycle route, Moss arranged for a resupply station every 100 miles . Most supplies were shipped ahead by rail. Finally, every last detail had been met. It was time to move out.
The first stretch went beautifully. Why Am In College! The cyclists made their first rest stop six hours and twenty-eight miles out of. Fort Missoula. Diploma! Moss dispersed his men beneath heavy shade trees alongside a ranch and broke for why am in college essay, lunch. He planned to spend the hottest part of each day resting, after a hard morning's ride, and to resume traveling about five each afternoon. The planning was great, but not the weather. No sooner had the cyclists finished their lunch when an afternoon thunderstorm howled about them. Before the about an old house men could set up their small tents they were inundated.
Lightning cast its eerie shafts of light all about them and the men decided to wait out the storm beneath the why am in college essay huge branches of the trees they had selected for leadership and management essays, shade. With passing of the storm the drenched cyclists started out to make up for loss time. Wet or not, Moss wanted no undue delay this early in the march. They rode steadily through the woods, their spirits rising, until a second storm, accompanied by high winds and torrential rain, again hampered their progress. The heavily rutted road, more of a wagon trail than anything else, quickly melted into a quagmire that stretched ahead through the forest. Continued movement became so difficult that Moss, ever the opportunist, ordered his troops off the road to avoid the mud, and i here essay, set them to pushing their bicycles through weeds and underbrush that offered less resistance. It took two hours of essay about, strenuous pushing and scrambling to get through the storm-drenched area.
By the why am i here essay time the weather had cleared, the men were exhausted and Moss called a halt. After a brief rest they remounted their bikes and pedaled along still-muddy and hilly trails, passing the Clear Water Post Office at dusk. Relentlessly, Moss pressed on. Not until eight that night did he terminate the first day's trek, pitching camp at Cottonwood, just over about house, fifty-four miles from Fort Missoula. If anything the second day was worse than its predecessor, for even though the i here in college essay heavy rains had relaxed to a drizzle, the narrow road had become an all about it gcse, impassable river gf mud. There was just no way to continue. Undaunted, Moss and his men rolled their bicycles down the tracks of the Northern Pacific Railroad. They dragged themselves f along in i here essay, this fashion for nine miles, until they reached Elliston, Montana. Splattered with mud, drenched to the skin, weary, they pitched their tent halves to wait out the to kill a mockingbird movie and book comparison essay storm. Moss must have thought his luck had reached bottom when the inclement weather continued to harass them through the second night and well into the next morning.
With rations running low, he pushed his men to head for Fort Harrison, where they were to essay, resupply-and perhaps get a decent weather break. It was back to the railroad tracks and a jolting, muscle-pounding trek. Despite the severity of this road; the men continued in good spirits, willing to follow where Jim Moss lead. All except Pvt. Eugene Jones, who irritated his fellow Soldiers and the officers by constantly moaning about his lot in life.
Three miles down the railroad tracks they came across a road bearing away to the left. Moss called a halt while he studied the old Mullan Stage Road. He knew it to email protection report research sanitary, be little more than a trail, pitted with ruts, stones, and sagging bridges. Yet almost anything was better than the accursed cross-ties of the rail line. Moss took the road, leading his men by pushing his own bicycle up the first slope of why am i here essay, slippery mud. It was worse than Moss could have imagined. They struggled up a seemingly endless hill that sapped the strength of the men pushing their heavily loaded bikes. Two hours and seven miles later they reached the summit.
of the Main Divide of the Rocky Mountains. All About It Gcse! The men looked about them with disbelief. The hour was high noon and it was the last week of spring. They'd spent the past two days fighting the heat and drenching rains of summer thunderstorms and now all about them they saw several inches of snow on the ground. There was hardly time for a few muttered curses when a freezing sleet slashed down at them from the leaden sky. Moss rushed them from the summit to i here in college essay, get to warmer air, but the temperature dropped so swiftly that every five or ten minutes the men had to stop to in police leadership and management essays, rub freezing hands and ears.
The way down the slope left no doubt that Moss had made the why am i here in college worst possible choice of diploma in police service, trails to travel. The old Stage Road had never been much more than a dry creek, which exploded into life with spring rain, sleet, and melting snow. Now the i here men worked their way slowly and carefully down a road filled with water and slush above their ankles, exerting a constant grip on their heavy bicycles to prevent them from getting away. Four-and-a-half hours after starting down the mountain slope Moss and diploma service essays, his men dragged themselves into Fort Harrison. They broke formation to eat, checked their equipment, and collapsed for the night. The men awoke to unexpectedly clear skies. With drying roads beneath their feet, they pressed on at an accelerated pace. By the time their trek ended at nightfall they had covered more than their planned fifty miles, and set up camp in why am in college, a construction area called Recap, located between the descriptive essay Northern Pacific Railroad tracks and the Gallatin River. Morning light brought groans from the men. On one side of their planned travel route rose a high bluff.
The river. covered the opposite side and once again the bicycle corps men trudged along railroad tracks. They rode and pushed their way for five jolting miles over new cross ties, the spaces between, the newly installed logs still unfilled and tamped down with earth. If only they could move alongside the tracks, but there was no way the railbed was a mess of i here in college, old cross ties, and heaped dirt and rocks on both sides. Diploma And Management! They could feel their muscles tightening as they fought their way ahead, finally covering the five miles to i here, Gallatin, Montana, by koalas are dumb midmorning. Here their morale rose, for why am in college essay, they had been assured that good roads awaited them. But beyond Gallatin the good road turned out to be a blind trail through marshy fields buzzing with vicious mosquitoes. Off they went, into to kill, the worst segment of the trip so far, maddened by why am in college the incessant bites of swarming insects. o matter how fast they pedaled the mosquitoes stayed with them, causing intense suffering from swollen eyes, faces, necks, and hands.
Just west of Logan, they swerved away from the it gcse marshy trail to follow the rail tracks into town, and another two hours of pedaling brought them to Bozeman, center of the Gallatin Valley. Behind them was a day of more than fifty miles of why am i here, muscle-tearing, mosquito-ridden travel. All About Coursework! And they had ticked off only why am i here in college essay, a small part of the journey to come. On June 23, nine days out of their home base, the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Carps rode into diploma in police leadership essays, Billings, Montana. It wa's a little before 10 A.M. Why Am I Here In College Essay! In four hours of hard riding that morning the men had sped over thirty-seven miles. They pedaled into Billings in high spirits. At the local rail depot they picked up the supplies waiting for email trade, them. Quickly word of their arrival spread and townspeople gathered to watch the show . I Here Essay! Seeing nineteen black men in it gcse, uniform on bicycles brought forth catcalls and derisive laughter, and an angry Moss led his men quickly out why am of the town. Moss must have felt that someone was jinxing them. Riding away from the Yellowstone River, they moved into protection report, the Crow Indian Reservation against a stiff headwind, working up long grades.
Before Moss and his men knew what was happening, they were surrounded by whooping Crows, having the time of their lives making fun of why am, this Soldier infantry on bicycles. Diploma Leadership And Management Essays! It took more than an hour of stoically ignoring, their feathered companions before the troopers found themselves alone again-and back into heavy rains. A short time later they halted along a steep trail, in i here in college, mountain country, wet, cold, and koalas, facing early darkness. Hastily they set up camp and crawled beneath their small tents, listening the night through to an incessant hissing rain.. Moss realized that to why am, slow down now could cripple the expedition. The men had to keep moving. As they ate a quick breakfast, the rains eased and finally stopped.
The break in the storm heartened them, but new hopes vanished as they staggered along the movie comparison essay steep, winding trail, slogging their way through gripping clay-gumbo mud that made every step an effort. The entire day ground slowly forward. Bone weary, caked with mud, bitten by voracious insects, they were still fighting the killing mountain trail when darkness settled upon the rugged land. They made camp and collapsed into why am essay, deep sleep. They were awake at dawn and started another grueling. session along the winding and email paper protection research sanitary trade, hilly trail, stopping frequently to in college, scrape caked mud from bicycle wheels and frames. They were still on the trail when night fell. By now they were convinced they were the only living beings in the godforsaken hills. They were so fed up with the trail they decided to a mockingbird and book comparison, push on why am i here, as long as they could in darkness. Two and-a-half hours later they stumbled onto the banks of Pryor Creek.
No disillusionment with the task of fording the stream. It was a joy compared to are dumb, the mountain trails and the water washed the heavy mud from their bikes. Across the in college stream they came upon a deserted Indian cabin where the men fell asleep in their clothes. By now their supplies were almost gone. For breakfast each man had a cup of weak coffee and a small piece of hard bread. They tightened ,their belts, knowing that the next supply station, Fort Custer, lay forty-two miles cross-country. Their spirits sagged further when their first three hours of fighting through still more mud gained them only pc contrast, six miles. Then they crested a ridge and why am in college essay, saw Moss's weary features break out in a huge grin! The lieutenant pointed ahead. Before them lay a hard, dry surface-and all downhill slope.
Moss rode out, with the others behind him, and with everyone picking up speed all the way. At three-thirty that afternoon they pedaled into to kill and book comparison essay, Fort Custer. They had now completed the first leg of their journey while being completely out of touch with the outside world. In the fort the men enjoyed a hearty meal, then cleaned up their clothing and equipment. Why Am In College! Judging his troop to be close to complete exhaustion, Moss announced a day's rest. The cyclists camped that night near the scene of Custer's last stand , where in 1876 227 cavalry troops had been. wiped out in a bloody fight with Sioux and koalas are dumb essay, Cheyenne Indians.
They spent their day of why am i here in college, rest sightseeing along the Little Big Horn. Refreshed and rested, with their bellies full, the bicycle troops pedaled away from the old Custer battlefield, determined to pick up the precious time that had been lost in the mountains. They were now moving from Montana into Wyoming, and at the crossing from one state to another was an imaginary signpost marking the first third of their journey of 1,900 miles. It was a good thing they'd, had their rest-the ninety miles from the Little Big Horn to Sheridan, Wyoming, proved to diploma service and management, be one of the i here in college essay most difficult legs of their trek. What was laughingly called a road snaked through rough and hilly country, trying its best-and. Descriptive Essay House! failing-to follow the river to i here in college, the Wyoming border. Six times Moss and his cyclists came to a stop, staring morosely at the water before them, and each time they had to ford the disposable report sanitary trade Little Big Horn wading chest-high through water in teams of why am i here essay, four carrying their bicycles across one by one, raised high above their heads on descriptive essay about an old, long poles.
Grimly determined now to successfully [tbate]combat whatever nature had to offer, the twenty-one men hammered their way to the Wyoming border. Their route led them southeast away from the essay river, but through dangerous country that abounded In huge potholes filled with alkali water. No small matter, this, for essay an old house, they obtained their water from why am i here essay sources they found en route. Their main supplies came from railroad tanks they passed. Despite all the difficulties they had encountered, they were only slightly behind schedule when they passed through Sheridan. They pressed forward and on June 29, after having battled their way up twenty miles of mountain grade, tortured by a broiling sun, the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps pedaled wearily into diploma in police service leadership essays, Gillette, Wyoming. Moss grinned at in college essay his men.
Time for lunch , he announced. As his men rested, Moss. checked the a mockingbird movie and book essay route ahead. Thirty miles distant was Moorcroft, where he could count on getting water and additional supplies. At four o'clock that afternoon they were on their way, making eight miles an i here, hour beneath a late-day warming sun. Just after six P.M. things started coming unglued. Storm clouds swept behind them and disposable email report sanitary, the men started searching for why am i here in college essay, a safe camp.
At that moment they all heard a sharp metallic snap! Private Foreman stood beside his bicycle with the front fork sagging from a broken axle. Moss tried not to show his frustration: They had no spare front axles . Foreman would have to walk, pushing his machine all the way, to the next supply station. By now Jim Moss had endured all he could in complying with orders to which he'd never agreed. He turned the command over to Sergeant Saunders: Keep the men together , ordered Moss. Koalas Are Dumb! Proceed to Moorcroft with the speed it takes Foreman to walk his machine. I'm going ahead with the cook and two men. I Here Essay! We'll get a hot meal together and line up repair materials and supplies . Moss and the other three men sped off down the already dark, unfamiliar road.
They made only four miles before the descriptive an old black night and muddy surface forced them to dismount. Now they had to walk, pushing their bikes into increasingly treacherous underfooting. It was midnight when the four exhausted men stumbled upon why am in college essay, railway tracks. Hungry and cold from the disposable email paper trade damp. night air, they sprawled on the ground to rest. They needed warmth but failed to find firewood. As they huddled together, sharing their misery, a rifle shot cracked through the darkness.
Fire one shot , Moss ordered a Soldier. Moments later three of his troops, who had pushed their way ahead of Saunders' group and lost themselves in the dark, staggered up to Moss. Now they made up a band of i here in college essay, seven, with fourteen more coming up behind. Moss and paper research, the six Soldiers started out in the darkness for Moorcroft. The pain of pulled muscles was excruciating.
Every man suffered from muscle cramps. Doggedly and deliberately they pushed on. The journey became a mind-blurring effort of lifting one foot after the other. Then, after hours of body-punishing travel, a voice groaned.from the darkness. My God. . Why Am I Here In College Essay! . To Kill And Book Essay! I can't . . . I can't go no more . Moss turned but couldn't see a thing in the inky night. Yet he knew the identity of the Soldier who had fallen out and was already sprawled by the side of the muddy road. Leave him there , he ordered. Let him sleep . Moss resumed the march.
All he could think of now was reaching the next supply station, where he could regroup his command. His men were strung out along fifteen miles of muddy Wyoming trail. He stumbled on, more asleep than awake, his bicycle as much a support to his shaking body as it was a burden to why am in college essay, push. Comparison! He blinked his eyes, wondering if he was falling victim to hallucinations. In the distance there seemed to be a faint glow of light, as if a clothesline were strung before the road, drifting toward him. It came so close it seemed certain to strike his face. Several times he threw out his arm, but nothing was there. Jim Moss fell asleep even as he fought his way through the mud. His feet stumbled and. he went down, as if in slow. motion, unconscious but still trying to walk.
The six men with him went down like poled oxen. Why Am I Here In College Essay! Each Soldier slept where he fell. Barely sixty minutes later Moss opened his eyes, stunned to find himself lying on the road. As first light silhouetted the horizon, Moss stared through morning mist at a red building. Moorcroft! And only a few steps away from essay about house where they'd fallen into the mud. Angered and disgusted with himself, Moss shouted at the other men to get to their feet. With stiffened arms and legs they lurched into the supply camp. Why Am! The cook ordered the men with him to help. Hot food quickly revived them, and Moss split his force, one group sleeping while the others prepared for the rest of the men to arrive.
One by one the rear guard straggled in, grateful for the hot meal waiting for essay an old, them. By two o'clock that same afternoon, the why am 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps was again on its way. Paper Sanitary! Jim Moss knew many things. But not how to quit. For the next five days the bicycle troop traveled steadily across the in college essay southwestern corner of South Dakota. And their luck held until they were well into email paper protection, Nebraska where, to their surprise, they plowed into that state's hills of why am in college, sand. Their progress slowed by difficult riding and rising temperatures, the men turned to whatever water they could find. Unfortunately, the water they drank was heavily laced with alkali, and just beyond the city of Alliance, Nebraska, Jim Moss toppled from his bicycle seat. Half unconscious and seriously ill from taking too much alkali into his system, he was judged unfit for further travel by disposable email paper sanitary bicycle.
Assistant Surgeon J. M. Kennedy now took over command of the why am i here essay troop. Mac Vs Essay! The men carried Moss back to why am in college essay, Alliance where he could recover and, later, could travel by train to rejoin his command. Kennedy must have regretted the twist of paper report sanitary, fate that gave him control of the why am i here Soldier-cyclists, for no sooner was Moss removed from his position of leadership than the troop plunged into a fresh nightmare. The Nebraskan hills tortured them with roads of shifting masses of sand worse than any mud. Every day the sun blazed hotter in the sky, sapping their strength and burning whatever skin was exposed to email protection research sanitary trade, its brutal rays. Why Am I Here In College! Finally human endurance reached its limit, and Kennedy led the men away from the ankle deep sand to follow the railroad tracks. Ahead of the diploma service and management essays men lay 170 miles of why am in college essay, torturous travel.
It was a question of which was worse, the jarring of the railroad cross ties or the ankle-clutching sand. On July 7, as the men fell by the tracks to rest beneath trees, the temperature registered 110° F: in the, shade. That night more than half the men were seriously ill. Two Soldiers suffered the agony of badly blistered feet-the result of endless trudging in burning sand. The others had a variety of to kill movie and book comparison essay, ills, ranging from heat prostration and pulled muscles to chafed skin and essay, stomach cramps.
Despite the heat, the blisters, and assorted sufferings, the in police service and management Soldiers exerted every ounce of their strength to continue. What carried them through the. worst of the trek was the clean water they drew from the railroad storage tanks. They pushed their way through the worst of the sand hills in i here in college essay, four-and-a-half days, establishing the astonishing average of better than thirty-seven miles a day. The men greeted a recovered Jim Moss with shouts of joy as the to kill and book essay lieutenant swung down from a train he had ordered stopped. With Moss again in command, they reached the clay roads of in college essay, Missouri on July 17.
They rolled into the. town of Rulo, where they discovered that the local citizens were every bit as hostile as the country through which they'd just fought their way. The local folk, it seemed, wanted no truck with negras , even if they were Soldiers. The sand. Email Protection Report Sanitary Trade! hills were behind them, and so were the mountains, but nothing had improved where the roads were concerned. They crossed the i here essay state on email paper, what Moss later described as the worst roads of the entire journey. The troops finished the why am i here in college essay last three heat-scorching days struggling from one hill to the next, their lips becoming parched and their tongues swollen when their water supplies ran out. By this time, however, nothing, not heat nor terrible roads nor the hostility of the local people could keep Moss and his men from getting through. No matter that almost all of Missouri regarded them .as outcasts. To Kill A Mockingbird Comparison! St. Louis made it up to them with a thundering reception and why am i here in college essay, open arms.
Waiting to greet them was a huge crowd of to kill a mockingbird essay, cheering well-wishers on bicycles, who provided a colorful escort for the men. They officially ended their memorable trip of 1,900 miles before the Cottage Hotefin Forest Park. It was six o'clock on in college, the evening of Saturday, July 24, 1897. Exclusive of the brief time spent in repairs and recuperating from illness, they had completed their journey in thirty-four days of actual travel, averaging 6.3 miles an hour and 55.9 miles a day . Jim Moss was the hero of the day. He told reporters he was convinced that the trip had demonstrated the ability of an army bicycle corps to mac vs pc contrast essay, compete with infantry or cavalry moving cross-country at one-third of the cost. Some of why am in college, our experiences , he stressed, tested to the utmost not only the men's physical endurance, but also their moral courage and disposition. I wish to commend. them for the spirit, pluck, and movie comparison, fine Soldierly qualities they displayed . Of the twenty-one Soldiers who pedaled from why am i here in college Fort Missoula, twenty reached St. Mac Vs Essay! Louis in surprisingly good health and condition. Only one man failed to complete the trip. One week short of their destination, Pvt.
Eugene Jones claimed to be too weak to continue. Moss shipped Jones and his bicycle back to Fort Missoula by train. No one missed him. They were too busy enjoying their moment of well-deserved acclaim in cycling history. Chapter 5: The Bicycle Goes to War. The bicycle managed to survive three decades of trial-and-error military experiments before actually being committed to battle, But going to war on two-wheelers was actually a two-phase affair, the first being a too-late entry into Cuba, and the second being a full-scale test in South Africa. The initial orders for why am i here, combat service came with the Spanish-American War of 1898, and once again it brought to the limelight none other than Lt. All About It Gcse Coursework! James Moss and why am i here in college essay, his men of the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps . . When Moss completed historic journey from Montana to Missouri, his hopes for realistic tests for bicycle troops fell by the wayside. He soon found himself a cyclist leader with no one to lead, and diploma essays, an officer without a command. On his return to why am i here in college, Fort Missoula, Moss prepared an official proposal, for an unprecedented and, he considered, a really acid test of the bicycle under field conditions.
He asked permission to lead twenty Soldier-cyclists from Fort Missoula to San Francisco, and to return along a route different from the outgoing roads. To Moss, who now had experience to back his proposal, such a trip would demonstrate beyond all question the bicycle's qualifications as a vehicle to convey troops across long distances at only a fraction of the cost of horse-drawn wagons . Moss was dismayed to discover his enthusiasm didn't reach beyond the walls of Fort Missoula. The Secretary of it gcse coursework, War , who passed upon such matters, had little interest in Soldiers pedaling their way around the why am in college essay country. Koalas Are Dumb! The horse and the railroad , by God, were the ways to transport fighting men. In College Essay! Moss's request came back with the essay explanation that sufficient experiments had already been made with the military bicycle to tell the army everything it needed to know about in college such matters . Sorely disappointed, Moss swallowed his pride and returned to the mundane life of an army post officer, while the black cyclists who had made history with him returned to their prosaic duties. Yet prosaic was a matter of koalas, attitude. The black Soldiers' regiment was at the time the only organized force in the northwestern United States, and why am i here in college, much of their time was spent away from their post, helping people recover from the [transformationunderfire] ravages of weather and pc contrast, man . They assisted people caught in floods, fires, and storms. Why Am In College! When local police authority failed to control lawlessness, the black Soldiers went out to regain command.
They assisted Indian agents in a wide range of duties. They trailed deserters across hundreds of miles, formed military posses where they were needed. At times such duty was the best a Soldier could have, for the men often set up camps deep in California's Yosemite, Sequoia, and service leadership, Grant national parks. There they rounded up cattle and sheep-rustlers, disarmed anyone caught carrying weapons without special authority, protected game in the parks, arrested timber stealers, and often, fought raging forest fires. Then came the Spanish-American War and a renewed interest in bicycle-mounted troops.
Moss received orders to. regroup his force. Now he was in command of 100 men, all trained to use the bicycle as a well-disciplined military force. Once he had selected the why am i here essay men best suited for the new cycle corps, Moss had each bicycle fitted with a special clip fastened to the left side of the essay frame, where rifles were carried muzzle to the front and barrel up. I Here! The tension clip was designed to let a man snatch his weapon from the clip for immediate use. Moss had learned his lessons well on koalas are dumb, his 1,900-mile trip, when the weight and in college, clumsiness of a rifle slung across a man's back was nearly too much to endure along with other privations.
He also armed each man with a double-action revolver, kept in a holster strapped to his right hip. Moss never went to [nation-state] war with the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps. The war didn't last long enough. An Old House! Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and his cavalry troop of Rough Riders stormed San. Juan Hill and three months after the war began it was ended. The Army took up occupation duties in why am i here essay, Cuba. Resigned to paper protection report, remaining forever in Montana, Moss was surprised when he received emergency orders for shipped out to Cuba. Essay! All hell had broken loose in Havana. In the wet summer season there was an explosive spread of yellow fever and a mild form of malaria.
Cubans and coursework, occupying American troops alike were affected, but the local citizens heaped blame on the United States Army, taking to the streets with mob violence and riots. The United States hastily withdrew its own stricken Soldiers and in college, Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles sent out a call for Moss and his all-new bicycle force. Two days later Moss and his 100 picked men were on a train to Tampa, Florida, where they moved quickly aboard a waiting troopship. No sooner had they disembarked in. Havana than they were rushed into diploma in police service, immediate riot-control duty. There was no question that their appearance caught the attention of the Cubans, although the first reaction was one of loud laughter. The sight of black Soldiers on bicycles wheeling to scenes of essay, trouble brought its mixture of scorn and amusement. The chuckles died away when they watched the disciplined order of Moss and his men who, heavily armed, rode unflinchingly into the worst trouble spots in the Cuban city. For a while the Cubans held back.
Then the incidence of fever increased sharply and disposable email sanitary trade, amused tolerance exploded again into anger. Moss and his cyclists were busy day and night dispersing crowds and stopping mobs in the streets. There were so many incidents that a force five times greater than the 25 th Infantry Bicycle Corps could never have dealt with them all. Yet wherever Moss and his men appeared they put down the rioting mobs. Their technique was to approach in why am in college, groups from different sides of the crowd, who suddenly found themselves facing a hundred heavily armed and determined men . If the cyclists encountered a crowd that seemed determined to break through their ranks, the men would dismount, stack their bicycles into mac vs essay, a barricade , and present a solid force of firepower. Against all the pessimistic forecasts for a force of only a hundred men, the i here in college Moss troop was given credit as the descriptive essay about house major factor in stopping a potential destruction in its tracks . Oddly enough, the in college essay bicycle troops never had to resort to their weapons.
In fact, they didn't have to fire so much as a warning shot-an incredible testimonial to their effectiveness. The men stayed on twenty-four-hour duty until the outbreak of fever subsided and the threat of movie comparison essay, mob outbreaks eased away. Moss and his men returned to in college, Montana with their weapons unused, but with a ringing tribute to mac vs pc contrast essay, the effectiveness of military bicycle forces. Yet many observers hesitated to accept the bicycle as a major element in the military. Riot duty was one thing, they noted, not without justification. Why Am Essay! [Nation-state] Combat was another. That test was to come just one year later. War broke out in 1899 on the plains of South Africa.
It was called the Boer War after the a mockingbird and book comparison essay Dutch farmers of that land who decided to implement armed resistance against the British advance into the territories of the area. Their resentment began thirteen years earlier when the discovery of gold brought a swarm of British miners and prospectors to the Dutch farmlands . To control the newcomers the Boer government refused them citizenship and imposed severe taxes on why am i here in college, almost every activity in disposable email sanitary trade, which they engaged. The British, as might have been expected, vigorously protested such shabby treatment, accepting the moves of the Boers as a direct challenge to i here in college, the Crown. The situation went from bad to worse when, in 1895, Sir Leander Starr Jameson carried out an unexpected military raid against the Boers. Pc Contrast! The Dutch on their part shouted that the Jameson raid was an ill-concealed British attempt to seize the Transvaal. In mutual self-interest the i here in college essay locals immediately formed a military alliance of the leadership Transvaal and the Orange Free State. One action begets another. The British reacted with the claim that the alliance was a subterfuge to why am i here in college, deny deserved commercial rights to their citizens, and to kill a mockingbird movie comparison, demanded the disbanding of the why am in college new alliance and the withdrawal of military. forces.
No one yielded and on October 12, 1899, both sides plunged into open conflict. Perhaps the koalas single most important piece of equipment brought to why am i here essay, South Africa by the British military force was the bicycle. The British commander had judged with great wisdom the problems peculiar to the country his troops would face. A Mockingbird Comparison Essay! And the first lesson he observed was that reliance upon the horse, traditional in regions such as South Africa, would be a disaster. The mortality rate among such animals was nothing less than crippling. To have based his field operations upon horse-mounted troops, with the loss of the horses through disease and sickness, could have crippled his men and in college, left them at the mercy of their enemies. At the same time, he needed mobility. The nature of the land called for great flexibility in moving his forces from one danger point to another.
For this purpose the British made their gamble on the bicycle. If they were right, then British troops would be able to move with much greater speed than' could the Boer Soldiers, and the British would enjoy the advantage of being able to select their battlegrounds, as well as being able to press after enemy forces. Thousands of bicycles arrived with the British. They were given, as first priority, to the combat troops, although they were in great demand with virtually everyone else. The bicycle carried supplies, permitted rapid communication and email paper research, transport, and served as a substitute for horses, without the attendant problems of food supplies and why am i here in college, diseased animals. The bicycle became synonymous with the diploma leadership British in South Africa and prompted one African, upon seeing his first bicycle under way with a British Soldier riding se- renely by to comment: Trust the English to in college, invent a way of traveling while sitting down . During its initial use in diploma service leadership and management, South Africa, the bicycle faced many of the problems other military forces had encountered in the field. Why Am I Here Essay! The machines were heavy, required excessive maintenance and, unless surface conditions were reasonable, they often had to be abandoned by troops who were forced to keep moving in field operations. All that changed when Dursley Pederson applied common sense and skilled engineering to the problem, and produced a folding bicycle that weighed only fifteen pounds . Soldiers who were issued the new machines quickly devised carrying straps and slings for the folded bicycles, and are dumb, overnight the why am i here in college essay problems of moving through terrain impassable to essay, any wheeled vehicle disappeared. On good terrain the troops could travel from forty to why am in college essay, sixty miles a day with full equipment. When they encountered uncharted and rough surfaces, the it gcse men folded their bicycles into a compact and why am in college, manageable size, lashed them to their backs, and kept moving on foot.
The moment they were back on reasonable ground, the folded machines were reassembled, and pc contrast essay, the men were moving swiftly in pursuit of their enemy. No force on foot could hope to escape the cyclist troops . Why Am I Here Essay! The advantages of the bicycle were never brought home more forcibly than when British and African Soldiers were chasing their enemy holed up in distant sanctuaries. So long as the Boers knew the general distance of essay about house, their camps from the i here British and Africans, they assumed they had a built-in time safety factor. But too often they judged that time on the basis of troops on diploma service leadership, foot. They were completely unprepared for the silent swift strikes of men on essay, bicycles. The British and African cycle.
troops covered ground quickly, and were able to move into encirclement positions without detection by their unsuspecting foes. Then they had the choice of swift attack, often firing from moving bicycles for movie and book essay, surprise effect, or moving up close to their enemy and making a rush on foot. A year later the war was considered all but ended. The British landed heavy reinforcements under the command of i here in college essay, Lord Kitchener, and the newly arrived troops moved across South Africa in a well-planned mopping-up maneuver. The campaign fizzled out all about when the Boers chose not to stand and why am i here in college essay, fight. Instead they slipped away from the concentrations of British troops to begin two years of guerrilla warfare.
Once again the key factor, where the British were concerned, was the fast mobility of field forces. And the essay about an old bicycle became the why am essay critical element of that mobility. Kitchener's troops were forced to disposable paper report sanitary, comb the i here in college essay guerrilla country section-by-section. Paper Protection Report Sanitary Trade! So long as the British had to essay, move on foot, the Boers could always keep one step ahead of them. But not ahead of bicycle troops, who could move with many times the Boers' speed. If they remained holed up, the British had plenty of it gcse, time to why am i here, move in heavy siege forces.
If the Boers fled, they were sure to be overtaken by hundreds of disposable paper research sanitary, fresh, heavily armed men on why am i here essay, bicycles. Unable to deal with these tactics, outflanked and outmaneuvered by the Bicycle-Soldiers, the Boers capitulated on May 31, 1902. The bicycle emerged from the Boer War with its vital role in combat field forces no longer in question. Theory had been replaced with performance. Questions, had been shunted aside by victories. The bicycle had ridden off to war an unknown machine, but it emerged from its first major conflict with flying colors. It proved able to travel where no horse had ever penetrated . It conquered South Africa's densest brush, rolled along its narrow trails, and sped across fields and to kill and book comparison, roads quickly and silently, demanding no more support than a lubricating can and a pocket wrench. The military bicycle had come of age. Chapter 6: Along the Trenches.
The first light of day came reluctantly, if it preferred the hiding cloak of in college, darkness. Yet the earth rolled ponderously about its axis, and no wish or hope could stay the thin sliver of gray that began to splinter the eastern horizon. As the sky brightened, it passed through a brief period when the slanting rays of the sun- touched high clouds, first with deep pink, then glowing yellow, and finally white, all before the sun itself climbed above the visible edge of the world. In that quiet moment hundreds of thousands of men lifted their eyes upward, regretting the brightness that would follow, that would reveal to them the scarred horror of a world gone mad. For in the area of France where the pc contrast river Marne flowed, terrible things had been done to the earth, now lying stark in the growing day. The fields and the farms, the i here in college banks of streams and the slopes of gentle hills, the orchards and valleys, all had been attacked and laid bare to their earthly bones. In every direction across the countryside holes gaped like great blind eyes-holes made by bursting shells.
Slicing crazily through the mindless pattern of destruction were other scars, zigzag things carved from the all about coursework soil by men desperate to escape the reach of jacketed steel and glowing fragments. and powder that shattered all about it, especially the fragile bodies of men. Yet, despite the disease that scarred the land, there was still beauty to be found. It was fleeting, to be sure, and not all men who looked upon i here in college essay, it saw the same thing. To some it was beauty.
To others it was nothing, for they stared upon the world with eyes too long vacant. And finally, to another group of hard-eyed men, the beauty that was the early morning mist gliding from the Marne River was a gossamer shield behind which they might conceal themselves from enemies. On the south side of the Marne was a group of men with bicycles. Some kept on their machines, patiently waiting, with legs comfortably wide for balance. Others had left their cycles and protection report sanitary trade, sat or sprawled on why am in college essay, the ground, awaiting the signal that would galvanize them into action. But all of them studied the mist that drifted from the rippling gray surface of the Marne. The cottony soft mist sheathed river and surrounding. countryside in a hush of its own making. At a touch of breeze the mist swirled, sending tendrils exploring upward along the river banks, reaching high enough to glide along the lower structure of and book essay, a bridge spanning the river and into the village of Mt. St. Pere. There was a false security in that mist.
It soothed the minds of men, and for this the cyclists south of the bridge were grateful. I Here! They were Germans, and mac vs pc contrast, they were deep in the land of their French enemy. The mist also lulled the French into why am i here in college, a pervasive security that was perilously thin and koalas are dumb, insubstantial. A German trooper, his hand moving with a subconscious desire for in college essay, reassurance from his weapons, slapped gently at mac vs essay the side of a lethal machine gun on which he sat, balanced, waiting for the moment to roll forward. The. trooper nodded to himself. He thought of the French just beyond that mist and a thin smile came to his lips. Turning slowly, he glanced about him again, then nodded with satisfaction. His men, soldiers of the why am i here 1 st Bicycle Company, Rifleman Battalion of the Guards of the German Army, had traveled a long way through a treacherous night.
In the midst of the enemy, the German cyclists had struggled through more than twenty miles of muddy roads, unexpected embankments, and all about it gcse coursework, open fields. They had managed to escape the attention of French patrols and to work their way through mine fields. Moving with careful discipline, the entire force on bicycles had penetrated deep into French-controlled territory. Now, looking down from a slope on the iron-and-concrete bridge spanning the Marne River to Mt. St.Pere, they waited out the final minutes of their daring operation. The bridge across the Marne, shrouded in the swirling, sound-deadening mists. It was critical to the operations of why am in college, both the Germans and email paper protection report sanitary trade, the French. Why Am Essay! Everything had to mac vs, be timed perfectly.
If the German troopers continued moving with the clockwork precision they had sustained through the night, then even the daring of their presence would be far exceeded by what they would next attempt. For they had come here to snatch the bridge from the hands of an enemy force well established on its own ground . A force well dug in, that far outnumbered that of the Germans, was backed with artillery, communications to why am essay, bring up immediate reinforcements, and had a further advantage of descriptive house, zeroing in its weapons from different sides to defend the bridge. The Germans, on their part, had allies the French lacked: surprise and why am essay, audacity. The last minutes ticked away. By the first day of an old, September in 1914 the Great War was still less than overwhelming in its dimensions. Essay! The combatants had succeeded in wrecking enormous areas of land, and at times the bloodletting on both sides was staggering. Yet the fighting was still, as tacticians described it, rather straightforward.
Combat leaders were to accept specific areas for fighting the enemy. Email Paper Sanitary! It was essentially a static front war, with sluggish movement on why am i here in college, both sides; a battle of two massive elephants grinding slowly at one another. Thus the German trooper who came up with the idea of descriptive, bicycle troops, outfitted with machine guns, to serve as a swift-moving advance guard before a main body of troops, was actually a man of audacious, almost reckless, thought. He was flirting with things beyond the why am i here essay accepted pattern of military operations. The idea was ridiculous. But the officers of the German 5 th Cavalry Division agreed among themselves that it was so ridiculous the last people to admit its possibility would be the French. Which meant that if they were too hidebound in their thinking to conceive of fast advance guards on bicycles, then it was most likely they would not grant to the Germans such an innovation in are dumb essay, thinking . Ergo, the French would be particularly vulnerable to a surprise strike with such a force. So it was with the bicycle.
The Germans were under no misconception about the use of the bicycle with foot Soldiers. It could liberate them from the restricted pace of a march on foot, and open up many additional miles to swift-wheeling cyclists . But that was as far as it went, where the French were concerned. An army with tens of. thousands of bicycles aIong its frontline units, like the French, was chained to limited thinking. For it was the official line among the French military leaders that the bicycle was strictly for transport , and could be effective only why am essay, when that transport took place under the descriptive house heavy protection of massed French arms. Logistics, to the French, was the goal for the bicycle, and why am essay, not exposure to enemy guns that could tear cyclist troops limb from essay limb. By this line of reasoning, then, it was obvious that any troops of bicycle Soldiers that pedaled away from in college essay this protection was doomed to being cut to pieces. They must remain with the main force. This was a fact life. Of course, where the French went wrong was assuming that what was obvious to them would be equally clear to the Germans. The stultified French thinking, and lack of imagination was the first breach in the defense wall along the Marne River.
Thus the German moves began with an already existing safety factor-the shortsightedness of diploma in police service leadership, their enemy . On the night of September 2, 1914, the lead elements of the 1 st Bicycle Company, Rifleman Battalion slipped away from why am i here in college essay their frontline positions. Advance scouts studying the area until the koalas essay last touch of day vanished reported all was well. The French had pulled back within their defense positions. There might be a scouting patrol that night, but otherwise the French were holing up for the hours of i here in college essay, darkness. The Marne twisted as it went through the town of Mt. St. Essay An Old House! Pere, and the main French force had dug in why am i here in college, their bridgehead on the north bank. Across the bridge, along the south bank, the French maintained another defensive force. The. latter group was intended solely to safeguard the approaches to the bridge. If there was to all about it gcse, be any attack against the bridge, the why am i here in college essay defenders would have more than enough time to both sound the alarm and hold off their attackers, while the diploma service leadership essays main body of troops roared forth from the why am in college essay stronger positions along the north bank.
It was the type of strategy that induced commanders to shift responsibility to subordinates, and the subordinates, in turn, naturally did everything the easiest way possible. As the in police service German troops rolled silently through the night, all protruding pieces of metal were muffled, with cloth so that no betraying sounds would alert the in college French troops sprawled in deep slumber. Only a handful of guards were up, and and management, these few paid little attention to why am i here essay, the approaches leading to the bridge. What could possibly threaten them or the koalas are dumb bridge they guarded? The nearest enemy forces were more than twenty miles away. And how could they get there without being noticed? If they walked it would take them, all that night and longer, and why am in college essay, they would be exposed by daylight, and decimated by superior French firepower. Would the Germans approach by email paper protection research sanitary motor transport? Not very likely, for the sound of motorcycles or trucks would have been heard for miles.
What about horses? Again the sound would have been a fatal giveaway. No, there had not been a sound during the night. The outlying posts had heard nothing, seen nothing. So one would be foolish not to relax, to why am i here in college essay, get a good night's rest, to count on the few sentries who had the task of scanning the approaches to the bridge. Morning came, and in service leadership and management essays, the faint light of the new day the world was wreathed in heavy mists from the in college essay river. A stillness to make one forget the war. Enjoy the moment while it was there. The German troopers checked their watches.
The weariness that came with the forced ride of more than twenty miles--and with maintaining absolute silence--was now gone. As the last moments of their carefully followed plan slid away, adrenalin rushed through their bodies, bringing them to full alertness. They had managed the first of several impossible steps by arriving where they were without detection. Now they must press that advantage. The German commander scanned his cyclists, took a look at his watch, then raised his arm for pc contrast essay, the signal. The others stood ready, right feet poised on pedals, prepared for essay, the sudden downswing to get started. The commander dropped his arm. The cyclist troops rushed forward to strike, still enveloped in silence, but now racing toward their still-unsuspecting foe.
The advance team of German cyclists took advantage of the steep down-slope toward the river. There, along the descriptive essay an old south bank, was the main defense element guarding the approaches to the bridge. They had to be knocked: out first. As the cyclists rushed down; they spread apart , allowing a preplanned distance between each man. And as they closed the distance between themselves and the unsuspecting French, they prepared to in college essay, open fire. The strike was made in two prongs. First came the advance group, streaming down hill, fanning out, preparing to chew into the collection of French tents . Directly behind them was the main striking force that kept to the road, bunching together for greater fire support, heading directly for the bridge, and prepared to go storming across that vital passageway. The Germans wanted not to pc contrast essay, capture the why am i here in college bridge, which would' have meant bringing up heavy reinforcements, but to destroy it, so that it could not be used. by the French to descriptive essay about an old house, counter a planned offensive by essay the German army. Potential Mountain Bike Handlebar Weapon: Full-Automatic Pistols.
Everyman rode forward with his left hand gripping his handlebar and his right hand clutching the trigger and butt of his machine gun . Moving in behind the main force on the road was a third force on descriptive essay about house, bicycles. Essay! But these men, instead of being machine gunners, were sappers, loaded down with demolition charges . The lead team of cyclists rode toward the enemy, waiting for the prearranged signal to commence firing. It came suddenly, a shattering explosive roar as the commander squeezed his trigger. Instantly the others opened fire dozens of machine guns roaring violently. The men had spread out, enough now so that their deadly fire tore into the rows and are dumb, clusters of tents . In College! In a few brief seconds the essay French bridgehead force, intended to in college, hold off any attack, was decimated. Men were killed where they slept. Bullets screamed through thin canvas and tore into bodies. Those not killed outright rose up in panic, rushing out blindly with their weapons so they might see their attackers.
They. were caught in mac vs pc contrast essay, a devastating crossfire, The men on bicycles continued their dash downslope, firing in long bursts that tumbled French Soldiers from their feet, and i here, sent them rushing for koalas are dumb, cover. I Here Essay! Now they were cut to ribbons by another team of German cyclists. Essay About An Old! These men had dismounted and setup machine guns to in college essay, sweep the tent area. As the French Soldiers dashed out of their tents to avoid the fire of the men racing at are dumb them, they were riddled by the machine guns chattering from the side. It wasn't even a fight. Why Am In College! Instead, the cyclists attack had been so effective, so devastating, that the French.
troops had no chance to defend themselves . Those who escaped from their tents and house, from the i here hail of bullets all about them, could only are dumb essay, flee for their lives. The Germans continued their hammering fire as the enemy Soldiers, many of them clad only in socks and in college, underwear , threw themselves frantically into the river, trying to escape by swimming away, or concealing themselves against the lower bank. This was good enough for the Germans, for mac vs pc contrast essay, their mission was to destroy or pin down the bridgehead defense force so it could not interfere with the in college essay main body of cyclists. On the bridge there was pandemonium within the ranks of the guards on duty. The staccato roar of machine guns brought them upright--just in house, time to be cut down by the withering fire of the main body of essay, German cyclists, already on the bridge and racing for the north bank. Essay An Old House! The few guards on the bridge never even slowed down the Germans. Pedaling furiously, they rushed across the bridge and why am i here in college essay, swept up the opposite side. All About! The lead cyclists were already firing into the main body of French troops, and once again the carnage was repeated. With no warning, completely unexpected, a savage band of men with machine guns had exploded in the midst of the French. Those who rushed from their positions with guns at the ready were met with a wicked fusillade from why am i here in college essay both flanks. On the south bank, the cyclists who had decimated the defenders were now in secure positions and blazing away with covering fire to pc contrast, protect their men who had rushed across the i here in college bridge . No matter which way the essay French turned they were whipsawed by the lethal crossfire from the German machine guns.
Badly outnumbered, the invaders had the satisfaction of in college, seeing the French in diploma service, complete turmoil. Within moments the survivors of the French units were throwing down their arms; In the river, dozens of in college essay, bodies floating beneath the bridge were' staining the water a bloody red. Other French Soldiers were sprawled grotesquely along the banks, like dolls hurled away and all about coursework, crumpled in why am in college, anger. The firing began to die away as the French came into the open, demoralized and shocked, their hands held high. An entire French force posted along the service and management north bank was captured intact. Essay! The Germans kept moving with incredible precision. Machine gunners herded the captives across the are dumb bridge to the south side, where they were started moving at double time back toward the German lines. These men now served a dual role-as captives and as insurance against immediate assault, for a counter strike against i here essay, the Germans now would result in thus committing murderous mayhem upon it gcse coursework, the French prisoners. As soon as the surrendering French Soldiers had been herded across the bridge the enemy sappers received word to go ahead with their assigned job. Their bicycles were safely on the south side of the river. The Germans placed dynamite in strategic spots along the span, connected the wires, unrolled those wires as they raced from the bridge to concealment, detonated their charges.
A sheet of bright flame erupted outward, followed instantly by a, thunderclap of sound as the explosives went off. Huge chunks of concrete and iron hurtled through the air, followed by clouds of dense, acrid smoke. Moments later the placid gray surface of the why am i here essay Marne boiled with the disposable email sanitary debris crashing into it. Well before the gentle morning wind pushed the essay sudden rising smoke and spray to one side, the Germans were hurrying back to their own front lines, herding their prisoners before them. They moved quickly and they kept up their.
pace for hours. Essay About House! By the time they were back with their own unit, the story of why am essay, their incredible mission was spreading like wildfire through the email paper protection report research sanitary trade ranks. The story, incredible as it seemed when it was heard by officials on both sides, was true enough. Why Am I Here Essay! The bridge at Mt. St. Pere had been wrecked, blown apart and hurled into the river. The French guard along the south bank had been torn to pieces, the men surprised and thrust into chaos and confusion. The strong garrison forces along the north bank had been caught in movie, their quarters, their strength slashed, their ability to why am i here in college essay, fight seriously hampered. Most of the men were either dead, missing, or prisoners.
And the Germans had suffered only a few casualties during the daring foray. Essay House! They had fought a brilliant military action and retired safely and swiftly to their own lines. And they'd done it on bicycles . Where were the British Bicycle-Troops at Arnhem? Germans on Bicycles Repulse Them in 1944. If nothing else; the French knew how to nurse their wounded pride . The incident across the i here essay Marne River at disposable paper protection report sanitary trade Mt. St. Pere sent repercussions all the way back to Paris.
The French had suffered, more than their killed, wounded, missing, and prisoners. More than the loss of the why am vital bridge. The Germans hap rubbed their heavy boots in it gcse, the French nose. Why Am In College! And they'd gone so deep within French lines. Let it not be said that the French could not profit from their losses. Six days after the disaster at diploma service leadership and management Mt.
St. I Here In College Essay! Pere a French commander, convinced the Germans would never dream that the service French might give them a dose of their own medicine, sent a strong force of bicycle troops beyond the French front lines, deep into German territory. Their mission? No bridge this time. Why Am I Here! No working up slowly to a specific target. Their mission was to get into all about it gcse, the. midst of the enemy, who would not be expecting swift and silent mobility-and to raise general havoc. Which is precisely what the French did. They threw a temporary bridge across the Marne at why am Mt.
St. Pere, they brought equipment over by essay boat, and when the Germans least expected it, French troops rode like ghosts into their outposts. The bicycles permitted them to challenge strongpoints from different sides, all at the same time , and why am, the French, eager for descriptive an old house, revenge, were off on a shoot and run operation that wreaked no small havoc among their enemy. Operations such as these, especially that of the Germans, who had executed their mission with precision, daring, and extraordinary effect, could not help but have reactions throughout the different high commands. Within a month of the why am i here incident at Mt. St. Koalas Are Dumb Essay! Pere, the allied armies of the French, the Belgians, and the British had thrown into the combat zones more than a quarter of a million bicycles . The Germans were already well-equipped with the two-wheel vehicles, and they responded, wherever conditions dictated, with strong bicycle troop operations of their own. Both sides did their best to use the essay bicycle in pc contrast essay, the roles for which it was best suited. It was hardly a combination of mobility and heavy weapons transport, but it was excellent for scouting, foraging, and reconnaissance. Bicyclists could move well ahead of an advancing force to search out the best roads and surface conditions.
They could study the lay of the land for essay, enemy strongpoints and, like all scouting forces, could often determine enemy dispositions by all about deliberately drawing fire . A rather risky way to do a job, but sometimes the only one available. Some officers of the First World War likened the bicycles. in such roles to fast-moving wraiths that always kept one jump ahead of the enemy trying to knock them out. One man on a bicycle, who could use his eyes and i here in college essay, ears and get back with his information, was worth more than a thousand men committed to a battle where the disposition of the enemy was in question. The combat bicycles that came into disposable email paper sanitary trade, wide use with the allied armies were of the latest designs, equipped with three-speed gear systems that made it possible for why am i here in college essay, their riders to cycle over almost any kind of road, without suffering the injuries associated with the to kill movie and book comparison older hernia horrors . Soon a common sight along the frontline areas was a combat patrol on bicycles, peddling in low gear along a muddy and rutted road, but with normal riding effort and also with excellent sustained speed. A sort of personal combat flavor arose along certain, areas of the front, much in the manner of the jousting that marked aerial combat in the fabric flivvers of the age. Patrol leaders took pride in the capabilities of their bicycle troops, and fierce-and often fatal-competition developed between allied and enemy bicycle groups.
They developed unwritten rules of warfare, much as did the i here essay pilots in Fokkers and Sopwiths. At times the exchange of essay about, fire between small groups exploded into huge frays of bicycle-mounted forces, as great armies wheeled to why am in college, have at one another. Finally, just as happened in the air, individualities melted away in the sheer numbers and are dumb, horror of the war. Even when bicycles were replaced in many sectors by powerful motorcycles, the foot-powered machine more than held its own for combat situations where stealth was all important. While bicycle brigades hacked and blasted one. another in the open along the front lines, commando cyclists took advantage of the silence of their vehicles at night to penetrate rear areas of enemy territory. In any war, personal stories emerge as reflections of the why am i here in college larger and faceless mass of men who were engaged in the business of diploma service and management essays, trying to destroy one another. These Individual tales are valuable arid evocative as emblematic of the why am i here essay larger canvas of action. Such is the case concerning Corporal Walter Roberts, whose bicycle got him into diploma in police leadership and management essays, terrible trouble, kept him in backbreaking work while a prisoner of the why am i here in college essay Germans, and also provided his means of escape--a rare case indeed of a man's fortune being welded to mac vs pc contrast essay, the frame of his own machine! Roberts was a Welsh dispatch rider who made the why am i here unfortunate mistake of pedaling directly in front, of the rifle sights of a nest of koalas are dumb essay, German snipers.
Riding for his life as shots rang out suddenly, Roberts felt the impact of a high-velocity bullet smashing into his rear tire. The Welshman didn't hesitate for an instant. The moment the bullet struck he hurled himself into a ditch alongside the road, letting the bicycle go spinning off by itself. Roberts discovered quickly, as bullets smacked the ground about him, that the why am in college refuge he had selected was extremely low, and hardly the best place to be while German snipers made sport of his presence. Beyond the ditch stretched a turnip field, and mac vs pc contrast, the now-frantic Roberts worked his way forward, face pressed in dirt and leaves, belly hard against why am i here in college, the ground, hoping to find a shell hole or depression that would hide him from the hornet-buzzing of bullets.
No matter where he moved, a bullet sang its death cry just before him, close to his feet, or on either side of him. It slowly dawned on Roberts that had the Germans wanted him dead by now he would have been riddled from his skull. to his feet. They were using him for paper report sanitary, sport! His suspicions were confirmed when one sniper expertly sent a round directly through the crown of Roberts' dispatch rider's cap. He needed no further demonstrations. Why Am In College! Immediately, while still lying on essay house, the. ground, he brought both hands into the air, above the why am in college essay field of turnips. When no further shots were fired, and he heard the diploma in police service sound of German laughter, or Roberts clambered slowly, to his feet, his hands thrust as high as he could get them. The Germans waved him forward, and Roberts was made a prisoner; at which time the grinning Germans (who could easily have killed him at any time) stripped him of his revolver, knife, dispatch, and other papers. Roberts gratitude at having his life spared was immediately modified and color by ensuing events.
Any idea he might have entertained that the Germans had suffered compassion evaporated quickly. The snipers, who moved in a group, from one area to another, were weary of carrying their heavy supplies. Why Am In College Essay! And there was this stranger on a bicycle. Don't kill him, friends let use him! They did. Koalas Essay! While grinning Germans held his rifle casually on him, Roberts repaired the puncture in his bicycle's rear tire.
When everything was in good order the squad of snipers came up with their, supplies and gear. In College! The bicycle became heavier and heavier as Roberts tied and lashed everything together. Pc Contrast! When he could barely stand with the machine, the Germans tied a small bag of biscuits for Roberts to why am i here, eat, and with the koalas are dumb muzzle of a rifle prodded him into activity. Cpl. Walter Roberts was now, the private packhorse of a squad of skilled German killers, and why am in college essay, watching them at their work made it all too obvious just how slim his chances were of getting away alive. Well, at least it was better than. being penned up in a prison camp. His captors made certain that Roberts remained in good health and decently fed. He would be of no use to them as a weakling. For five weeks Roberts hauled the equipment and supplies of the and book German sniper squad from why am i here one place of concealment to another.
Every time he thought he might have a chance to escape he studied the situation with extra care, then changed his mind because the chances far success seemed so dubious. But as he walked and wheeled his heavily loaded bicycle through fields of deep mud, along back roads, and through heavy brush, he never stopped looking far opportunities. Finally, late one afternoon, the moment came. It was near sunset. Essay! The snipers were fully deployed in combat gear, waiting in a carefully planned ambush for a squad of British troops who were approaching their position from the east. The snipers did their job with thoroughness. They left nothing to chance, and their ambush was so set up that the British Soldiers were facing directly into the blinding light of the sun. That could work for me as well , Roberts thought. He knew the Germans had already came to accept his presence as part of their own squad. They were concentrating so hard on the anticipated ambush that they had actually dismissed Roberts from their minds. As the Germans kept their sights on the approaching squad, Roberts casually began to unload the heavy supplies from his bicycle.
No one paid any attention to him. A shot cracked out and Roberts flinched, dropping to one knee. Another shot sound, the essay bigger, the and book faster the why am i here essay trucks, cars, motorcycles, fighters, and mac vs essay, bombers, the more frantically they were sought. We grasped eagerly at in college anything that expandimself onto his. bicycle, leaning far forward and pedaling far his life. Essay! Not toward the British but away from them---straight into the brilliant setting sun. Anyone who looked his way could hardly see him, and i here essay, besides, the Germans suddenly had a thundering fight, an descriptive about an old, their hands. Roberts wheeled wildly down a slope, swung along a ditch out of sight of the German snipers, and began the long turn back to why am i here, the east. That night he showed up at his command headquarters, a ghost who had been given up for are dumb essay, dead. Before the long, dreary, and essay, bloody war reached its end, the military cyclist was part and parcel of the descriptive vast system of machinery used to carryon the fight.
Almost every duty that required transport and mobility fell to the lot of the why am in college essay cyclists-from rear-area carrying of messages to mortal combat in and behind the an old house front lines. Small groups of cyclists grew to why am essay, complete brigades shipped to the front, and they formed the coursework major elements from which entire campaigns were begun. By the why am in college essay time the war ended in November of 1918, more than six thousand cyclist troops had met their death in combat; another eight thousand were seriously wounded; and tens of thousands more were listed as missing or taken prisoner. The cyclist troopers thus took their place among the bravest of the brave. Chapter 7: Between the Wars.
What the bicycle could do in the big war it could also accomplish in small wars. Small wars is one way of describing insurrections, revolts, uprisings, takeovers, revolutions, protests, overthrow of authority, guerrilla warfare, and disruption. [EDITOR: a more accurate description is that large wars are NATION-STATE WARS (NSWs) and coursework, small wars are SUB-NATIONAL CONFLICTS (SNCs).] The echo of huge artillery shells was still dying away across the battlefields of continental Europe when new fighting broke out in the British Isles. Why Am Essay! The Irish Volunteers, fed to the teeth with what they considered to be repression, launched a campaign of hit-and-run -tactics, neatly mixed with devastating ambushes that sundered the country. The hard-pressed Irish Volunteers, as already noted, found the essay quick and i here, quiet bicycle the perfect weapon with which to inflict punishment upon a superior military force and armed police. All About It Gcse Coursework! To stand and why am i here in college essay, fight was to disposable protection report research trade, invite disaster. The only way to strike hard and survive was to hew strictly to the strategy of hit-and-run raids. The bicycle brought the guerrilla combatants to the scene of their raids and removed them as silently and swiftly as they had come. A world in which many great nations had been bled white found no way to i here, exist without powerful military forces. No matter what other problems bedeviled a country, government leaders considered (and not entirely without reason) that not to maintain a powerful armed force was to invite disaster from one's neighbors. The economic disaster of World War I, and accompanying minor conflicts, also demanded the maximum military for the minimum dollar. (That attitude hasn't changed.
Today the reference is to the biggest bang-for-the-buck .) To meet these special needs, military leaders studied the lessons of the massive war that had just been fought. An Old House! More than a half-million bicycles had been in use by why am in college essay the various combatants at movie and book comparison one time. And this same bicycle imposed no economic hardship in essay, mass numbers as did the horse or the motor vehicle. Diploma In Police Essays! The demands of peacetime military forces are different from those same forces in time of war. It's easy too see that if you need a patrol to cover thirty miles a day, day after day, and month after month, you're going to be faced with a staggering logistics consumption. Using supplies is only the top of the iceberg. You've got to produce those supplies, purchase them, store them and ship them to i here essay, their destination before they're consumed.
Keep this up for months and years and the economic load becomes staggering. The Great War had ended, but smaller wars were raging, and the combatants in these head-bashing episodes had no choice but to make maximum use of the minimum material available. The strife chewing up the green fields and lovely villages of Ireland was perhaps the essay best example. Why Am In College Essay! From all the various requirements of conflicting groups one vehicle emerged that met all economic needs: the bicycle. At this point, then, the bicycle acquired its between-wars popularity.
Military needs, hobbled by economic restrictions, demanded total performance from the two-wheelers, which remained free from movie comparison essay fuel, food, or shelter require- ments. I Here In College! Even the most volatile critic of armed forces could hardly criticize the bicycle. The widespread acceptance of the disposable paper report sanitary trade bicycle by national armed forces had one glaring exception-the United States . The record of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I in essay, Europe made it all too clear that the bicycle was an idler's toy-at least in the minds of a mockingbird and book comparison, our military leaders. In College! The two-wheelers that arrived in it gcse, Europe with the i here in college AEF, were allotted strictly for odd jobs-carrying mail, personal transport in local areas-in general, for all about, us wherever it was easier to why am in college, pedal than to walk. No native resistance to the bicycle generated this attitude. Rather, the United States had a smashing love affair going with all mechanical objects that roared and thundered and spewed forth exhaust gases. The more powerful, the bigger, the leadership and management essays faster the trucks, cars, motorcycles, fighters, and bombers, the more frantically they were sought. We grasped eagerly at i here in college anything that expanded our horizons and about, increased our performance.
This was an honest, if economically costly, attitude in the postwar period. Experienced men swept aside the bicycle because motorized machines were faster, could carry heavier loads, and had vastly greater endurance. Machines meant heavy weapons moving quickly over long distances. When the argument was put forth that the why am essay bicycle was superior in the economic sense, the answer was that economics were overshadowed by the need for performance. There was no shortage of fuel, nor was there likely to be any. It could also be argued that, on this basis of thinking, the steamship was an economic disaster compared to the great sailing ships.
And to continue this line of to kill and book essay, reasoning, the ox-drawn cart could feed itself en route, whereas the locomotive had to rely upon coal, oil, and water. Such arguments can, of course, become specious. It would be unfair to pass on from this attitude without a word about the philosophy underlying the decision of the United States to ignore the bicycle as a major adjunct to i here in college essay, our armies. We were a nation of descriptive essay an old house, vast distances . Europe was, in comparison a collection of i here in college, small states with short distances between lands of different governments and disposable paper report research trade, languages. A man could ride a bicycle for why am i here in college essay, two days in Europe and diploma in police leadership and management, cross several national borders. He could do the same in the United States and crawl an inch or two on a map. The inclination to count upon motorized transport was a natural one and best suited to our needs. For all these reasons it came to pass that between the two world wars the in college essay United States kept the bicycle relegated to the status of an interesting experiment, or simply a transport or recreation device, while other nations, combined, put more than a million men on two-wheelers. Any vehicle-or other form of equipment-is developed for military use on the basis of what may be done with that vehicle.
So it was with the bicycle. Experiments had taken place in the past involving the projected use of the bicycle in two-, three-, and four-wheeled versions for disposable report research sanitary trade, hauling rapid-fire weapons into i here in college, combat areas. The glorious predictions for such machines usually collapsed when it came to disposable email paper protection sanitary, their practical use in i here in college, the field. Testing a bicycle on a paved surface, as we have seen, is a far cry from trying to pedal that same machine through a road reduced to sucking mud. And a man who is exhausted from that kind of effort will soon heave the offending machine to koalas are dumb essay, the side and revert to walking. One of the why am i here in college essay problems of hauling heavy weapons about on bicycles, when conditions were less than perfect, was the. weight and cumbersome shape and a mockingbird and book essay, size of the weapons themselves. All this was to change in the years following World War I. New metal alloys, vastly improved ammunition, and air-cooled automatic weapons, all brought such powerful instruments to manageable size and weight, so that their use with bicycle-borne transport became a sensible venture. The bicycle itself had gone through a steady evolution. Its metal frame was lighter and stronger than ever before.
The wheels could endure far more punishment than older machines could have absorbed. In College! New ball bearings, lubrication systems, drive trains-everything had undergone improvements. Gear systems had advanced to the extent that a man could pedal up a long slope with a heavily loaded machine as easily as a lightly loaded vehicle could be handled on a level stretch. There was another way-a broad view-to consider the military bicycle. Email Trade! Other weapons had improved, especially new explosives.
Pound-for-pound new explosives were anywhere from two to twenty times more powerful than older materials . This had a profound effect upon military thinking. It meant that one man, or a few men, in the right place at the right time, could enormously affect any given situation-because now they could carry, even on bicycles, a hundred times the firepower available to them before . In the old days, it might have taken twenty men to carry enough explosives to blow up a certain bridge. Twenty men carrying supplies aren't that easy to hide . They cover a fair amount of ground physically when they're under way. Why Am I Here Essay! The chances of making noise are greatly increased. They need protection from men who carry nothing. but weapons, so their total numbers in the force are increase at pc contrast an a alarming rate.
But if one man can carry by himself the explosive force formerly handled by twenty or thirty men, then a tiny band of three men could do what might previously have required fifty . The use of why am i here, such small teams, with their enormous potential for destruction, has made the bicycle all the more valuable. Among the nations that took the lead in developing the bicycle as an essential element in their military forces were England (especially with its great success in the Boer War), France; and Hungary. Essay! Hungary grouped its cyclists into in organization made up of seven battalions, breaking gown each battalion into three companies of mounted cyclist troops. Within each company they established two rifle platoons and a light machine-gun squad. Always available for i here, any special operation then was a permanent force of forty-two bicycle-mounted rifle platoons and twenty-one machine-gun squads. Field tests with the new bicycle force were so successful that the movie essay Hungarian army went so far as to why am essay, establish a new table of organization. Koalas! Before the extensive trials that proved the bicycle troops a powerful weapon in why am i here, their own right they had always been tacked onto of other units. Now, for the first time, the Hungarians regrouped the bicycle troops into a special corps, on an equal footing with other elements of their field army. The Dutch had an, especially keen interest in a new bicycle military force. Having suffered particularly during the war, the diploma in police service leadership Hollanders were determined to maintain a standing fighting ,force in excellent condition. At the same time, the.
limited resources of Holland prevented free spending in this area. Investigation of why am i here essay, all possibilities caused attention to focus on all about it gcse, the bicycle. The Dutch reasoned that they could never establish a field army consisting mainly of heavy weapons. I Here In College Essay! Massive tanks and artillery forces were too unwieldy and expensive. What they needed most of all was a high-quality, always ready and mobile force of light divisions.
Accordingly, orders went out to equip each division with a special unit of bicycle-mounted infantry. Another change came about in the organization of reconnaissance groups. Until the pc contrast essay period after the i here in college war, the it gcse Dutch reconnaissance forces were composed exclusively of horse cavalry and armored vehicles. I Here! Looking toward the long run and intent on minimizing the mac vs drain on the national coffers, the Dutch army created crack teams of why am in college essay, cyclists for are dumb, reconnaissance squads. Using multiple-speed bicycles and men selected for their excellent physical condition they built up squads that could easily cover more than a hundred miles every day. In a country as flat as the proverbial pancake, duty in the bicycle squads became a favored choice for the infantryman. But it was in Italy that the bicycle took a down-turn in post-war organization. The Italian army, considered one of .the pioneering forces in the use' of the military bicycle, decided that the why am rough terrain of the country, and the long distances separating the north from the south, called for are dumb, powered vehicles to handle the special forces equipped with light machine guns. The Italians kept infantry teams on bicycles within their celebrated bersaglieri regiments, but re-formed light-machine-gun squads around motorcycle sidecar equipment. Innovation was the keynote to the use of the bicycle in Russia. A vast land in which the i here essay wealthy seemed always to remain wealthy, it was filled with people who had lived on the thin edge of economic disaster all their lives.
Until their industrial muscle could grow far more than was possible after the Great War, the disposable email paper Russians preferred the use of manpower to in college, machinery whenever this was feasible. Mac Vs! The bicycle, therefore, came under serious consideration. At first it seemed that the bicycle could be used only in certain seasons. Mobility in Russia had to be equated with mobility during the infamous Russian winter. Could the bicycle be used when, the ground was not only in college, frozen, but covered with ice and snow?
Moreover, distances were so vast that it might be necessary for Russian bicycle forces to live for long periods of time away from main supply bases . All these problems were seriously considered by the Russians. The result caught many people by surprise. Using wider tires than were normally used on bicycles , the Russian Soldier proved adept at maneuvering his machine, over koalas are dumb essay, the most treacherous ground surfaces. It was appreciated that men sent into why am i here in college, the vastness of the land must themselves have protection, and it would, been even better if they could present the unexpected to a potential enemy . Thus was created the to kill a mockingbird movie and book essay bicycle-man-dog combination, a troika of weaponry. Consisting of the Russian trooper mounted on his bicycle, with a specially trained attack dog running by his side. It was a dazzling arrangement. Man and dog protected one another.
They could maintain the in college essay same steady pace while moving cross-country. Exhausted men could sleep after covering great distances, with the in police service essays dogs providing the best sentry duty . If the Russian troops. had need to enter forested areas, what better weapon than the extraordinary scent and hearing of their animals-always ready to open a slashing attack against any foe! It will undoubtedly come as a surprise for why am i here in college essay, most readers, but the mac vs essay one nation that made the greatest use of the bicycle as a military weapon was Germany . The surprise can be explained by the fact that the German army before and during World War II was famed for its powerful mechanized and armored forces . It is difficult to imagine otherwise for the Germans made blitzkrieg (lightning-fast attack) a household word. Yet the truth of the matter is i here essay that a great percentage of the German army-before and during World War II was horse-drawn! Millions of horses were pressed into koalas, use for transport . On the why am essay Russian front alone the Germans lost more than one-and a half million horses killed in combat and by other factors. The Germans, then, could well be expected to consider the potential of the military bicycle.
Certainly their experience during World War I had established the value of the two-wheeler. Are Dumb Essay! Now they made their move to improve not only on the machine, and its weapons, but on the organizations using the bicycle, as well as different means of rushing bicycle troops to combat zones where their particular advantages could be best employed . If horses were so important to the German army, it can be understood that a means of moving troops rapidly, without the i here in college supply problems of motorized vehicles or animals , would be welcome. Paper Research Sanitary! The German High Command ordered bicycles by the tens of thousands and rushed them off to why am in college, training units. Years. before the German army committed itself to the combat actions that would trigger World War II, every infantry regiment was assigned one complete company of bicycle troops.
Each company was issued rifles as standard arms and in addition, received nine light machine guns. Normally, the bicycle company marched and fought with its assigned regiment, but the all about German commandant had several options for why am essay, special operations. The German Army in WW2 had several light bicycle infantry cavalry companies in every infantry division's reconnaissance battalion. The reason was to are dumb essay, have an unit MORE MOBILE THAN THE MAIN BODY THAT WAS WALKING. The German infantry also had light tank assault guns embedded with them to work together just like the M113 Gavins we need today. Dr. Leo Niehorster's excellent organizational web pages document these facts. Infantry Division (1st Wave)
Infanteriedivision (1. I Here Essay! Welle) (Commander on koalas essay, 22.06.1941) Gen.Lt. I Here! Frhr. v. Gablenz. Gen.Maj. Frhr. It Gcse! v. Schleinitz. Gen.Maj. v. Seydlitz-Kurzbach. Gen.Lt. Graf v. Sponek.
Airlanding equipment was in depots back in Germany. Gen.Maj. v. Tettau. Gen.Lt. Fischer v. Why Am I Here In College! Weikersthall. recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without armored car platoon. recon battalion without heavy company, but with armored car platoon.
German Radhfahrtruppes (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem. Cavalry Bicycle Company. 1 September 1939. KStN 353 dated 01.09.1939. 1 NCO as Headquarters Section Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle)
1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Messengers (Rifles)(on motorcycles) 1 Motor Vehicle Driver (Rifle) 1 car, light, cross-country (Kfz. 1) 1 Medic NCO (Pistol)(on bicycle)
4 Stretcher Bearers(on bicycles) 1 Senior NCO as First Sergeant / Trains Leader (Pistol) 1 NCO as Armorer (Pistol) 1 NCO for koalas are dumb essay, Equipment (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol)(on motorcycle) 1 Assistant Armorer (Pistol) 5 Motor Vehicle Drivers (Rifles) 1 Motorcyclist (Rifle)(on motorcycle with sidecar) 3 Bicycle Mechanics truck escort (Rifle)
1 Cook truck escort (Rifle) 1 motorcycle with side car. 1 car, medium, cross-country (Kfz. 18) 1 truck, light, open, cross-country for field kitchen. 3 trucks, light, open, cross-country for equipment and ammo. 9 light machine guns (as equipment reserve) 1 Enlisted in charge of why am in college essay, baggage / clerk (Rifle)(on motorcycle)
1 Cobbler (Rifle) 1 truck, light, open, for baggage and equipment. 1 Officer (Z) as Platoon Leader (Pistol)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Bugler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger / Blinker Signaler (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 Messenger (Rifle)(bicycle) 3 Rifle Squads , each with. 1 NCO Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle)
1 Assistant Squad Leader (Rifle)(on bicycle) 1 MG Gunner (Pistol)(on bicycle) 2 Assistant MG Gunners (Pistols)(on bicycles) 7 Riflemen (Rifles)(on bicycles) 1 light machine gun. Light Mortar Section. 1 NCO as Mortar Section Leader (Rifle)(on motorcycle) 3 Gunners / (Pistols)
6 Assistant Gunners (Rifles) 6 Motorcycle Drivers (Rifles)(on motorcycles with sidecars) 6 motorcycles with sidecars. 3 light mortars (50mm) 4 Officers, 24 NCO, 152 Enlisted; 134 Rifles, 46 Pistols, 18 LMG, 3 Light Mortars; 7 motor vehicles, 7 motorcycles, 7 motorcycles with side cars, 138 bicycles. He could group his cyclist companies and send them into battle as a complete battalion. They offered a unique mobile reserve . Koalas Are Dumb Essay! They could be sent out in i here in college essay, teams of all about it gcse, varying size as scouts and reconnaissance patrols. And they were always available for special operations calling for the movement of troops to particular sectors.
Carrying ammunition, and as many machine guns as might be needed, they formed a highly effective means of moving concentrated firepower about in a combat area. Why Am In College Essay! Most armies concentrated the use of cyclist troops in two basic areas. The first was in the form of line troops little different from to kill any other manned force. Why Am In College! The second was for movie and book comparison essay, special operations as scouts or as cyclist-commandos venturing behind enemy lines. The latter assignment gave rise to the German use of cyclist troops that were sent far behind enemy lines by parachute. Paratrooper teams fitted with folding bicycles operated as sabotage teams and commandos on special operations.
Intelligence units intended to in college essay, operate in the midst of enemy country were often dispatched on to kill a mockingbird movie and book comparison essay, their missions by parachute, and then used bicycles to cover long distances on the ground, certainly far from where any tell-tale aircraft engines might have given them away. Another innovation for which the German army was cred- ited was the chemical warfare unit assigned to bicycle operations. Essay! Men who received advanced training in chemical warfare, specializing in problems associated with poison gas, were rushed to movie, the front lines and. to areas where an i here, enemy gas attack was expected. Their bicycles were carefully modified in the frame went a complete chemical warfare detection kit, which would not only reveal the to kill a mockingbird comparison presence of even slight traces of poison gas, but would also permit immediate identification of that gas. Each bicycle was a small chemical warfare station 'on wheels.
The rider carried in his saddlebag pouches fastened to the bicycle complete protective equipment in the form of gas mask and i here, impermeable suit with hood, boots, and gloves. On the other side of the world the Japanese were making their preparations for tens of thousands of troops equipped with bicycles to be used on the Asian mainland. China loomed large on the horizon as a target for Japanese invasion. There were Korea and Manchuria in the north, and all about it gcse coursework, the lands of Indochina to the south, and in all of these areas there was special interest in the vast campaign of conquest planned by why am essay the empire. Japan was a powerful industrial nation; but a small giant. Movie Comparison Essay! Few people are aware that at the peak of her strength Japan never had even 10 percent of the industrial might of the United States. Third World Bike Use: Logistics Kings (mouseclick power point show) To a nation with severely restricted resources, especially, petroleum products, the bicycle became a vital addition to the Japanese army. The average Japanese foot-Soldier was expected to i here essay, walk to battle, but there would be times when speed was important, and the Japanese wanted that speed without the expense of motorized transport, with its vast consumption of fuel and oil. By the time the Japanese were on the move in Asia, they.
had perfected the in police leadership and management use of a cyclist-mounted light-machinegun corps operating as a permanent unit of a cavalry regiment. Fifty thousand Japanese Soldiers, armed with rifles, and i here in college essay, sharing machine guns, were shipped across the descriptive an old seas surrounding Japan. World War II was about to essay, begin. Chapter 8: The Bike and the Blitzkrieg. The role of the bicycle in World War II has been greatly understated. The bulk of the records of diploma in police leadership and management, bicycle troops vanished in the maw of fighting and destruction, Most of the men who rode bicycles off to war were killed, or so scattered that their stories were lost forever. And in the face of why am, vast numbers of tanks and armored vehicles of tens of thousands of fighters and bombers and other aircraft, in battles involving millions of men and in the great struggles at sea, the military part played by the bicycle was tossed aside in to kill a mockingbird and book comparison, the fury of the conflict.
Yet the bicycle played vital, if isolated, roles as an important weapon in a world war that lasted, from why am in college 1937, with the first fighting in China, to the surrender of the koalas are dumb Japanese' in August of 1945 soon after the in college towering remnants of two mushroom clouds drifted away before the wind. Full-scale war in Europe began on the first day of September in 1939, when the Wehrmacht of Germany unleashed its massive armored divisions against Poland. We have seen how much of the coursework German, army was horse-drawn and mounted on bicycles, but it was the very use of such transport in rear areas that permitted the Germans to concentrate their armored and i here in college essay, mechanized forces at the tip of their military spearheads . The leaders of Poland, in the final tense days before they were invaded, were not obsessed with fear of the German army. They respected the email sanitary trade ability of the Germans to fight and had no misconceptions about the quality of why am in college, German weapons. But the disposable protection Poles could not conceive of the extraordinary discipline and effectiveness of the Nazi fighting forces -and the shock was so great it quickly broke the back of the Polish defense. As the Germans moved their armor up toward the Polish border, the Poles took stock of theft own men and weapons, and why am i here in college, concluded that, while they might suffer severe losses, they could throw back the diploma in police service and management strongest blows that could be directed at them. This was anything but blind confidence for the Polish armed forces were every bit as strong as those of France and, not incidentally, almost as powerful in numbers as those of why am in college essay, Germany itself. Disposable Paper Research Trade! The Poles had mobilized thirty infantry divisions and a dozen cavalry brigades.
Their air force was on the alert and ready for why am i here essay, any action against the enemy Luftwaffe . What they could not comprehend was the relationship between the armored spearhead of the Nazi panzers -the armored forces-and the long Polish borders. Against the type of attack expected by movie comparison essay the Poles-a broad and steady advance along a wide front-they could have battled effectively against the invaders. But not against the blitzkrieg, a massing of the most powerful armored forces on the ground, operating beneath an umbrella of the why am in college essay best fighters and disposable email protection research trade, bombers in the world. Shortly before six o'clock on i here in college essay, the morning of September 1, 1939, Hitler unleashed his war machine. German fighter planes-the outstanding Messerschmitt ME-109s-ripped through Polish air defenses.
Polish pilots were outflown, outgunned, and outfought almost everywhere they turned. by the superior German fighters. And with the air cleared of any meaningful defense, German bombers-notably waves of koalas essay, Junkers Ju-87 Stukas -shattered Polish strongpoints as well as armored units in the field. And then came the panzers .. Row upon essay, row of mac vs pc contrast essay, fast, deadly tanks. Why Am I Here Essay! Thousands of men in armored personnel carriers . House! Powerful antitank killer teams. All of them moving swiftly and with deadly effectiveness behind the hammering blows of the Luftwaffe . Polish resistance crumbled on in college, almost every front. The Poles were simply unprepared physically or mentally for the staggering weight of arms hurled against them. The Germans advanced as fast as their tanks could move. Where the Poles massed for counterattacks they were ripped from the air, then cut to pieces by fast-moving tanks.
The Poles had no time to adjust to the withering assault. No matter which way they turned, they were slashed and battered from the air and on the ground. All too quickly the follow-up tactics became evident. The armored juggernaughts kept moving. They swept past huge pockets of Polish infantry, for behind the armored waves of the blitzkrieg came German infantry to koalas essay, finish off what the tanks had split wide open. And within the ranks of the crack German troops, in i here, a regiment of the Volks Grenadier Division, was a bicycle battalion hoping to get into the thick of fighting before the mac vs panzers had finished off the opposition. It was a curious change from the i here in college essay first Great War on movie essay, the continent. Then, in the period from 1914 through 1918, the Soldier on his bicycle had been the fastest mobile force on why am i here essay, the battlefield. Koalas Are Dumb Essay! Those days were gone, and now the cyclist Soldier followed the spearheads of the panzers and personnel carriers into combat. The German cyclist troops, in fact, never had an opportunity to prove themselves in full-scale fighting with the Poles.
The Polish army fell apart much too quickly for that. But there was a vast amount of mopping up to i here in college essay, be done. Pc Contrast! Scattered Polish army units, fully armed and i here, supplied, were on the loose and had to be considered dangerous. House! The German tanks and motorized divisions were still needed along the spreading wave of the invasion. Mopping-up operations fell to why am in college essay, special units, which included the bicycle troops. Most of the Polish defenders had lost their vehicles and were retreating on foot along back trails and into remote areas. Descriptive Essay About! They could be located by German air reconnaissance, and bicycle-mounted Soldiers were sent rushing after them. What was important to why am i here essay, the Germans was not the destruction of these scattered Polish units, but the in police leadership and management need to keep them moving to prevent their joining into i here essay, a cohesive force. And this mission the cyclist-Soldiers did well.
After all, the tanks and tracked vehicles would be back soon enough to to kill and book comparison, finish the war. Eight days after the invasion began, the first panzers race through the i here outskirts of Warsaw. Less than three weeks later Poland surrendered. On October 5,1939, when Adolf Hitler came to the Polish capitol to review personally his victorious forces, the proud cyclist troops of the Volks Grenadier Division were among the crack units paraded before the man who had ordered the in police service and management attack. In the spring of 1940 the German army was again on the move, slashing with its panzer divisions into Denmark and why am in college essay, Norway.
Danish defenses succumbed quickly to the heavy Nazi armored forces, but the battle for Norway extended beyond the planned timetable as unexpectedly stiff resis- tance slowed down the invaders. Disposable Email Report! Here was no level ground over which the panzers could race forward, crushing everything before them. Even the why am essay Luftwaffe was hard-pressed to do its work in steep fjords and mountain passes, where the Norwegian resistance held fast behind its skilled mountain troops. For the first time, the Germans found a critical need for their bicycle troops. A Mockingbird And Book Comparison Essay! Accordingly, crack Soldiers on bicycles were thrown into the very spearhead of the fighting, inflicting and receiving heavy casualties. Norway was unsuited to great masses of men hammering their way forward. The available ground for movement and fighting was much too restricted for that . The battles became bitter struggles for strongpoints that controlled roads, valleys, and backcountry areas. If the i here in college essay Germans moved forward with infantry on foot behind tanks and armored vehicles, the Norwegian mountain fighters set up deadly ambushes, picking off the German infantry from all about it gcse coursework long range and setting off avalanches that roared down upon the armored units and i here in college, foot Soldiers. If the Germans were to defeat their enemy, they needed the movie essay armor as a spearhead to grind along, the mountain roads, while the infantry moved out swiftly from, those roads to dislodge the why am in college essay Norwegians. The system of house, armored personnel carriers following the tanks worked only up to why am, a point. The situation called for an orderly arrangement that could propel Soldiers in swift sorties along back roads.
The natural answer to the problem was to dispatch selected elements of bicycle-mounted troops down narrow trails and along mountain passes, while operating under the protective fire from German armor. This is how the war proceeded. The cyclist troopers of the Wehrmacht suffered severe losses as they maneuvered over icy roads. Yet there was no stopping them. Disposable Email Report Trade! Heavily armed with grenade launchers and light machine guns, they kept moving, with their powerful firepower always at the ready. If they needed to i here essay, shift quickly to gain an advantageous position, the bicycle was always there. Descriptive Essay! If Norwegian resistance was too great to i here essay, risk getting into the open, the cyclists remained close to German armor, while powerful tank weapons methodically blasted away at enemy strongpoints.
It was an effective combination, ideally suited to the unusual terrain of the country. And when the battle ended, it was the bicycle-every bit as much as the tank or the bomber-that crushed Norwegian defenses. Many of the first Americans to fight the Japanese in World War II were pilots, and the ground crews of fighter planes who started rolling on bicycles. The bicycles were not used as combat weapons, but as quick transport, grabbed hastily when the Japanese air strike on December 7, 1941, turned Pearl Harbor into a flaming shambles. It was a strange quirk of fate that many of our first casualties during the pc contrast essay war should occur on bicycles. As the air shook from the concussion of Japanese bombs and in college, exploding torpedoes, pilots caught away from their planes on that Sunday morning took to cars and bicycles, as did ground crews, to reach their aircraft. And they fell victim to strafing Zero fighters, streaking low over the American installations just for that purpose-gunning down pilots trying to get into the air to descriptive house, intercept the Japanese. The Japanese, as has been noted in i here in college, the preceding chapter, had prepared 50,000 cyclist troops as part of disposable email, their. spearhead forces to sweep through the Asian mainland.
And no military force in the history of the bicycle was so well prepared for its task as the cyclist troops trained on Hainan Island by Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya , whose forces finally swept through Malaya and into the great British stronghold of Singapore. Harsh discipline and why am i here, training, meticulous attention to detail, and diploma in police leadership, perfect timing-as well as playing on why am i here, the fears of the British and native troops-gave the Japanese cyclists an leadership and management essays, advantage far beyond that achieved by any comparable force in any war. When we consider that the use of firecrackers along gloorny jungle trails helped convince the British that the Japanese were swarming through the undergrowth-when in reality only why am essay, a comparative handful of men were creating that impression-it is a mockingbird movie comparison essay clear that Yamashita had no competition as a master in in college, bicycle combat. Are Dumb Essay! In the essay many years of fighting in China, the details of grinding advances and the long occupation often went unrecorded by the combatants on coursework, both sides. Yet there is no question that the bicycle formed a mainstay of transportation for, the Japanese army throughout China, Manchuria, and Korea, or that Japanese combat and why am essay, security patrols were carried out by bicycle. In areas of particularly strong unrest, the standard procedure was to send out one or two light armored vehicles as a rolling command post, while anywhere from a dozen to a hundred Soldiers kept pace on bicycles, with the vehicles mounting radios and machine guns. The Chinese, of course, used the bicycle in vast numbers as part of their daily lives, and it was inevitable that Chinese resistance, especially in mountain redoubts, would make maximum use of the bicycle for guerrilla warfare. Such resistance measured always depended on speed and stealth and the bicycle, of course, filled the bill admirably as a means of launching hit-and-run forays against a mockingbird and book, superior forces.
In certain areas of heavy population and industrial concentration, occupying armies were hard-pressed to combat well-organized resistance. Perhaps the best example of underground organization, making maximum use of the bicycle, was to be found in Belgium. In that small but fiercely independent country, a secret army was created to fight the Nazis. Five hundred bicycle-mounted sabotage teams struck repeatedly at German communications lines, transport convoys, strongpoints, and bodies of troops. The destruction and killing became so great the Germans resorted to desperate measures specifically to counter this threat. The German moves in Belgium became their standard operation in almost all occupied areas during the war. Special platoons and companies were assigned to essay, full-time duty to fight the mac vs essay underground.
They were organized into instant-response teams armed with light and, heavy machine guns and grenade rifles. To better organize the in college essay fight against the elusive underground guerrillas, the Nazis kept their units in touch by koalas essay radio with a central headquarters coordinating all movements. To maintain high mobility, the why am i here in college special teams were mounted on bicycles, motorcycles, and trucks. In most cases bicycles were loaded onto truck beds so they could be rushed along highways to trouble spots, and to the edge of narrow lanes where a truck could not enter. The cyclists unloaded their two-wheelers and set off in hot pursuit of the sabotage teams. Normally the Nazi patrols rode back and forth along pre-assigned roads and pathways so they could cover a strip several miles on either side of a major highway. But this was only during the daytime. Then the Germans might roll with heavy forces as much as twenty miles to each side of that highway, moving without warning into any town or community within the zone to be investigated. This freedom of action vanished at night. Then the descriptive about house smallest path, the narrowest lane, became an invisible artery for the Belgian underground traveling on bicycles.
To venture forth along isolated roads at night was for the German occupying forces an invitation to disaster. Bicycle teams, warned ahead of time by radio, would swiftly set up ambushes that trapped and decimated the hapless Nazi troops. Bicycles maintained a freedom of in college essay, action for the Belgian underground completely out of proportion to their military strength. And it was a freedom they used to the utmost, keeping the Germans on disposable paper research sanitary, edge, and denying them great areas of country, until Allied armies hurled the why am i here enemy out of Belgium. When the American army moved into Europe during World War I, it brought with it, as already noted, a total of 29,000 bicycles. During World War II, fighting on mac vs pc contrast, many more fronts, American armed forces went overseas with a total of more than 60,000 bicycles.
But it was a case of history repeating itself-none of the two-wheelers were assigned to combat organizations to be used as weapons. Instead, the bicycles filled subsidiary roles in personal transportation, message carrying, recreation, and other utility functions. In one of the paradoxes of the bicycle's employment during the war, American Soldiers in essay, Europe ended up using the to kill movie and book two-wheelers in pursuit of the Germans-on captured enemy machines. Wherever G.I.s found bicycles abandoned by hastily retreating Germans, they snatched up their booty on the basis that it's better to why am i here essay, be riding than walking. Hundreds of G.I.s used captured bicycles for their immediate needs, which were as wide as imagination allowed. After the invasion of it gcse coursework, Europe on June 6, 1944, and the breakthrough that followed, the essay American Soldiers found thousands of bicycles piled along French roadways. If the to kill French got there first, the bicycles were gone. Why Am In College! If not, they were there for to kill a mockingbird movie and book comparison essay, the picking. One example will demonstrate a semiofficial use for su.ch vehicles. Pvt.
Oscar Mondoza of the 101 st Airborne fighting at the time in Holland, came across a storage depot of i here essay, German bicycles. One of Mondoza's duties was to keep a steady flow of rations and ammunition going to the members of his unit scattered in pc contrast essay, the area. Mondoza was handy with tools, and after several hours of tinkering he rigged up a hauling bed, two feet wide and, four feet long, placing the bed between two wheels he had mounted in front of the bicycle. Why Am I Here Essay! The standard rear wheel with its chain connection provided footpower. Mondoza had contrived to assemble an excellent and practical tricycle, complete with loading pallet for essay house, moving supplies through snow, mud, and even across fields. Of all the bicycles that were sent to combat areas in World War II, it would appear that no one machine could possibly be singled out as a coveted prize by other men. Yet this was precisely the why am i here in college essay case in December of 1944 in the area of mac vs essay, Manhay, Belgium, where American Soldiers of the 3 rd Armored Division were slugging it out with crack units of why am, Germany's special SS troops. German Bicycle-Troops in Action Later in WW2. German Radhfahrtruppen (Bicycle-Infantry) converge on Arnhem.
As Elite Panzerjager (tank hunter) Anti-Tank Forces. During several skirmishes, American Soldiers later reported that they had witnessed the incredible sight of one German SS trooper-powerfully built, daring, and seemingly possessed with nine lives---pedaling his bicycle into the worst of the fighting. Intelligence was at first inclined to water down the reports, but the grins accompanying the stories vanished quickly when it turned out that the bicycle-mounted SS trooper was also an effective killer. At times he would ride under cover of night to a spot selected as a point of ambush. There, concealed from view, he waited until American Soldiers were well within his sights. Then he opened fire. The German was an expert marksman. Almost every time he struck, American Soldiers were killed or wounded. When the G.I.s finally succeeded in flanking the position from where they'd been attacked, there was no one there. All they found were bicycle tracks leading away from the scene. On other occasions the Nazi would ride full tilt within sight of Americans on patrol and are dumb, open fire suddenly with a light machine gun.
As quickly as he appeared he was gone, his powerful legs propelling him away from the astonished and enraged American troops. The SS trooper burst from heavy snowfalls. He struck during day and at night. Hundreds of rounds were fired at him, but he seemed to live a charmed life, weaving from side to side as he raced away from why am in college essay his pursuers. And still the toll rose, and the stories began to make some sort of cyclist superman of the German. The word went out to get him . Even a cat runs out of lives sooner or later, and an old, so did the luck of the German. But not entirely. The phantom killer with his bicycle was captured. He had killed twenty-two American Soldiers with his daring hit-and-run attacks, by himself, on his bicycle! He survived the war as a prisoner.
It was perhaps a fitting touch that the last use of the bicycle as an offensive weapon against i here in college, American troops was more pathetic than it was dangerous. In February of 1945 the 84 th Infantry Division- the Railsplitters -took on dug-in German troops in a pitched battle near Rickelrath, Germany. American Intelligence learned that the Germans had been ordered to stand their ground. They were not to retreat a foot, but were to disposable paper protection research, die where they were, or else hurl themselves at the Americans in in college, a final and gallant attack. And the disposable email paper research sanitary trade attack did come-with German Soldiers appearing in the distance on bicycles. Armed with rifles and why am i here essay, other small arms, the Nazi troops pedaled in an uneven mob directly at the astonished American Soldiers. It was an incredible sight to the G.I.s, but their first astonishment was replaced quickly by the grim preparation to meet the weird and disposable paper report trade, unorthodox enemy challenge. Why Am Essay! At a given signal a withering fire tore from the American positions.
Bicycles were flung and tossed in every direction as the riders were blasted from their seats. The G.I.s were starting to pick off the survivors when the command rang out to hold their fire. The best of the elite German forces had been reduced to. old men and young boys, hardly trained, ill-equipped, but still driven by a desperate hope to stand their ground. The shooting, for diploma service leadership essays, this battle at i here in college least, was over. The G.I.s lowered their weapons and shook their heads as the crying, broken cyclists dragged themselves away. Chapter 9, The Great Bicycle Commando Raid Throughout this book we have referred to the many occasions when the bicycle was adopted as the essay favorite mobile weapon for guerrilla fighters, special forces, members of the underground, and other special organizations that moved and fought with stealth as their ally. But special or limited operations were not the only province of such groups. Why Am! There were occasions, and we have seen some of them, when the bicycle became a primary weapon for a daring and critical operation on coursework, what must be considered a major scale. Among such actions, the one that stands out from all the others took place in February 1942. It demonstrates about as perfect a use of the bicycle as was ever planned.
Our story begins at i here in college essay night, high over the French coast along the English Channel. At midnight the descriptive essay about an old house world was a silent clash between deep darkness and the sporadic brilliance provided by the light of a silvery moon that rode high along the essay tumbling rims of snow clouds. The clouds themselves formed a line of battlements towering over the coastline of France along the English Channel. Mac Vs Essay! The rushing night wind buffeted the why am i here in college drifting clouds, shredding them occasionally and mac vs, creating gaps and valleys, troughs and holes, through which a single aircraft and-in some places-a dozen aircraft might slip with ease. This is precisely what happened at midnight: through the gap of one great cloud ravine, gliding like silvery metallic minnows against the mile-high towets of clouds, flew a long formation of Whitleys . The Whitley was, by contemporary standards, an ancient machine, a bomber that had seen its best days in years past, a combat machine that dared not venture into skies filled with new German fighters.
But while it could no longer perform adequately in the thick of aerial conflict, it flew well, and it had a capacious fuselage into which men, instead of i here in college essay, bombs, might fit. All About It Gcse Coursework! And if a special effort needed to be made, the lumbering Whitley could carry both men and bombs. So it was this night. The bomb bays carried their bulging cases of death, and the bellies of the airplanes were crowded with men. British commandos, clumsy in fighting gear and why am i here in college essay, parachutes. Cold, jammed together, uncomfortable, waiting to plunge into action. The British formation of bombers was detected by the enemy.
German radar, German acoustic detectors, German ears saw and heard the paper report research sanitary line of aircraft and plotted their probable target. Essay! Those targets ahead of the bomber formation were alerted about the chances of a raid. Antiaircraft installations rumbled into action and at descriptive house remote airfields Luftwaffe pilots hurried with sleep-heavy eyes to their machines. There was no immediate rush to meet the bombers. Essay! They were swinging inland along a course that would take them to an industrial target some distance away. Koalas Are Dumb Essay! So the Nazis paid little attention, except for tracking, as the old bombers droned over the coastline. And no one on the ground saw the dark shapes tumble from the bellies of the Whitleys . Dozens of objects fell toward the earth below and then, suddenly, their plunge was arrested as dark canopies blossomed, with thin riflelike sounds. An entire commando force had left the old Whitleys , which continued on with a diversionary bombing strike. The men floated easily and silently through the cold air.
They had selected their landing area well, in open fields far from why am in college essay any community. The commandos assembled quickly. It had been a good drop. They were eight miles from their objective . If they continued to move as planned, maintaining silence, there was every chance they would burst with complete surprise upon to kill comparison essay, the Germans. As guards searched the area, the other men unfolded strange contraptions of metal bars, wheels, spokes, pedals, and why am, handles. Within scant minutes every British commando had beneath him a completely assembled bicycle . Quickly the paratroopers loaded their gear-grenades, ammunition, machine guns, iron rations, explosive charges. Using hand signals instead of voice commands they pedaled away, following a narrow trail covered with a thin layer of fresh snow. The men rode steadily through the night along the French coastline. Eight miles ahead of them lay a huge and secret radar installation, the most advanced system of its kind.
It was a powerful weapon in the hands of the Germans, used fqr tracking aircraft flying to Europe from Britain. Knocking out the radar would effectively poke a stick in the electronic vision of the descriptive an old Nazis. Leading the commando force was Maj. John D. Sheffield. [EDITOR: then Lieutenant John Frost was a subordinate leader of this raid] The major crossed his fingers. If events kept unfolding the way they had so far, they could do their job and get out without suffering heavy casualties. Knocking out the radar installation might turn out to be a bigger bite than they could handle. The radar system was critical to German air defense on the (Continent and why am essay, the Nazis were sure to have set up bristling defenses on the ground. Sheffield shrugged to research trade, himself. They'd know soon enough.
He had led his small force through brutal training for four solid weeks, and each man was already a crack professional before joining Sheffield's tight commando group. Every man knew as well as did Sheffield the layout of their objective. The vital radar site lay near the village of Bruneval in northern France, about twelve miles north-northeast of Le Havre. As well-defended as was the radar installation, British army officials were gambling everything on the fact that the enemy would never dream an attack would be launched against the well-defended site by i here in college bicycle . It seemed too incongruous, this concept of trained killers pedaling their way into all about it gcse coursework, the mouths of in college, German guns. Well, now they were for it. Sheffield and and book comparison essay, his commandos maintained a steady pace on their bicycles, on the way to their moment of why am in college, destiny. The Royal Air Force had flown them in.
If they did their job and survived to get away, the Royal Navy would be waiting for them on the beach to and book comparison, bring them out. There was only why am i here, one small hitch about that. First, the commandos had to wrest control of the diploma service essays beach away from the Germans. Intelligence advised Sheffield and his men that the radar installation itself appeared to be housed within a cabin, standing deep inside a pit. I Here! The cabin itself was located near ari isolated house between cliffs that were 500 feet high. The Intelligence report, based on aerial reconnaissance photographs, described the to kill a mockingbird comparison house as lithe modern villa type and why am essay, quite new . Undoubtedly taken over for all about it gcse coursework, the convenience of the Germans, judged Sheffield. Yet the why am i here essay information had presented a serious problem. The towering cliffs eliminated any hope of making an essay, assault from the sea. Long before a small striking force could work its way to the radar site it would come under a withering crossfire.
The answer was the i here in college essay parachute and the bicycle . Even as the koalas are dumb commandos rode toward their objective, the old Whitleys were dumping their bombs on a distant target, and hoping the Germans would see nothing unusual in their flight pattern. Sheffield thought of one beach area in i here, particular. A Mockingbird! It lay about a quarter of a mile south of the radar installation, a small steeply sloping beach of pebbles and sand lying at the foot of high chalk and why am i here essay, flint formations. He hoped to movie comparison essay, see that pebbly stretch of sand on schedule, for it was there the essay Navy would pick them up for the dash home across the Channel. Sheffield concentrated his thoughts again on the defenses of the essay about radar site. Most of the work crew, he had been told, would be German specialists attending to why am i here essay, the radar equipment itself. They might or might not be armed. That situation would have to be handled as events developed. Immediately adjacent to the radar installation, the Nazis had prepared an to kill a mockingbird movie comparison essay, extensive trench with regularly spaced dugouts, where the commandos might encounter heavy machine-gun fire.
A short distance from the site was a powerful pillbox covered by a machine-gun detail and situated right on the edge of a cliff, so that it looked down on the radar installation. Just south of Bruneval was another pillbox. Both pillboxes were so located that they could cover the cove in a devastating crossfire. Four hundred yards inland from the radar site was a farmhouse with a German garrison of unspecified strength, but believed to be strong in numbers. A small wooded area embraced the farmhouse, which was designated on Sheffield's map by why am i here in college essay the name of le Presbytere . In all, the radar site was defended by fifteen separate posts, most of which covered approaches to the beach. The others were pointed seaward . Intelligence guessed that the descriptive about an old German force in the immediate vicinity of the radar installation-the guard force-numbered about 100 men. Perhaps a mile or two away, the Germans had garrisoned a full regiment of why am in college essay, infantry, and a few miles beyond that was quartered an entire battalion equipped with armored cars. Any assault force that moved in daylight would also face attack from descriptive German fighters based on why am i here in college essay, fields in the area. The strike, therefore, had to email protection report, be executed with speed and precision or the commandos would be cut to pieces . The commandos bore down steadily on their target. Luck had been with them in several ways.
A bright moon reflected ideally along the snow-covered path before them, providing the men with more than adequate visibility without risking lights. And the i here light snow cover softened the inevitable small noises such a group might make. They reached their first planned stop point, only 200 yards from the diploma service leadership essays bulking radar installation, without any alarm being sounded. Everything was going with clockwork precision. Staying low, muffling their movements, the men looked to their commander for final orders.
Immediately, Sheffield divided his attack force into four units. He would take the first group of commandos in a wide-open assault against the house nearby. The major believed the why am reserve troops and a good number of the permanent guards would be in the house. If he could catch them unawares--in fact asleep--he could wipe out a dangerous part of the resistance that could be mounted against them. The second commando unit was ordered to are dumb, move against the radar installation proper. Group three would cover this move, taking up a position between the le Presbytere farm and the edge of the why am in college cliffs. The fourth and last unit was assigned to mac vs pc contrast essay, work its way around the cliffs to reach the i here beach. If any opposition was encountered there, it was to be ruthlessly cut down.
At all costs the beach must be secured by to kill a mockingbird movie comparison essay the remainder of the commando force for the purpose of why am i here in college essay, embarkation. Everything was set. The men remounted their bicycles and Major Sheffield passed the word to commit. The first and mac vs essay, second groups pedaled furiously toward the isolated house and the radar post. Still no alarm!
As quickly as they reached their objectives the in college men leaped off the it gcse coursework bicycles and rushed to attack position. Sheffield headed straight for the farmhouse door. A heavy boot smashed it open and the major dashed inside, weapon at i here in college essay the ready. No one in sight. Sheffield blew a loud blast on his whistle and other commandos rushed in on his heels, moving swiftly to break into the four rooms on the ground floor.
They were all empty. At once Sheffield pounded up the stairs, four men with him, to descriptive essay an old, the second landing. Hiinde hoch! he called, shouting an order to surrender. A single thunderstruck German Soldier brought his the i here essay radar site. But that accounted only for koalas are dumb essay, enemy personnel in the immediate area. Sheffield realized that reinforcements would soon be rushing to the scene.
As things turned out, the i here essay troops assigned to permanent garrison duty were already on the move. The first sign that all was not well came with a long burst of probing machine-gun fire from the nearby farm of le Presbytere . German troops were on the move within the wooded area surrounding the farmhouse. First things first, reasoned Sheffield. All About It Gcse Coursework! Return to the house and get his men out. Firing on the run in short bursts, the first group with Sheffield raced back to the house where the twelve men were standing fast. Now the men ran outside again, crouching low and weaving from i here in college essay side to side. Essay House! The German troops were completely over their initial surprise and i here essay, laying down a heavy fire. All About It Gcse! Miraculously, only one man was hit.
Despite his wounds, he kept up with the rest of the why am i here men. Sheffield's group, joining up with the third-or covering-unit, scrambled to set up a heavy defensive fire in the vicinity of the radar post. The demolition team needed time to disposable email protection research, set their explosive charges. Well, murmured Sheffield when told he would have to in college essay, hold off the mac vs essay Germans for awhile, we'll jolly well give you the time you need. Get to it, lads. The Germans moving in from the farm worked their way steadily toward Sheffield's force.
The commandos held their fire until the in college essay last moment, then cut loose with a withering blast at the advancing enemy. As Sheffield had figured, the return fire from the British force was so heavy, and caught the coursework Germans with such surprise, that they held back on further advances and resorted instead to heavy firepower. Two German machine guns, well protected from return fire, hammered at the British in i here essay, the radar post. Bullets slammed into descriptive essay an old house, the house in a steady rain of death. Sheffield was more than content with the standoff. So long as the Germans kept their distance his demolition team could complete their work. Then the situation began to change swiftly. The lights of three vehicles were seen in the distance, coming toward the essay radar site. Sheffield looked about him.
It was going to disposable report sanitary, get very sticky in a hell of why am i here in college, a hurry. Let's get cracking! he shouted to the demolition squad. Move it, lads! Reinforcements are coming in and we bloody well can't hold them off for long! His words were almost drowned out in another burst of in police, machine gun fire. Sir! a commando shouted back. We're done!
Charges all set! All right! Sheffield bellowed to his men, sensing that there was no time to waste. Everybody start moving out! Get to i here, the beach! They began moving from the house, crouching low, the koalas essay men situated in the rear cutting loose with bursts of why am i here in college essay, machine-gun fire to cover the withdrawal. For the first time since they had left England, they abandoned their bicycles. The remainder of their travels would be across six hundred yards of open, rough country, south of their position, toward the village of Bruneval. But now they had a pack. of hellhounds at their heels. German reinforcements had rolled to descriptive about an old, the scene and German firepower seemed to why am i here essay, increase with every moment. It was to their advantage that the enemy seemed to overestimate the strength of the commando force.
They moved toward the British in careful stages, covering every move with heavy blasts of machine-gun fire. The commandos were forced to retreat in koalas, stages, running twenty or thirty yards, then turning and digging in to fire furiously at why am i here in college essay their pursuers. The going was getting uncomfortable even for Sheffield when the to kill movie essay sky split wide apart with a terrifying mushroom of red flames. Instantly there followed an ear-shattering crash of thunder. The commandos answered the blast of their demolition charges with shouted cheers, and an enthusiastic burst of fire in the direction of the Nazis. No matter what happened now, their mission was fully successful. Another blast ripped through the radar site and an angry red fireball licked upward, churning within itself like a thing alive. Essay! Low clouds were moving silently into the area, and the curling flames glowed with a sinister ruddy reflection along their bases.
Sheffield saw his men staring with fascination at the blood-red flames. All right! he shouted. The sightseeing is done with. Let's move it! Retreat, fire in short, massed bursts, then run like hell and flop down in the thin snow for another ripping fire at the Germans. They were at the cliffs and a voice called hoarsely.
The boats are here. It's all right, fellows. Come on down, and hurry it up, will you? Sudden elation became shock when German machine-gun posts on each cliff opened up with stuttering bursts. The troops in the pillbox had waited out the retreat in silence, knowing the commandos must venture into their crossfire when they tried to koalas essay, work their way down to in college essay, the beach. About An Old House! Now Sheffield and why am i here in college essay, his men were being cut up by fire from their front and rear. Dig in! he roared to the commandos.
They had taken immediate hits. One man died instantly as he took the full effect of a long burst. A second commando tumbled wildly through the air, collapsing with several bullets in diploma in police, his legs and a third fell with three rounds in his abdomen. His stunned friends found him alive and cursing his luck. No one believed it then, but the man would be carried to i here in college essay, safety and would survive the raid. Sheffield was trying to paper protection report research, figure a way out of the why am mess when a voice called up to him from the pc contrast beach. Don't come down, whatever you do! The beach isn't secured yet!
Sheffield recognized the voice of why am essay, Lieutenant Frost, commanding the fourth unit of disposable paper sanitary, commandos . It wasn't difficult to figure what had happened. Frost's group had run into stiff German resistance. All they could do was hold on until more commandos arrived. Sheffield ordered one group of his men to concentrate their fire on the machine guns atop the why am i here essay cliffs. With those weapons pinned down, he led a force of commandos through the narrow pass and down onto the beach to link up with Frost's men. The unit firing at the cliff top Germans then withdrew hastily and it gcse, joined Sheffield. With full strength at hand, the major began the in college rush against German outposts along the beach.
The biggest problem was a pillbox bristling with machine guns. Sheffield and several men with him went in low, against the pillbox walls, and hurled grenades through the essay gun slit. They mopped up swiftly until answering German fire from the beach died out. Further along the in college beach, the commandos discovered a small house that had remained unknown to them. Within the house a single German orderly clung to his telephone, trying to it gcse, explain to a major from the nearby garrison that the explosions along the beach were from grenades thrown by British Commandos . Unable to understand the words because of the why am in college noise of gunfire and exploding grenades, the German officer was reduced to cursing and shouting.
He never had the chance to finish. The commandos burst into the house and the German signalman threw up his hands. The British troops took the signalman, and another wounded German hiding in a back room, as prisoners. Koalas Are Dumb! These two men, along with one soldier captured along the in college essay edge of the cliff, were the paper research trade only prisoners taken during the raid. Sheffield peered at his watch. It was two-thirty in the morning. The commandos had been on French soil twoand-a-half hours. I Here! Off the coast, the Navy rescue force had been watching, spellbound, as the night lit up with explosions and the glowing fireballs of tracer bullets. Finally they received the pickup signal and started in.
Assault landing craft rode directly to the beach, where the commandos poured aboard. Heavy German fire from machine guns swept the beach. Further out to sea, supporting ships opened fire with heavy weapons. To Kill Movie And Book! British guns raked the cliff tops with thundering blasts that killed many enemy defenders and tore huge chunks from the i here nearly vertical walls. The German fire died abruptly, and the assault ships pulled away from the beaches. Essay House! Of the commando force that rode its bicycles along the French coastline, eight men were left behind.
One had been killed. The other seven never made it to the beach, but Sheffield could no longer wait for them. The boats had to break from the beaches. As they headed back for England he counted his casualties. Why Am I Here In College Essay! One dead, seven wounded, seven missing. They were fifteen miles from the French coast when dawn broke. Spitfires flew protection cover. But Sheffield and his men were looking at email paper report sanitary trade the beach fading in the distance, where the ruins of the why am i here shattered radar installation were still smoking. Chapter 10: The Other Side of the World. First it was China.
Fifty thousand Japanese troops on bicycles with rifles, light machine guns, and mortars. A rolling mass of soldiery carrying supplies and food, spare parts and medicines, everything an army on the move might need. The officers rode on horses or in the rare motor vehicle, but when the Japanese army struck across a country where no rail lines stretched, they sent their best men on bicycles. While the Japanese chewed away at the vast mainland of in police and management essays, China, more troops trained with bicycles on in college, Hainan Island under the fierce disciplinary rules set up by General Tomoyuki Yamashita. Others went through their drills in mainland Japan. These troops lived under primitive field conditions . Again and again they rehearsed beach assaults and invasion breakouts.
They were drilled until they were considered experts in maintaining their health in humid jungle conditions and knew how to it gcse, use the jungle to i here essay, obtain food. They were already loaded on troopships moving away from home ports when Peal Harbor was bombed into a blazing shambles. Across the Pacific went the Japanese. And into the Philippines went their best army-thousands of the service leadership essays Soldiers on bicycles. Without trains, without fleets of.
trucks, the Japanese army moved swiftly along roads, paths, and trails . Retreating Filipino troops and hard-pressed Americans were stunned,to find the Japanese foot Soldier always breathing down their necks. Then came Malaya and Singapore, where General Yamashita's earlier meticulous preparations for battle against the British paid off so handsomely. The victory he achieved in this theater of war is even more noteworthy in i here in college, view of the almost insurmountable problem he faced of defeating an army three times stronger than the largest force Japan could bring to bear against the British-and the latter were embedded within a mighty fortress. It is descriptive essay important to note, also, that from the outset the why am in college essay bicycle affected every move the Japanese general was to make. The first thing not to about an old house, do, Yamashita knew, was to hurl himself and his men into the teeth of enemy firepower. Open attack was suicide.
But what if the essay defenders could be made to believe that the coursework Japanese attackers were many times stronger than their actual number? The ultimate purpose of any assault is to make the defenders change their minds about in college resisting . If they believe they can't hold out against attack, there's a good chance they'll give up quickly. Keeping this tactic in mind, Yamashita began his extensive preparations. Long before the Japanese planned to launch their invasion, he set up a network of espionage and intelligence. He recruited as his agents fishermen, plantation managers, merchants, barbers, and photographers from among the Japanese already living and working in Malaya. From the reports this network forwarded to headquarters in Japan, Yamashita acquired an to kill a mockingbird essay, excellent inside view of conditions existing in the Malayan countryside and within Singapore itself. The old adage that truth is often stranger--and more unbelievable-than fiction applied in every way to Yamashita's careful preparations. For the methods he was employing were those taught annually at British staff war colleges ! Special studies conducted by the British showed that an attempt to take Singapore had .the best chance of succeeding if the invader landed in Malaya and worked his way southward. Above all, the invader would do well not to attempt an assault by i here in college essay sea, where he would be met by massed big guns. That is so strange is about house that what was established doctrine in the war colleges never seemed to reach the men who commanded the defense of Singapore, and they operated under the firm belief that the Japanese would never dare to attack except from the sea.
At the same time the British considered the jungle an impassable barrier, simply because no large military force had thus far penetrated it. The rest is history. Yamashita's troops spent months learning to live in thick jungle growth, to cut bicycle trails through heavy undergrowth to move on bicycles and to fight at a moment's notice. As Yamashita had planned, his men used abandoned British trucks for transport wherever they were to be found. But most of in college essay, his troops moved silently through the in police service jungle on bicycles. Finally major contact was made with resisting British forces, and Yamashita opened his bag of surprises. First, the size of i here in college, his force was less important than what the British believed that force to be. Yamashita sent picked troops riding through jungle trails on their bicycles, setting off firecrackers and explosive charges. Everywhere the British turned they heard explosions and are dumb essay, shots ripping through the heavy growth.
The constant barrage of explosions and shots, combined with well-timed and fiercely mounted Japanese attacks, convinced the British that they were under assault by an enormous army grinding its way into Singapore from the land side-where its defenses were weakest. It took more than this grimly effective charade finally to defeat the British, of course. But Yamashita had gained an enormous advantage over his enemy. Large areas of i here in college, jungle, as well as selected strongpoints, were yielded to his phantom army , when a minimum of resistance might have held the Japanese at bay. The defeat of Japan in the late summer of 1945 was the beginning of one of the longest wars in modern history the bitter struggle for control of the mountainous jungle of Indochina. In the land we know today. Vietnam, North and South, insurgent guerrilla forces had waited out years of fighting against the Japanese, prepared, to take over control of their lands when the Japanese were thrown out. The rest is, of course, history. All About Coursework! The moment the Japanese were gone, the French returned, convinced that they would resume their former position as rulers of Indochina. But the insurgency forces of why am i here, Ho Chi Minh, led by the brilliant General va Nguyen Giap, had already steeled themselves to begin a new fight for liberation-to rid their land forever of foreign domination. For five years the Vietminh guerrilla forces prepared for their final battle.
They had nothing to compare with the great weapons of their enemies. They lacked tanks and armored vehicles, trucks and warships. They counted no heavy artillery among their forces. There were no fighter. planes and bombers. No transports. No fleets of helicopters.
But they had the bicycle. From only a hundred feet away the eye can see nothing but thick jungle. But as, the viewer moves through the tangling plants and vines it is possible to discern a narrow trail winding through the growth. A trail barely wide enough for mac vs pc contrast essay, two men walking abreast. That was all. A narrow dirt trail in the midst of teeming jungle: the guerrilla highway leading through Vietnam. Sounds are heard along the trail, and a convoy works its way into view. The word convoy invariably brings to i here essay, mind great fleets of trucks. Not !here.
Instead the viewer sees a long column of weary Vietnamese. They move single file along the koalas narrow trail through the jungle. Each man walks alongside a bulging mass of i here in college essay, supplies. Barely visible is the bicycle on which. one man can move a quarter-ton of materials. A Peugeot, modified with bamboo poles to extend one handlebar.
A brake lever sticking well to the side of the' machine. Racks and handles all over the thing. A bicycle impossible for a man to ride. But he can walk his machine with its enormous supply load. A thousand men could move 250 tons steadily along the guerrilla highway. Ten thousand men could move 2,500 tons down this highway. If you had a dozen trails-well, the numbers add up alarmingly: If you need materials moved with greater speed, you reduce the load per bicycle, and the men pedal instead of walking. Invisible in the jungle.
Narrow tributaries. Mac Vs Pc Contrast! Dozens of why am i here, them. A lifeline impossible to choke off. The weapon that was to defeat the all about coursework French in Vietnam. The guerrilla porters who pushed their swollen bicycles. ever southward to bring up the supplies that would be used against the French were like pack horses. Their days were spent in muscle-tearing toil to move their groaning bicycles.
Their nights were filled with weary, leaden sleep. When they were awake and moving, their visible world stretched narrowly before them, its horizons the why am i here thick greenery of the jungle. Day after day, for weeks and months, this was their lot in life. At times they crossed marshland or long stretches of koalas essay, paddies. They wheeled their bicycles along narrow trails. They crossed water on bridges made of bamboo and planks. They suffered under broiling heat, endured hordes of insects, and worried about snakes and other creatures deadly to why am essay, man. They ate and drank small quantities of the food and liquid carefully rationed out to them. When they emerged from jungle, there was a vast expanse of plains. And beyond the diploma in police leadership and management plains were limestone cliffs.
Beyond these, rugged mountain ranges thrust their jagged peaks toward the sky, while fast-flowing streams cut across rolling green terrain. The guerrilla highway. If you could stand high enough to gain an eagle's view of the land, you could see for hundreds of, miles across Vietnam-a land where the ground rises and why am i here in college essay, falls in steep slopes, blanketed with sturdy trees and lush jungle growth. Only the crude trails of the natives, or those pounded and hacked out by pc contrast essay the guerrillas, offer a way through. And even the essay trails are not enough, for there are enormous gorges to pc contrast essay, be crossed, heavy, rains and mud landslides often make the footing perilous.
Away from the worst of the essay terrain are the communities. Wherever a strip of land makes cultivation possible, there. one finds a collection of the inevitable straw-thatched wooden huts. If there is koalas are dumb enough land, a village grows up. Now they can raise pigs and poultry, and on why am in college, slopes where heavy growth has been burned away it is possible to grow corn and poppies. It seems to be a geographical chaos. An impassable land with far-flung and diploma in police service leadership essays, haphazardly located communities. Not so. There are also deep and why am, beautiful valleys. And it was here that the koalas are dumb essay Vietnamese began to close in on the foreigners who occupied their land. The cultivated valleys were the in college garden spots of Vietnam.
And it was in these areas that the French settled. Here the French Expeditionary Corps dug in with solidly entrenched bases. Each individual military camp shut in upon itself like a hedgehog rolling into a ball for all about coursework, defense. The isolated base was called Facilite' , a strange play on words by the French. At every Facilite' roads were hacked out of the earth and laid across the why am i here in college paddies so that any part of the local valley could be reached by motorized vehicles. There was almost always an airstrip for essay an old house, transport planes, and, all too often, for why am i here in college, a force of koalas are dumb essay, deadly fighters and bombers. The individual [EDITOR: forward operating] bases, the Facilites' , were hated by the Vietnamese.
And the largest and most hated was in i here in college essay, the largest of the valleys, located to form a center of communications between China, Vietnam, and Laos. The French were certain the size and military strength of disposable email paper protection report research, this particular Facilite ' made it impregnable to guerrilla attack. They called it Dien Bien Phu , loosely translated as the big administrative center of the why am in college essay frontier . This French military complex alone was eleven miles long and three miles wide. In all directions limestone hills rose in the form of a jagged amphitheater, the peaks crowned thickly with. trees, the highest peak reaching 2,000 feet about the Nam Rom River. Any enemy who approached Dien Bien Phu from the east, toward the Mekong, would be tempted to try passage through the valley. But whoever controlled Dien Bien Phu controlled the email report trade valley, and the entire region in all directions. And if he controlled the surrounding amphitheater of mountains he controlled all movement throughout this vital section of why am i here essay, Asia. For years the hidden jungle beyond the koalas essay military complex had been filling with guerrillas waiting patiently to seize Dien Bien Phu from the why am in college French. For years they had been moving supplies secretly by bicycle along the jungle trails to the valley. For years they had buried those supplies in huge caches among the coursework mango, breadfruit, palm, orange, and why am, lemon trees.
With their supplies in caves and koalas, tunnels , and their bicycles hidden, the guerrillas could mix with the local population, receiving no more attention than the pecking hens or the grunting little black pigs. Like other guerrilla commanders, General va Nguyen Giap had long dreamed of crushing the French in Dien Bien Phu. Giap was a man slow in his gestures, clumsy in bearing. He affected a loose-fitting uniform without any badge of rank or honor. He had been raised in the sandy spaces of central Annam.
The stolid man in the jungle had studied philosophy and law at essay the University of Hanoi. Even then he was known for infinite patience and an unshakable faith in himself. Giap realized that much more than revolutionary zeal would be required to break the viselike clamp of a powerful European nation. He studied other men who had done the impossible. He seized on the lessons of mac vs essay, Mao Tse-tung, whose religion of military tactics demanded using every. means of i here in college, fighting at one's command, as well as knowledge of the terrain on which one must fight, far better than does the pc contrast essay enemy. Why Am In College Essay! There was another lesson. An Old! If one remained invisible , then even the guns of a vastly superior enemy could be minimized and blunted.
Giap kept to the jungles, bided his time, and built up his supplies. Two hundred thousand Vietnamese toiled day and night, month after month, until the jungles surrounding Dien Bien Phu became an enormous storehouse of guns, ammunition, and why am i here, food. Giap had waited a long time for the moment now drawing near. Long before he was prepared to smash Dien Bien Phu, Giap's wife had been arrested and all about coursework, sentenced to life imprisonment by a military court-martial in Hanoi. Why Am I Here Essay! She had fought to oust the essay French and had died in a French prison. Anticipating the essay battle against the French, as it would be fought under the command of Giap, Ho Chi Minh stated: It will be a war between a tiger and an elephant. If ever the tiger stops, the elephant will pierce him with his tusks. Only the tiger does not stop.
He lurks in the jungle by day and emerges only at night. He will leap onto the elephant and essay about an old, rip his back to shreds before disappearing again into the shadows, and the elephant will die from exhaustion and loss of blood . Following the i here in college lessons of China's Mao Tse-tung, Giap knew he would gain his claws and tiger's teeth only by building military strength over a long and patient waiting period. In his land transport was everything. Food, weapons, and ammunition were not enough. They had to be brought to diploma in police leadership and management essays, the right place for use at the right time. Everything depended upon the bicycle. Giap increased his military force from guerrilla bands to. a battle corps.
He formed six infantry divisions, each comprising three regiments. He created a division of engineers and essay, artillery experts. Essay About An Old House! He established antiaircraft commands. And he built an enormous supply organization. This, if it were to survive-and his entire army along with it--must be kept off known roads where French fighter-bombers could tear them to why am i here, pieces . The rule was expanded. Everything depended upon the bicycle within the jungle.
Careful planning soon proved itself. Descriptive An Old House! In January of 1951 Giap fought a vicious battle against the French that lasted five days and five nights. The French were astonished at the ability of the Vietnamese to remain in the battle zone while consuming enormous quantities of supplies. One hundred and eighty thousand transport workers of Giap's army brought a thousand tons of ammunition and supplies into the battle area every day. Why Am In College! Unseen by the French, untouched by to kill comparison the French, the bicycle brigades rolled steadily to their fighting men. When it came time to why am essay, set up Dien Bien Phu for pc contrast essay, the kill, the guerrillas intensified their transport flow with bicycles. The Soldiers closed in to why am i here essay, encircle the mac vs pc contrast great French bastion. Seventy thousand men took up positions around Dien Bien Phu, and the bicycles were right behind them, moving in supplies to combat positions. Another 20,000 Soldiers remained in the highlands, ready to leap into action when called. With the airstrip the only safe exit from the essay garrison, many French officers drew close to panic, convinced they were cut off from escape.
The last thing they had ever expected from the in police service leadership communist guerrillas was a major assault with heavy firepower . The flow of combat supplies to advance positions began. on March 8, 1954. Two days later the first mortar and artillery shells slammed into essay, the airport runway at Dien Bien Phu. For the next five days the porters worked relentlessly to bring up additional ammunition. The bicycles rolled in with seventy tons of food, as well as two tons of medical supplies, every day. As fast as the Vietnamese consumed supplies, the bicycles came in relentlessly to replaced what had been used.
On March 13, three days after the runway came under shellfire, the in police service and management final battle began, as the Vietminh attacked in heavy waves. In College Essay! From the crests dominating the valley, thousands of Soldiers in latania palm-and-bamboo helmets began their move toward the to kill and book comparison encircled French. In Dien Bien Phu, despite initial panic, the French were convinced they could throw back the guerrillas. The natives would be shredded by i here heavy firepower from the complex of fortresses that made up the Falicite '. The longer they tried to batter their way in, the all about more casualties they would suffer, and the faster they would waste their supplies. General Henri-Eugene Navarre, commander of the French] forces in i here essay, Indochina, committed what was to be a mortal error in his gross underestimation of essay about, what the bicycle could do in the hands of determined men . Navarre planned his estimates of the fighting on the basis of what he thought could be moved by bicycle-and it was this error of judgment that undermined French strategy to the point of defeat. A bicycle, Navarre stated to his officers, could carry only two to two-and-a-half times the weight of the man pushing that bicycle.
He reminded his men, not without answering laughter, that the Vietnamese really didn't weigh very much. A coolie at 100 pounds could never move more than. 200 to 250 pounds, if conditions were perfect. Navarre, then, was 50 to 70 percent under in his judgment of Giap's bicycle supply system. The French general was also convinced that any attempt to move supplies into the combat zones immediate to Dien Bien Phu would provide excellent target practice for his pilots. The pilots, in their turn, complained bitterly about poor reconnaissance, abominable weather, and the fact that the Vietnamese preferred to move during the nighttime (when they couldn't be seen) or during bad weather (when the planes couldn't fly ). And when the French pilots did find evidence of bicycle transport moving through the jungles, the targets seemed to vanish as quickly as the first shot was fired. The bicycle porters preferred roads to jungle trails, of why am essay, course. Hard-packed and decently wide, they permitted greater speed and ease of travel. The French planes went after these targets daily. If they didn't find bicycles as targets, they would tear up the roads with bombs and, for good measure, dump out a load of delayed-fuse bombs that could go off hours later.
In this way, through creating fear-of the exploding bombs, they believed the bicycle porters could be stopped. Local villagers, sometimes under the prodding of the guerrilla Soldiers, swarmed from the jungle with shovels, pickaxes, and baskets to fill in bomb craters. If an unexploded bomb was the problem, a man would crawl to the bomb and hook a cable to a tail fin. A rope party at a respectable distance would haul on the bomb and roll it away to be exploded harmlessly. Meanwhile, the bicycles rolled on. The angry French resorted to deadly butterfly bombs. Thousands of the small devices were strewn along roads. and trails.
They exploded only when there was physical contact with the essay bombs. But movement on roads and trails was impossible with the deadly weapons waiting to explode. The guerrilla Soldiers sent buffalo from the local villages onto the roads. Why Am! When this road-clearing project ended, there were a lot fewer animals left to work in the fields, but buffalo meat was in excellent supply. On March 30, three perimeter fortresses fell during a long and heavy Vietminh attack and, before the first week in April was over, Dien Bien Phu was completely surrounded. Now was the time to tighten the noose. Giap's army, well-stocked with supplies brought in to kill movie and book, by bicycle, surged steadily forward. As the guerrillas advanced, they dug trenches and why am i here, consolidated their positions. On May 1, Giap's men began the massive all-out assault that was to crumble the French defenses. The French government considered the consequences of such a move.
They considered also that when the mushroom clouds drifted away, and when the fire and heat and blast were gone, the bicycles would still be there, with tens of thousands more on their way in. The French declined the offer. On May 7, 1954, a Vietminh division smashed through crumbling French defenses and Dien Bien Phu was overwhelmed. When the smoke of battle cleared away, the bicycle porters came out into the open to stare at this once-powerful enemy bastion, now brought to its knees. With the supplies rolled to essay, the scene by bicycles. Made by the French.
Chapter 11: History Relearned. Tran Duc Than rode easily with the balance of long experience in the teeming traffic of downtown Saigon. In College Essay! All about him were throngs of people, crowding the sidewalks, filling shops and buildings. Bicycles, motor scooters, motorcycles, jeeps, trucks, and even armored vehicles jammed the streets. It was normal and everyday chaos. Tran Duc Than, like thousands of other cyclist, rode with the all about it gcse coursework flow of traffic, maneuvering among the heavy vehicles. To look at Tran Duc Than was to see any ordinary Vietnamese. Who would have suspected him of being a member of a Vietcong sabotage team?
He looked like any other citizen. There was no way to tell that he carried with him a terrible weapon. I Here Essay! Not anything he carried on his person. The murderous bomb he had with him was 'the very bicycle on which he pedaled leisurely through the city. Yet there was suspicion of Tran Duc Than. Not of the all about it gcse coursework man individually, but of i here, every cyclist in the city. The 1960s were a time of essay, distrust and suspicion in Saigon. Communist loyalty wasn't something that could be seen. Political unrest didn't stamp its mark on a person's face. Why Am I Here In College! Anyone could be the enemy.
So everyone was watched and, as might be expected, it was mostly a useless effort. Tran Due Than was no ordinary cyclist. He had spent. years in secret training with the Vietcong known officially as the National Front of descriptive house, Liberation of South Vietnam . They made a demolition expert out of Tran Duc Than. They taught him that his bicycle was a weapon, with many capabilities. The bicycle and trucks, rafts, sampans, riverboats, horses-anything that could move.
But of them all the bicycle was best. Vietnam could not move without its bicycles. In downtown Saigan, Tran Duc Than was a faceless soul among millions. His bicycle was no different from the others that filled the streets. Not on the outside, that is.
High explosives had been packed tightly within the hollow tubular frame. Beneath the bicycle seat was the main charge and detonator. From the seat ran an electric wire to the firing mechanism. The man and his rolling bomb could use one of two devices. The first choice was a watch and two 4.5-valt batteries installed within the headlight.
The second change was the i here essay standard bicycle generator, by the front wheel, used to light the headlamp at night. Either system was reliable, but Tran Duc Than preferred the generator. To set the it gcse coursework watch-and-battery system required handling the equipment, and this in itself was a suspicious move in the midst of crowds. But with the generator, all Tran Duc Than needed to do was to park his bicycle, set the generator against the wheel, and walk away. The moment anyone moved the bicycle it would explode. Tran Duc Than nodded pleasantly at essay other people in traffic. Far those who demanded the right-of-way, he smiled. An Old House! He took no chances of drawing undue attention to himself. He turned onto essay Le Lai Boulevard, where the crowds and. traffic increased.
Riding was too slow now so he walked his bicycle slowly along the wide sidewalk and between the sidewalk stables of the French-style restaurants. His manner ,was casual and his smile genuine as he nodded at diners enjoying the spicy noodle soup called pho . Finally Tran Due Than parked his bicycle in service and management, a milling lunch Crowd before the restaurant la Petite Maison . I Here! Still as casual as any other citizen aut far the day, he stationed the machine so that enough of its rear wheel protruded into the sidewalk pedestrian traffic to be a nuisance. There was nothing untoward in his manner as he engaged the generator by the front wheel. Now it was critical that he leave immediately. The one terrible fault of the generator detonator was that it left no safety margin of time. The instant anyone moved the bicycle the bomb would go off. Trying not to run, Tran Duc Than slipped quickly away through the restaurant's rear door. His haste was justified. Moments after Tran Duc Than had gone a young boy, having lunch with his mother and younger sister at are dumb a sidewalk table got up to drag the bicycle away from the strain of pedestrian traffic. The eleven-year-old youngster grasped the handlebars and pushed forward.
With the first motion of the wheel the generator turned. A spark was created, and flashed to the detonator. Far the eleven-year-old, and for many of the people about him, the world ended. The explosive charge tamped within the hallow framework of the bicycle exploded in a thundering sheet of flame. The fearsome blast wave erupted with tremendous farce in every direction.
Chunks of the shattered bicycle ripped out in the form of flesh-tearing shrapnel. So violent was the blast, that it lifted the four nearest sidewalk tables, in- cluding the why am in college one at which the boy's mother and sister sat and turned them into mac vs, lethal debris. Large pieces of why am essay, table, chairs, and human bodies exploded into diploma service, the wide boulevard. Why Am! Almost as quickly, the large sheets of, the restaurant's window glass shattered into and book comparison essay, knifelike lethal shards. Dozens of people were cut and lacerated by the dagger-like glass. Why Am I Here In College Essay! The walls of the restaurant crumpled beneath the punching fist of the and book blast wave, adding to the body-killing debris. The thunder of the explosion boomed along the boulevard, followed by the breaking sounds of glass, the thunder of collapsing walls, and the growing cries and screams of the injured and the panic-stricken.
In less time than it takes to relate this sequence of why am i here, events, the boy who had moved the bicycle, his sister and mother, and another unnamed person, lay in an old, bloody chunks, limbs torn from their bodies. In College Essay! Nearby, six other innocent people lay dead, crushed or battered by debris erupting outward. Dozens more suffered from it gcse blast burns, broken limbs, severe cuts, and why am in college essay, bruises and lacerations. In the street, bicycles had been hurled in every direction: Several trucks and cars had collided as the to kill movie comparison essay stunned drivers lost control of their vehicles. A gas tank from a truck, ripped by why am a chunk from the exploding bicycle, mushroomed a ball of flame along the street, searing several people caught in its path, and setting fire to several more vehicles with leaking tanks.
Another four people were to die and more than two dozen would receive serious injuries in the aftermath of the bicycle explosion. The Vietcong demolition of la Petite Maison at high noon in it gcse, downtown Saigon was only one of many hundreds of. brutal acts of murder and sabotage against innocent civilians carried out by communist saboteurs during the years of the Vietnam War. These were acts of calculated brutality, intended specifically to terrorize the populace. Only rarely were such clandestine attacks launched against why am, military or political targets. It was the it gcse firm conviction of the Vietcong that by this senseless slaughter of why am i here in college essay, innocent men, women, and children, they could help bring the local regime to pc contrast, its knees . But, when it was necessary, the Vietcong terrorists followed a definite plan, based on why am in college essay, specific orders from their own high officials-although what happened looked like anything but the result of planning. During the election campaigns of 1967 in South Vietnam, the Vietcong sabotage teams went berserk launching a campaign of mac vs pc contrast, widespread slaughter and why am i here in college essay, maiming of Saigon's hapless citizens.
Weeks before the September 3 election the offices of president and vice president, and for sixty seats in email report research trade, the senate, the Vietcong boasted in radio broadcasts that not a single place in the country would be free from death and in college essay, destruction. Their prediction proved to be tragically accurate. To frighten the populace into in police leadership essays, not voting, the Vietcong launched a wave of mass killings, kidnappings, tortures, and general harassment. Leading the wave of explosions that shook the country were hundreds of i here essay, bicycles packed with explosives. Innocent citizens, including dozens of children, were killed in their homes, in stores, on mac vs, streets, and on why am essay, highways. Each day and night was marked by a mockingbird movie the booming thunder of mines and i here, bombs, exploding without warning.
On election day, September 3, the bloodbath reached devastating proportions. Hundreds of people were killed and many hundreds more injured severely. Fortunately for diploma in police, the favored political leaders, the populace defied the i here in college communist bloodbath and voted for the anti-communist ticket. In the war that was a mixture of shadowy attacks and heavy fighting at isolated bases, the bicycle served the koalas are dumb Vietcong as faithfully as had served Giap's armies in ridding the country of the French. Thousands of Cong guerrillas used the bicycle as them in why am i here, transportation not only for supplies but for moving quickly and steadily from one combat area to diploma in police service, another. Even had the Cong had a huge fleet of trucks and the fuel, to run that fleet the bicycle was, to be preferred for move men along narrow trails and dikes-where motorized transport would have bogged down completely . During 1963, a British civilian lived with the Vietcong and obtained a rare insight into their life built around the bicycle. He traveled with them, riding a bicycle himself, for more than 500 miles through war torn country. He was appalled by the many natural obstacles to why am i here in college, bicycle movement, reporting on the hazards of narrow winding trails, which included roots, snags, stumps, sinkholes, spikes, bamboo trellises, thundering rainfall, liverhead creepers, deadly snakes and it gcse coursework, insects, tigers, and, of course, an i here in college, entire air force searching for it gcse, the guerrillas. He was overwhelmed by the ability of the bicycle to get through everything. I Here Essay! Experience had taught the Vietcong to email research, shun motorized transport. Trucks required exposed roads, maintenance, and a continuing supply of parts and fuel.
They could never vanish into the jungle. They gave way to the bicycle for in college essay, another reason-the silence of the descriptive essay two wheeler. Airplanes make noise, and that noise could almost always be heard far enough in advance by why am a guerrilla group. to enable them to conceal themselves beneath thick growth by the time the aerial killers were flying overhead. Against the towering success of the about bicycle as a military mainstay in Vietnam, it seems strange that a serious argument arose among North Vietnam's leaders about choosing between the bicycle and motorized equipment for the war against South Vietnam. I Here In College Essay! Yet this unexpected political conflict did exist in the mid-1960s. The argument centered about the best means of countering the massive military strength of the United States that was pouring into South Vietnam. Gen. va Nguyen Giap by now was minister of defense and supreme commander of the army. Not even the modern strength of the Americans, not even all their aircraft, tanks, electronics, and new weapons, he argued, should force North Vietnam to change its tactics in in police service and management essays, trying to conquer South Vietnam.
He listened to arguments from his own government that North Vietnam must use modern weapons in great numbers to counter the i here in college Americans. To do this, insisted Giap, was to commit military suicide. Not even help from the Russians and disposable paper protection report sanitary, Chinese could overcome the tremendous industrial power of the United States and North Vietnam would be ripped to why am i here, shreds in the American grinder of military strength. The way to victory, stated Giap, was patience, determination, and adhering strictly to the same tactics that had defeated the French. Gen. Vap Tien Dung, army chief of staff, opposed Giap's views, and argued for massive use of conventional weapons. Giap recommended that Dung and coursework, his supporters remember what had happened to Japanese and German supply convoys brought under the guns of American planes. In College Essay! Giap persisted and in police service essays, retained control. The North Vietnamese Army. went on all-out effort to move its supplies clown the Ho Chi Minh Trail by bicycle.
But the United States had learned lessons from the experience of the French. The offhand attitude toward bicycle transport evinced by why am essay General Navarre no longer existed. American military leaders recognized the about an old effectiveness of i here essay, hundreds of pc contrast essay, thousands of men moving like a sluggish, inexorable river toward their destinations. Colonel B. F. Hardaway of the in college United States Advanced Research Projects Agency commanded the campaign to eliminate the pc contrast essay bicycle transport of the North Vietnamese army. Among other steps, he ordered that a research project be undertaken by the Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio, to determine the effectiveness of American commandos operating throughout Vietnam on bicycles . South Vietnamese rangers would work with the why am Americans in groups, living in deep country for weeks at a time, using the it gcse coursework bicycles on narrow trails and dikes to hunt down the enemy.
The Pentagon viewed the in college essay entire project as ridiculous . Colonel Hardaway was told to stick to the problem at hand; to stop the supply and of bicycles streaming down from the north. Easier said than done. Every day that our planes flew, every day that Intelligence reports came in from the field. Hardaway's headquarters were deluged with reports of bicycle columns snaking their way southward. The American military command tried everything to stop the email paper protection report sanitary flow of why am, ammunition and supplies. They chewed away great sections of jungle and hills with searing napalm strikes.
They dropped hundreds of diploma in police leadership and management, thousands of bombs, from small anti-personnel missiles that showered the air with lethal pellets, to enormous blockbusters that leveled. an area the size of a football field. They sprayed vast quantities of chemical, defoliants to permanently destroy' grass and why am i here in college essay, tree growth and to strip away cover. Diploma In Police Service Essays! They dropped delayed explosive charges, modern versions of butterfly bombs. But the bicycles kept rolling. And as long as the United States fought a political war, instead of waging a military campaign, it would never beat the bicycle. The answer was to stop the flow of supplies at their source , just as we devastated German and Japanese industry in World War II . If the source was untouched, enough supplies would always get through to the battlefield. And Giap, a wise student of the overriding aspects of politics in war, knew he could count on why am in college, his source of supply remaining inviolate. Movie Essay! So long as that situation continued, the why am in college essay Americans were swatting at tens of thousands of flies with elephant guns.
There would be some casualties, but trying to stop the bicycle traffic was like, trying to to kill movie comparison essay, stop the flow of sand with spread fingers. This was the sort of impossible situation few Americans ever understood. I Here! The system of koalas essay, supply by bicycle would always work if there were ample material at in college the source. In October 1967, the American public learned something of the frustrating military stalemate brought on by Giap's use of koalas, bicycle supply systems in Vietnam. The revelation came during testimony before the United States Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Sen. William Fulbright of Arkansas was questioning Harrison Salisbury of The New York Times , who had just returned from a visit to why am i here essay, Hanoi in North Vietnam. Descriptive About House! Salisbury described to the Senate committee how communist supplies always got through to their destination on bicycles.
I literally believe , concluded Salisbury, that without their bicycles they would have to get out why am i here essay of the war . Senator Fulbright came up straight in descriptive essay house, his seat with that remark. Why don't we concentrate on bombing their bicycles , he demanded, instead of why am in college, their bridges? Does the Pentagon know about this? The vision of a vast force of fighters and all about it gcse, bombers hunting down bicyclists in i here in college, the Vietnamese jungle brought on a response of laughter. But no one laughed in the Pentagon, or in Vietnam . Because there, no matter what was tried, the bicycle survived the most modern weapons in the world. In the deep jungle the bicycle-not the tank or the airplane-was the winner.
Chapter 12: And Now, Tomorrow. Consider the world today. Electronics systems and laser beams. Supersonic jets and disposable protection research, men on the moon. Intercontinental ballistic missiles, and why am in college, robots landing on Venus and Mars. Where is the military bicycle in this picture? We've seen the part it played for more than 150 years in the military but at the moment the role of the bicycle appears to all about it gcse, be uncommonly dim.
Well, that depends upon/your point of view. If your attitude is why am essay that of the in police leadership man who lives in Asia, the essay bicycle is even more significant than it has I been in the past for awhile the motorcycle loomed as the winner, but the rising cost of petroleum and the increasing problems of obtaining refined fuel have brought the bicycle right back into the forefront of values. It's in the world of the modern military organization that the bicycle seems to have taken a back seat. Well, maybe. Mac Vs Pc Contrast Essay! You need a perspective before you can make a final judgment. I Here Essay! Consider the role of the bicycle. Coursework! It had an enormous influence upon the evolution of the essay ball-bearing system for transportation. It was directly responsible for the development of the pneumatic tire. To Kill Comparison Essay! It made the need.
for tubular construction imperative for industrial and financial gain. I Here In College Essay! It developed into the motorbike-which was nothing more than the essay bicycle with a small engine powering the rear wheel. Why Am In College Essay! And from the motorbike came the motorcycle. The evolutionary path is obvious. The automobile, a couple of bicycle mechanics came up with the world's first airplane. Orville and Wilbur Wright.
Remember them? And a pair of bicycle wheels made it to the moon. Descriptive Essay About! The mission was Apollo 14, when Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell pulled behind them a two-wheeled (bicycle wheels) transporter to haul tools, lunar rocks, and miscellaneous equipment. The bicycle also had an why am essay, overwhelming effect upon concepts and philosophies. In practical terms it is necessary to disposable paper research sanitary, remember that the bicycle was the first machine ever to be mass-produced for individual transportation.
The availability of large numbers of bicycles had a direct impact upon in college, society, and brought with it profound social and economic changes. The whole purpose of the bicycle was to enable man to move faster and with less effort than he expended in walking . Some people consider the bicycle to all about it gcse, be the humanity machine. That's a statement in literal and not philosophic terms. Consider the why am essay energy consumed in moving a specified distance, as a function of body weight. In other words, to move your body from A-to-B, you've got to burn fuel. If you're walking, you're burning fuel from your body. Essay! And you're not really very efficient.
A man walking from A-to-B burns, on the personal energy scale, about . 75 calories per gram per kilometer (one kilo- meter is about six-tenths of a mile). That's really not too bad if you consider the job the crocodile has getting around on why am in college essay, a hard surface. But it's not nearly as efficient as a horse. It's not even as good as a salmon swimming upstream. Now, from the military point of view, the specific rate at which a man burns energy walking cross-country is vital because supply needs are based on consumption.
If you load the man down with weapons and a backpack (you can now call him a Soldier), you've made his workload heavier. He must, burn more fuel than before, because he's carrying a greater load. But put him on a bicycle and everything changes. Pc Contrast Essay! You accomplish two things, and both of them are terribly important. First, for a given distance; you increase his speed by why am i here in college a factor of three or four . If the man can walk twenty miles in one day, on a bicycle he can cover at least sixty to eighty miles . And he does this with only one-fifth the energy he consumes when walking . You've just made him one of service leadership essays, mankind's most efficient travelers. And when you consider that he's carrying an extra load, his efficiency factor zooms almost straight up. The advantages of the Soldier-cyclist have been amply demonstrated in these pages. They're just as valid now as they were forty, seventy, or a hundred years ago.
We've seen how the military cyclist has gone through a popularity feast or famine. The changes in why am i here in college, conditions determining when and where the diploma service leadership bicycle is particularly valuable have shifted drastically over periods of only a few years. Its brightest hours came during such periods as the Boer War. In College! Its greatest numbers, as an active military force directly engaged in combat, were during World War I.