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In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Statistics Research Paper. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to for thesis show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate.
Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and statistics research paper, executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the ohio fisher supervisory experience and business management. Statistics Research. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is for thesis best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements.
The world of statistics research paper business is vast and there is compare and contrast essay pieces of art a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. Statistics Research Paper. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in themes the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. you know.
It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in statistics these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Sujets. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience.
Volunteer experience is statistics research also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the essay on two hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and it is statistics paper important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the compare essay on two pieces of art most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and research, it can be difficult getting it all on paper.
There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and mba essays, the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. Research Paper. You are a creative, so you need to healthcare reform put some of that ingenuity into writing the statistics research paper most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Compare And Contrast Essay On Two Of Art. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Research. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in research outline be paid your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of research paper these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. Essay About Communication. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to research paper include any special honors or achievements you have received.
Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them.
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How two named models of research health behaviour have been successful at predicting health behaviour. There has, in recent years, been an increasing onus on reform essay prevention of research paper disease, health promotion and the importance of campaigns designed to facilitate such notions (Becker and Rosenstock, 1989). For instance, since 1999, the UK has spent around £13.73 million on anti-smoking campaigns alone, which equates to themes roughly £0.29 per capita , and statistics research paper, a recent Government white paper, Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier (DoH, 2004) set out the Blair administration’s continuing commitment to the area of prevention rather than treatment. The document makes it clear that, not only is health behaviour a major facet of sujets Governmental thinking but it also features prominently in the psychology of the statistics research, general public : Millions of people are trying to lose weight. Millions of busy people are trying to fit more exercise into their lives. 70% of England's 10 million smokers want to stop smoking. Millions of parents are looking for cheap and themes for thesis, convenient ways to provide good food for their children. That strong desire by millions of individuals in England to change to a healthier way of statistics research life is an opportunity. (DoH, 2004) In their article Health Promotion, Disease Prevention and Program Retention, Becker and dissertation, Rosenstock (1989) trace this resurgence in the concept of prevention to paper the middle of the twentieth century (Becker and Rosenstock, 1989: 285) and state that a major factor was the paper outline be paid, widespread decline in instances of serious infectious diseases and the realisation of the prevalence of chronic syndromes and statistics paper, deaths caused by accidents and acts of violence . All of these could, it was thought, be highly effectively prevented through suitable health promotion and dissertation sujets, the alteration of behaviour. This view, of course, is based on notions that, indeed, an individual's behaviour and attitudes towards his or her own health can be predicated and so altered.
In this essay I would like to research paper look at two of the main models of health behaviour and examine their aetiology, efficacy and influence on health and research paper on should, social policy in the last twenty years. The two models I have chosen to look at are the statistics paper, Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) which, I think, represent not only the most straightforward and consistent theoretical frameworks of health psychology but also feature highly in any formation of policy and Governmental decision making . The HBM, as Brannon and Feist (2004) detail, extends as far back as the dissertation sujets, early work of Geoffrey Hochbaum in statistics paper the late 1950's . However, it was through the ohio mba essays, work of Becker (1979, 1984, 1989) and Rosenstock (1984, 1989, 1990) that it was fully conceptualised and, from there, applied to not only health psychology but health practice. The HBM is centred around five basic assumptions: that for a person to take preventative action against a disease they must, feel susceptible on a personal basis to statistics research paper the disease itself; feel that such a disease would have severe enough affects on them; feel that preventative benefits would be worth while in reducing the risk of acquiring the sujets, disease; think that external barriers such as pain, inconvenience, social embarrassment or financial difficulties would be less than contracting the disease and, lastly, that cues to action (Pitts and Phillips, 1998: 9) such as media advertising and health promotion would provide sufficient impetus to take measures. From these factors, it is thought, an individual's behaviour towards their own health can be predicted and so legislated for. As Brannon and Feist asserts this model equates, in some sense at least, to statistics common sense: When people perceive that they are susceptible to a severe illness and can benefit from their ability to research paper on should college overcome barriers to good health, they should be guided by their own self-interest and research paper, actively seek health care (Brannon and Feist, 2004: 47) It is this aspect that has made the HBM a popular theory in recent times. Outline On Should College? It has the benefit of being, firstly easy to calibrate and, secondly easy to act upon. It is easy to see the attraction of a model that espouses a relatively simple relationship between the perceptions of risk and the role of cues to action.
Graham Russell (1999) calls the HBM uncomplicated and intuitive (Russell, 1999: 114) and details that it has common applications in two major regimes of health care, where stress is placed upon: Encouraging people to seek early professional help for signs and symptoms of illness. Improving uptake on preventative health programmes such as immunisation and screening for disease (Russell, 1999: 115) Within these notions, of course, we could cite breast cancer screening (mammography), flu immunization, dietary education and statistics research paper, change to exercise routines as examples of the about social media communication, ways in which the HBM directly reflects Government policy and people's own health behaviour. A study by Fulton et al (1991), used the HBM as a basis for questionnaires and to organise multivariate analysis of interview responses (Fulton et al, 1991: 1). The study used a telephone canvassing methodology, looking at 852 women from Rhode Island USA, all above 40 in order to paper ascertain their behavioural patterns regarding their own health and attitudes towards disease prevention.
The questions asked concerned such as areas as their individual perception of compare essay on two of art susceptibility, their particular modifying factors such as ethnicity, income, marital status, the likelihood of statistics paper action and their screening behaviour. It found that the likelihood of women seeking regular mammograms was increased significantly when a medical provider recommended such action. However, almost one-fifth of the women had no such provider, 13 per cent had no source of gynaecological care, one-fourth felt susceptible to breast cancer and a third thought mammograms were too uncomfortable to undergo. (Fulton et al, 1991) Fulton et al (1991) also stress the importance of what they call modifying factors such as ethnicity and access to cues to action. There was a direct relationship, they found, between exposure to cues to research paper on should action and the willingness to undergo preventative screenings . This is also bourn out in such studies as Hyman, Baker, Ephraim, Moadel and Phillip's 1994 study that showed that being an African American women - rather than a European American woman - was a better predicator of mammography use than any of the four elements of the statistics paper, health model belief. (Brannon and Feist, 2004: 47). It has also been suggested that external contingent factors such as opportunity and poverty is a better predictor of health behaviour than the HBM.
One of the sujets, most effective and useful applications of the HBM is in the predictive take up of statistics paper screening for reform sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis. A study in the US by Hergenrather and statistics paper, Rhodes (2003) of the MSM (men who have sex with men) community and their willingness to be vaccinated against Hepatitis A, found that men who reported high levels of sujets communication with their healthcare provider about their sexual orientation and risk behaviour were more likely to be vaccinated (Hergenrather and Rhodes, 2003:1). Policy could then be directed to specifically address such findings, targeting fiscal and communicative concerns in specific demographic and psychosocial areas. The Theory Of Planned Behaviour. The TPB is derivative of an earlier concept; the Theory of statistics paper Reasoned Action and both appear in the works of Icek Ajzen. Ajzen stresses the importance of 'perceived behavioural control' (1991: 103) in affecting people's attitudes and choices relating to their health. Ajzen postulates that it is possible to predict an individual's behaviour through knowledge of, firstly, their attitude towards that behaviour, secondly, their 'subjective norm' and, lastly, their perceived behavioural control. All of these factors combine to produce an individual's intentions. Perceived behavioural control is the extent that one feels one can alter the outcome of a situation, it is based on a number of influencing factors including past experience, access to pertinent knowledge and a perception of one's own ability to overcome obstacles (Brannon and college athletes be paid, Feist, 2004:50).
Ajzen cites studies such as Alagna and Reddy (1984) that suggest there is particular pertinence to the area of health regarding this particular theory: When reduced to the level of specific response tendencies, perceived self-efficacy or perceived control over performance of a behaviour is research found to dissertation sujets correlate strongly with actual performance.(Ajzen, 1991: 107) In this view, it is thought that those who feel as though they can easily complete a task or overcome an obstacle are more likely to have intensions to statistics research paper do so. Studies such as Orbell, Blair, Sherlock and Conner (2001) and Maher and Rickwood (1991) have suggested that the TPB can be especially effective in predicting behaviour concerning the for thesis, purchase and research, consumption of illegal drugs by themes, the young, for instance, or the up-take of paper smoking. Knowledge of an individual's attitudes on, for instance, cannabis (Armitage et al, 1999), their perception of their own level of control and the subjective norms of their peer group can all aid in the prediction of their behaviour. In Attitudes, Personality and Behaviour, Ajzen gives us a suitably succinct summation of his theorum: With varying implications, attitudes and themes for thesis, personality traits can be reduced to the level of a particular behaviour, and research paper, such behaviour-specific dispositions are found to correlate well with compatible action tendencies. (Ajzen, 1991: 109) He stresses the and contrast essay, notion that behaviour is statistics research paper a planned function of the individual and that any decision concerning health and healthcare essay, disease prevention can be predicted with knowledge of such intentions.
Of course as many commentators have pointed out research paper, (Pitt and Phillips, 1998, Armitage, 1999) the main difficulty with this model is themes for thesis that it only identifies intentions of behaviour, intentions that, may or may not result in actual behavioural outcomes. Statistics? There are many reasons why an sujets, intention may not be acted upon; it may be unsuitable at the time, for instance, or there maybe other contingent external factors (Pitt and Phillips, 1998:13). In an Australian study carried out by Kashima and McCamish (1992), it was found that past experience played a considerable role in forming intentions regarding condom use in the prevention of AIDS and statistics paper, HIV: The role of past behaviour, in particular, appears to be central to understanding sexual practice in general, and the use of for thesis condoms in particular. Research? Our studies show that past behaviour stabilizes the intention to use a condom (or to practice another form of safer sex, such as nonpenetrative sex). (Kashima and McCamish, 1992: 40) The importance of such notions of 'temporal stability' (Ajzen, 1991: 99) is dissertation also stressed by Ajzen who cites studies concerning smoking as indicators that specific response tendencies can be both a formative influence of future behaviour and a reliable predictive tool for the health authorities.
Behaviour that can predicted, it is thought, can lead to better targeted and paper, so cost effective health care prevention. If we take smoking, for instance, we can see that, using the TPB, it would be beneficial to suggest that smoking behaviour can be changed and smoking stopped rather than continually stressing its detrimental affects on health. A recent NHS initiative stresses the behavioural control a smoker has over the outcomes of on two pieces their action and paper, the degree to which they can expect to ohio overcome the obstacle of giving up cigarettes. The Giving Up Smoking campaign website and paper, literature constantly features people who have been successful in giving up smoking rather than images of those smokers who suffer from about media communication, smoking related diseases. There are testimonials and plans dedicated to statistics help the smoker give up, each of research outline on should college be paid which reinforce their control and target their sense of autonomy over research paper, the addiction. As detailed in Hardill, Kofman and Graham's (2001) Human Geography of the UK, the Labour Government's 1998 white paper Our Healthier Nation (DoH, 1998) not only pledged more money and resources to campaigns that promoted strategies of lifestyle management (Hardill, Kofman and Graham, 2001: 124) but obviously reflected such health behaviour predictors as the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour: The government has announced a plan to save 148,000 deaths from stroke and healthcare essay, coronary heart disease by 2010. Funding will go on training more cardiac surgeons, creating a number of 'chest pain clinics' and 'stop smoking clinics'. (Hardill, Kofman and Graham, 2001: 124) The inference in this statement is clear: behaviour, according to the Government at least, can be predicted and health policy adjusted accordingly. Here, the research, onus on 'stop smoking clinics' and essay about media communication, chest pain clinics stress the importance of early detection and prevention, an obvious outcome in a faith in behavioural models as they relate to the health service.
However, not every study agrees with the notion that health predictors are successful in predicting health behaviour . Heaven (1996) cites a study in Australia that looked at the responses of 18 year olds to the threat of AIDS , it predicted, using health belief models that the more severe the threat and the more at risk the participants thought themselves in the greater the chance that they would practice safe sex. Statistics Research? However, this was only partially true, as Heaven states: Although there were no significant differences between the sexes on measures of health motivation and susceptibility to infection, these factors did not predict males' sexual risk with casual partners. Females who saw themselves at essay pieces risk of infection tended to take increased risks with casual partners. Thus, their perceptions of risk were not matched by statistics research, preventive behaviour. (Heaven, 1996: 35) Allied to this is a study conducted by fisher, Conner and statistics, Flesch (2001) that suggested there was strong external reasons, such as alcohol and peer grouping that contributed more to young people ignoring contraception advice than planned behaviour and Brannon and healthcare reform essay, Feist (2004) suggesting outright that Research has shown that the research paper, health belief model has only limited success in predicting health-related behaviour (Brannon and essay pieces of art, Feist, 2004: 54).
The success of health behaviour predictors, then, seems to rest in their ability to be translated into public health policy. It is easy to see how relatively simple structures such as the health belief model form the basis of Government thinking on such areas as giving up smoking, screening for research breast cancer and use of contraceptives. As many commentators have suggested (Brannon and Feist, 2004; Freeman and dissertation sujets, Levine, 1989; Pitt and Phillips, 1998) the actual picture is, perhaps, more complicated, with an-ever growing network of influencing factors constantly at play. Research? However, given constraints such as economics and demographics, it is not surprising that health services rely so heavily on predictive models even though their success rates may be in doubt. Ajzen, Icek (1991), Attitudes, Personality and Behaviour, (Milton Keynes: Open University Press) Ajzen, Icek and Fishbein, Martin (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicating Behaviour, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall) Armitage, Simon, et al (1999), Different Perceptions of Control: Applying an themes, Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour to Legal and statistics research paper, Illegal Drug Use, published in sujets Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Vol.
21. Becker, Marshall (1979), Understanding Patient Compliance: The Contributions of statistics paper Attitudes and Other psychosocial Factors, published in Cohen, I.(ed), New Directions in Patient Compliance, (Lexington: Lexington Books) Becker, Marshall and Rosenstock, Irwin (1989), Health promotion: Disease Prevention and for thesis, Program Retention, published in Freeman, Howard and paper, Levine, Sol (eds), Handbook of essay about social media communication Medical Sociology - Fourth Edition, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall) Becker, Marshall and Rosenstock, Irwin (1984), Compliance With medical Advice, published in Steptoe, A.and Mathews, A. Statistics? (eds), Health Care and Human Behaviour, (London: Academic Press) Beisecker, Analee (1991), Interpersonal Communication Strategies to Prevent Drug Abuse by Health Professionals and healthcare reform, the Elderly: Contributions of the Health Belief Model, published in Health Communication Vol. 3. Brannon, Linda and statistics paper, Feist, Jess (2004), Health Psychology: An Introduction to Behaviour and Health - Fifth Edition, (London: Thompson and Wadsworth) Choosing Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier, (DoH, 2004) Conner, M and Flesch, D. Essay Social Media? (2001), Having Casual Sex: Additive and Interactive Effects of Alcohol and Condom Availability on the Determinants of Intentions, published in statistics research The Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol.31 Fulton, John et al, A Study Guided By the Health Belief Model of the Predictors of for thesis Breast Cancer Screening of Women Ages 40 and Older, published in Public Health Reports Vol. 106, 1991. Hardill, Irene, Kofman, Eleonore and Graham, David (2001), Human Geography of the UK, (London: Routledge) Heaven, Patrick, (1996), Adolescent Health: The Role of Individual Differences, (London: Routledge) Hergenrather, Kenneth and Rhodes, Scott (2003), Using An Integrated Approach to Understand Vaccination Behaviour Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: Stages of Change, the Health Belief Model and Self Efficacy, published in Journal of research Community Health, Vol. 28. Hochbaum, Geoffrey (1958), Public Participation in dissertation sujets Public Screening Programs, (Washington: DHEW) Kishima, Yoshihisa and McCamish, Synthia (1992), Predicting Use of Condoms: Past Behaviour, Norms and the Sexual Partner, published in Edgar, Timothy et al (eds), AIDS: A Communication Perspective, (London: Lawrence Erlbaum) Lewis, K., and Bradley, C (1994), Measures of Diabetes Specific Health Beliefs, published in Bradley C (ed), Handbook of Psychology and Diabetes, (London: Harwood) Maher, R and research paper, Rickwood, D., (1997), The Theory of Planned Behaviour, Domain Specific Self Efficacy and Adolescent Smoking, published in sujets Journal of paper Child and research paper outline be paid, Adolescent Substance Abuse, Vol. 6 Orbell, S. et al (2001), The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Ecstasy Use: Roles for Habit and Perceived Control Over Taking Versus Obtaining Substances, published in Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. Research? 31.
Our Healthier Nation (DoH, 1998) Pitts, Marian and Phillips, Keith (eds), The Psychology of dissertation Health: An Introduction - Second Edition, (London: Routledge) Rosenstock, I., (1990), The Health Belief Model: Explaining Health Behaviour Through Expectancies, published in Glanz, K., Lewis, F.M. and Rimer, B.K. Statistics? (eds)., Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice, (San Franciso: Jossey-Bass) Russell, Graham (1999), Essential Psychology for Nurses and for thesis, Other Health Professionals, (London: Routledge) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and statistics paper, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and themes, you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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A Brief Introduction to statistics the AMCAS Personal Statement. Thanks for signing up! Thanks for signing up! AMCAS (American Medical College Application Service) is a centralized application service for medical schools, allowing you to save time by submitting just one application. With over 140 MD granting institutions participating, you’ll likely use AMCAS if you’re applying to medical school in the US. While this service does enhance convenience, it also makes it even more difficult to stand out. Most applicants will have similar backgrounds to essay yours, and the AMCAS personal statement is your biggest opportunity to show who you are as an statistics research paper individual and persuade the admissions officers to choose you. Of course, you are free to answer this question any way you like.
However, unless the answer is that you want to make patient’s lives better, medicine might not be for you. From beginning to reform end, make sure that your essay is paper, patient-focused. Also, it is common for applicants to begin their essay with an anecdote from ohio, their childhood. Paper? In our experience, med schools are really only interested in your life after you began college and won’t particularly be impressed with anything before that regardless of how important it was in your path to choosing this career. Instead, choose stories that show the social communication adult you taking concrete steps in the field of medicine. What makes you an statistics research excellent candidate to become a physician? Why do you have what it takes to succeed?
Not only do you need a strong academic track record in the sciences, med schools are looking for applicants who have developed the personality characteristics that will serve them well as a doctor. In your essay, you might want to write about dissertation sujets compassion, team work, and research paper, respect for patient autonomy. You don’t need to write about all three, but the anecdotes that you choose should reflect an applicant who has not only technical knowhow but ethics and interpersonal skills. What do you feel that an admissions officer should know about you that is not included elsewhere in your application? The other parts of the AMCAS application are highly standardized, so the dissertation essay gives you a chance to elaborate on statistics who you are outside of themes, your transcripts, test scores, and activities.
What activities do you enjoy outside of the classroom? How will you contribute not only to study groups but to statistics research paper the student body as a whole? Are there any elements of essay pieces of art, your application that need further explanation or elaboration? Life is college is not always smooth, and you might have some areas in your transcript or test scores that warrant further explanation. Applicants can be very apprehensive about addressing these issues within the essay out of fear that what they write will harm their application. Therefore, when writing about these situations, always be factual about what occurred and statistics, then move quickly to how you resolved the issue and have become a more mature and resilient applicant as a result. Paper Outline On Should College? Learn more about research paper admissions to graduate school with articles, tips, and and contrast pieces, strategies from Peterson's. Search thousands of schools, scholarships, and articles! Write a Graduate School Essay that Will Knock Their Socks Off.
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The personal statement is one of the most important parts of graduate admissions. This article can help you polish and improve on your personal statement. Writing a Great Residency Personal Statement. The residency application process is all business. Those who read your essay are not looking for novel styling, mysterious openings, or poetic phrasing; instead, they are looking for a clear statement of paper, why you want to pursue a career in that particular specialty. Law School Personal Statements: An Overview. Many law schools are renowned for one particular field or subsequent career. Fisher? For example, some schools are considered particularly focused on actual legal arguments while others are known to statistics research paper prepare graduates for positions in the judiciary. Sign up today and themes for thesis, get exclusive tips and research, get a head start on your college experience!
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Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in research paper children: the healthy homework pilot study. Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of about, a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and statistics healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and ohio fisher mba essays complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and statistics research control groups. A total of essay about media, 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the research, intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary.
Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of about social media communication, 2,830 steps.day -1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and statistics paper unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. On Two! Effects for paper all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and themes unhealthy food consumption in statistics research paper children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.
Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-127 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for healthcare numerous health disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. While methodological differences make it difficult to compare secular trends in children's free-living physical activity, there is evidence that organised physical activity is declining in research paper many countries [ 2 ]. Fisher! Similarly, sedentary behaviours, such as television watching and computer use, have increased rapidly in children over the past five years [ 3 ]. It is generally believed that such trends have contributed to the widespread increases in childhood overweight and statistics research paper obesity [ 4 ]; however, physical activity is themes for thesis only one side of the energy balance equation. Poor nutrition undoubtedly contributes to the onset of obesity in children, although the mechanisms responsible for statistics research paper this association remain indistinct. Some studies have demonstrated a link between under-consumption of fruit and vegetables and child obesity [ 5 , 6 ], while others show no relationship [ 7 ]. Likewise, the over-consumption of essay about social communication, energy-dense foods and drinks has been associated with child obesity in research paper some [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] but not all studies [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Regardless of the themes, specific pathways to chronic disease, physical activity and dietary patterns tend to track across the lifespan [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]; therefore, it makes sense to correct unhealthy habits before they have a lasting impact. The development of research, effective and sustainable programmes that encourage young people to lead healthy, active lives is a key priority in this regard. The majority of lifestyle interventions for children have focused on the promotion of healthy behaviours while children are at school; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that children are more likely to be inactive and consume unhealthy foods when at home. Our previous research showed that New Zealand children were considerably less active on weekends than on paper outline on should college weekdays [ 20 ], and that active children achieve a significantly greater proportion of their activity outside of school than inactive children [ 21 ]. This is consistent with international data that support the promotion of physical activity in statistics the home environment [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Although we know that the majority of children's dietary intake is consumed at home [ 25 ], research investigating the differences in essay dietary intake between the school and home environments has been equivocal. A recent study reported that New Zealand children are more likely to consume high cholesterol foods and soft drinks on non-school days than on research school days [ 26 ]. Another study indicated that American children consume a relatively high amount of compare essay on two of art, energy from fat on weekends [ 27 ]. Two other studies showed no difference in dietary intake between school and non-school days [ 28 , 29 ]. Research! In any case, reviews of interventions to promote physical activity [ 30 , 31 ] and correlates of dietary behaviour [ 32 ] in children and research outline on should college adolescents concluded that programmes that involve families are more likely to research, be effective than those that do not.
Nonetheless, exclusively home-based initiatives are logistically impractical and tend to be unsustainable. A more feasible approach is to research paper outline be paid, use schools to access children for statistics research the purpose of encouraging healthy behaviour in dissertation the home environment. Several studies have endeavoured to promote physical activity and/or healthy eating outside of school by incorporating homework components into paper school-based interventions. Results have been mixed, with some showing positive effects [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and essay about others showing no effect [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. However, it is difficult to determine the contributions of statistics research, homework given that all studies employed multiple approaches, and healthcare reform essay many were limited by statistics research low statistical power [ 33 ], self- or proxy-reporting of physical activity [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 43 , 45 ], or relatively minor homework components [ 33 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 40 , 44 , 45 ]. In all cases, the homework element assumed secondary importance to the school-based components. We are unaware of any studies that have investigated the effects of a compulsory homework syllabus on health outcomes. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for healthcare essay increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Description of behaviour change techniques and strategies implemented in the Healthy Homework Pilot Study.
Behaviour Change Technique. Key behavioural determinant. Provide information about behaviour-health link. Children were provided with information about the positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the programme. Provide information on statistics paper consequences. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. The beneficial consequences of social communication, specific physical activity and research healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the programme. Prompt intention formation. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. At the completion of the social media communication, programme, children were encouraged to make long-term behavioural resolutions related to the tasks they had accomplished during the programme.
Prompt barrier identification. Several topics required the children to identify common barriers to statistics research paper, healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in the context of their lives. Set graded tasks. Children were required to complete at least one out of three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of a given topic. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to complete all of the remaining tasks to supplement their knowledge. Availability of information (environmental) Detailed instruction for each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and college athletes be paid via the homework booklets. Prompt specific goal setting. Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. Tasks provided guidance about where, when, how, and with whom the task could be completed. Prompt review of behavioural goals.
Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the statistics research, teacher was required to review each child's homework tasks from the themes, previous week (individually) and discuss any facilitators or barriers to completion (as a group). Children were given advice about how to complete any unfinished tasks. Provide feedback on statistics paper performance. At the dissertation sujets, completion of the programme, children and their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the evaluation. Provide contingent rewards. Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for a given week (at least one physical activity and research one nutrition task).
A black-coloured band was reserved for children who completed all six tasks on a given week. The majority of homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of ohio mba essays, a behaviour. Provide opportunities for social comparison. Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on practical group tasks that required children to observe and statistics research compare their behaviour against others.
Children were encouraged to support each other to complete tasks. Plan social support or social change. Social support theories. Family support (social) A large number of homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Messages for the parents reinforcing the benefits of family support were embedded in pieces of art homework tasks. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of reasoned action; TPB = theory of planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning. The final programme consisted of a six-week homework schedule complemented by research paper an in-class teaching resource, and essay about social media was designed to support the achievement objectives associated with Level 3 of the New Zealand Health and Physical Education Curriculum [ 48 ]. Each child received a homework booklet organised into five physical activity and paper five nutrition topics: Week 1, walking and fruit/vegetables; Week 2, television and breakfast; Week 3, sports and drinks; Week 4, fun games and food shopping; Week 5, fitness and dissertation cooking. Week 6 consisted of the completion of the previous week's homework in addition to research paper, group presentations about key aspects of the programme. Three homework options were provided for each topic, and the children were required to complete at least one task per topic (i.e., at compare of art least two tasks per week).
Examples of the physical activity tasks include family walks around the neighbourhood, walking to statistics research paper, and from school, limiting television time, coaching parents in social a particular sport, inventing a fun game (individual or team), testing the fitness of the family, and swimming at the local pool (subsidised entry was organised). Examples of the statistics research, nutrition tasks include eating at least five servings of fruit or vegetables, preparing and eating a healthy breakfast, using a water bottle throughout the day, reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks, comparing food labels when shopping, helping to dissertation, prepare a healthy dinner, and statistics research paper preparing a healthy lunch box. Many of the fisher mba essays, tasks were designed to encourage parental participation and family involvement. Each task was accompanied by a related question designed to encourage independent inquiry and knowledge formation. Paper! Colourful rubber wristbands were provided each week for children who completed their homework obligations, with a special colour reserved for those who completed all six tasks on ohio a given week. Other resources included soft throwing disks (fun games topic), a food advertising educational DVD (television topic), fitness test sheets (fitness topic), recipe cards (cooking topic), guides to research, reading food labels (shopping topic), and reform essay drink bottles (drinks topic). In addition, a password-protected Healthy Homework website was developed so that participating children from both schools could interact with each other through blogs, photos, and wikis. Research! The Healthy Homework teaching resource was designed to complement the homework activities by sujets providing sufficient educational content and in-class exercises for three 1.5 hour sessions each week (including one session reviewing the statistics, previous week's homework).
Theoretical and practical approaches were combined to enhance the children's understanding of each topic. Teachers were free to use the in-class resource as much or as little as required. Two Auckland primary schools participated in the pilot study: School A had a socioeconomic status (SES) rating in dissertation sujets the lowest decile of New Zealand primary schools, whereas School B was in the highest SES decile. Eight classes of Year 5-6 children (aged 9-11 years) were randomised into four intervention and research four control classes. All children in the intervention classes completed the Healthy Homework module as part of school policy; however, parental consent was required before children were able to healthcare essay, participate in the evaluation of the intervention. Consent was obtained for research 100 of the healthcare, 216 children initially selected (46.3%). Statistics Research! Three children were excluded due to incomplete data, resulting in a final sample size of essay on two of art, 97 (intervention: 22 boys, 35 girls; control: 13 boys, 27 girls).
The ethnic composition of the sample was 48.5% European, 32.0% Pacific Island, 8.2% Maori, 6.2% Asian, and 5.2% from other ethnicities. The institutional ethics committee provided ethical approval for the study (07/177). Daily physical activity levels were measured with sealed pedometers over four consecutive days (two weekdays and two weekend days). This monitoring period was chosen as the ideal balance between practicality and reliability requirements [ 49 ]. Pedometers provide an objective, cost-effective assessment of research paper, physical activity that can be easily compared among different time periods, demographic groups, and/or locations. The NL-2000 pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee's Summit, MO) has a multiday memory function that automatically stores step counts according to the day of the dissertation sujets, week for statistics up to seven days, enabling the comparison of weekday and weekend step counts [ 20 ]. And Contrast! Our previous research has established the validity of the statistics, NL-2000 for measuring steps in children [ 50 ]. Prior to use, all pedometers were checked for faults using five repetitions of the 100-step walking test described by Vincent and Sidman [ 51 ]. Instrumental error did not exceed 3% in any of the pedometers. Before receiving their sealed pedometers, children were given an explanation of the pedometer's function and a demonstration by a researcher. Participants were asked to attach the paper outline college, pedometer to their waistline all day except when swimming, showering, or sleeping.
To assess participant compliance outside of the school environment, children maintained a 4-day diary in research which they were asked to about social communication, note how many hours they did not wear the pedometer each day. Non-compliance during school hours was considered negligible due to active teacher assistance. Statistics Research! Data were excluded if participants removed the pedometer for more than one hour on media communication a given day. Daily step counts below 1,000 or above 30,000 were regarded as outliers and were removed [ 52 ]. The 4-day pedometer compliance diary also contained fields for children to record daily screen time (television, gaming consoles, and personal computers), sports participation, and research paper active transport to paper on should athletes, and from school.
In addition, a food diary was issued for children to record the type and quantity of statistics, all foods and drinks consumed over the four-day period. A food diary is a daily record of all the food and fluid consumed over on should college, a specified time; a blank template for the required days is statistics paper provided. Fisher! While food diaries have been validated for accuracy against measures of energy expenditure, outcomes in the literature are varied, with underestimation of research paper, energy intake sometimes reported [ 53 , 54 ]. Despite this, we chose to use food diaries so that we could compare both the quality and quantity of food and essay about social communication fluid intake on weekdays and weekend days. Research! Alternative instruments, such as food frequency questionnaires, generally do not represent a full day's food or fluid intake and therefore would fail to capture such a complete dataset. All participants were given a detailed explanation about how to correctly fill in the diaries, and parents were given written instructions to and contrast pieces of art, assist their child in completing the diaries accurately and to paper, a sufficient level of detail.
Dietary information from the diaries was extracted and grouped into four categories: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption. Food and mba essays drinks were defined as unhealthy in accordance with the 'occasional foods' tier of the three-tiered New Zealand Food and Beverage classification system. Research Paper! Food and on should be paid drinks that fall into this category are those that are energy dense and nutrient poor, and include confectionery and chocolate, deep-fried food, full-sugar soft drinks, and high-fat pastry products. Research! All measurements (diaries and pedometers) were taken once during the week preceding the intervention (baseline) and once during the reform essay, week following the completion of the intervention (follow-up). Both schools were assessed over the same time period (May-June 2009). Medians and statistics interquartile ranges for all variables were generated with weekday and weekend data presented separately along with an compare essay pieces of art overall weighted mean (five weekdays to two weekend days). Statistics Research Paper! Differences between treatment groups were examined using independent samples Mann-Whitney's U tests, and initial pre- and post-intervention comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched pairs signed-rank tests (with the healthcare reform essay, data split by intervention group).
A normal generalized estimating equation (GEE) model on statistics square-root transformed step counts was used to detect an and contrast essay on two pieces intervention effect after accounting for day type, school year, school, class, sex, and ethnicity. The latter two variables were included given the statistics paper, identification of differences between groups in compare on two pieces of art our previous work [ 20 ]. A binary GEE model was used to statistics research paper, determine whether there was a differential pattern of missing pedometer counts for participants between intervention groups. Treatment group effects for all other variables (screen time, sports participation, active transport, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and paper outline be paid unhealthy drink consumption) were examined using analysis of covariance adjusted for regression to the mean. All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and statistics research ? = 0.05 defined statistical significance for all tests. Median and interquartile range of the physical activity and dietary variables for the intervention and control groups.
Physical activity (steps.day -1 ) 10,700 (8,420, 12,150) 12,290 (9,990, 16,270) ‡ 11,460 (9,110, 13,660) 10,100 (7,670, 14,160) 7,940 (5,760, 11,770) 8,670 (6,460, 11,960) 8,160 (6,410, 11,470) 10,790 (8,200, 12,160) 11,790 (9,670, 15,680) † 11,240 (9,420, 12,860) 9,910 (7,500, 12,700) Screen time (h.day -1 ) Sports participation (h.day -1 ) Active transport to/from school (h.day -1 ) Fruit consumption (servings.day -1 ) Vegetable consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy food consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy drink consumption (servings.day -1 ) *Significantly different from intervention (P 0.05). † Significantly different from baseline (P 0.05); ‡ Significantly different from baseline (P 0.01).
Summary of the adjusted multivariable model coefficients for fisher mba essays square root step counts . Binary GEE model analyses of participants with missing pedometer count values revealed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of missing step count values post-intervention compared with pre-intervention (P = 0.006); however, there were no significant differences in the proportion of missing values between intervention and control groups either pre-intervention (P = 0.905) or post-intervention (P = 0.481). Statistics Research Paper! This indicates that the loss of data is not differentially related to the intervention group. Intervention effects (± 95% CI) for selected physical activity and dietary behaviours . *Significant intervention effect for weekends and compare and contrast on two pieces overall (P 0.05). In this study, we developed, implemented, and evaluated the first compulsory homework syllabus for promoting children's physical activity outside of school. A key strength of the study was the use of an objective measure (pedometer) to statistics research paper, accurately monitor changes in physical activity. The results showed that the Healthy Homework pilot had positive effects on the daily step counts of both boys and girls. The intervention effect of essay media communication, 2,830 steps.day -1 corresponds to statistics research, over 25% more activity each day (based on the sample mean pre-intervention).
This effect was driven by both an increase of 1,100 steps.day -1 in the intervention group and a decrease of 1,480 steps/day -1 in on two of art the control group. While the reasons for the decrease in statistics paper the control group are unknown, it appears the programme had a protective effect that precluded a similar decrease in the intervention group. Furthermore, the proportion of children achieving step count targets directly related to the prevention of paper on should college athletes, excess body fat (16,000 steps.day -1 for boys, 13,000 steps.day -1 for girls [ 55 ]) increased from 8.6% to research paper, 31.3% in the intervention group, whereas children in the control group increased from 14.3% to reform essay, 16.7%. We also found that the effects of the intervention on statistics physical activity were similar for mba essays both weekdays and weekends. Paper! This is a noteworthy finding given that children's activity levels tend to research outline athletes, diminish during the weekend [ 20 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Applied homework that encourages home-based activity appears to be an effective way of targeting this problem area. The positive effect of the research, Healthy Homework programme on physical activity is relatively unusual given the outcomes of previous intervention research. In a comprehensive review of physical activity interventions in children, van Sluijs et al [ 30 ] found that only four of 19 education-based interventions reported significantly positive effects on physical activity.
In a similar review, Salmon et al [ 31 ] noted that only one of five 'curriculum only' interventions successfully increased physical activity. However, the mba essays, success rate was higher in studies that were implemented through the school but involved the family (seven out of 13). It appears that a focus on the home environment increases the probability of meaningful effects. Statistics Research! Our promising results may have been due to the emphasis that was placed on increasing physical activity outside of school, including on the weekends. Only two other behaviours showed significantly different pre-post changes between intervention and control participants. On weekends, vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings.day -1 and unhealthy food consumption decreased by 0.56 servings.day -1 as a result of programme participation. The increase in vegetable consumption is noteworthy as it is equivalent to outline athletes, approximately 28% of the daily vegetable recommendation of three servings a day.
In addition, an increase of 0.83 servings.day -1 compares favourably with previous interventions that focus solely on fruit and vegetable intake. Two reviews of successful fruit and vegetable interventions in children found that the majority of increases were between 0.2 and 0.6 daily servings [ 56 , 57 ]. In contrast to our findings, increases in fruit intake were generally more frequent and substantial than increases in research paper vegetable intake. The decrease in unhealthy food consumption we observed on weekends, while relatively small, is a step in the right direction. Changes in both vegetable and unhealthy food consumption were key priorities in the Healthy Homework programme, and may represent positive shifts in the home environment that could potentiate other healthy lifestyle patterns. Whether or not a longer or more intensive homework intervention augments these improvements remains to be seen. Non-significant effects in the remaining variables targeted in the intervention (screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, fruit consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) suggest that the social communication, materials or approaches for these topics may have been insufficient. The absence of improvements in screen time and unhealthy drink consumption were particularly disappointing given that both were dedicated topics. It is possible that more than one week of exposure to these topics is required to generate change. Perhaps not enough realistic alternatives were provided to prompt children to modify their screen time or fluid consumption.
On the other hand, the small sample size may have obscured real effects in research these behaviours. Clearly, a larger sample would allow these factors to be examined with greater precision. Another important discovery was that the intervention yielded benefits for boys and girls from themes a range of statistics, socioeconomic backgrounds. Healthcare Reform Essay! The two participating schools were deliberately chosen to represent opposite statistics research, ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. The similarity of the intervention effects in both schools suggests that it is likely to be beneficial for other primary-level schools, regardless of the socioeconomic rating. The majority of previous studies that have implemented physical activity or nutrition interventions with home-based elements have not included SES in the analysis. Of those that did, two reported smaller effects in sujets low SES compared with high SES groups [ 38 , 39 ], while two reported no noticeable differences [ 37 , 40 ]. Nonetheless, it is possible that in the latter studies (and the present one) the similar overall effects on statistics paper physical activity and/or dietary patterns between SES groups were generated through different pathways.
Indeed, there is evidence that families from different socioeconomic backgrounds support their children to be active in different ways [ 58 ]. A qualitative comparison of the preferences of homework activities and for thesis resources among children and parents from diverse socioeconomic regions could be beneficial in this regard. The question remains whether the positive changes observed in this pilot study are maintained beyond the completion of the programme. A potential criticism of the programme was the use of wristbands as rewards to increase compliance: a viewpoint common among educators is statistics research paper that the desired behaviour will cease once the reward is removed. We contend that the dissertation, rewards, in statistics paper this instance, were used to engage children for the purpose of learning how to be active on their own. While this approach leans towards constructivism - the ohio, theory that individuals will generate their own knowledge and understanding from experience - it maintains enough structure that children with little or no understanding of the selected topics are guided towards discovery. The programme aims to create functional knowledge that is taken with the child beyond the completion of the programme, resulting in greater opportunities to be active and statistics promoting lifelong healthy behaviour. Clearly, we cannot comment on the success of this ambition in the present pilot study; however, future studies should consider taking long-term follow-up measures to assess the outline athletes be paid, sustainability of any positive outcomes. Assessment of the effects on health knowledge would also contribute to a better understanding of the precursors to behaviour change in children. A key facet of the present study is its foundation in the education system. While the goals of the programme are clearly health-related, there are several advantages of operating within the paper, education environment: (1) it is mba essays relatively cost-effective to introduce applied homework activities into an existing curriculum, (2) the vast majority of the population can be accessed (all children are required to attend school), and (3) the expertise of trained teachers can be utilised to effectively deliver health-related educational material and instruction.
In this study, we developed a homework programme that contributed to all four strands of the Health and Physical Education achievement objectives stated in the New Zealand Curriculum [ 48 ]: (1) personal health and physical development, (2) movement concepts and motor skills, (3) relationships with other people, and (4) healthy communities and environments. This strategy enabled teachers to research paper, implement the programme without sacrificing their formal teaching obligations. Aligning health promotion initiatives with national education guidelines is also likely to increase buy-in from senior school staff and parents. Another important element of the study was its compulsory nature. Fisher Mba Essays! As with conventional homework, children were required to complete the statistics research, minimum number of tasks each week, obtain approval from their parents, and report back to their teacher. Research Athletes! This approach was chosen to maximise the level of engagement in the programme, which may explain why significant effects on physical activity and diet were observed in a relatively small sample. To our knowledge, no previous physical activity or nutrition interventions have adopted a compulsory approach to home-based components. The primary limitation of this study was the small sample size. While this is a pilot study, we were disappointed by the low consent rate for the evaluation (46.3%).
Clearly, the lower the consent rate the greater the chance of sample bias, whereby only the children most likely to engage in the programme are evaluated. In addition, there were 77% more girls than boys in the final sample, and 43% more intervention than control participants. These atypical proportions make it more difficult to generalise the findings to the wider population. Nevertheless, the detection of significant effects even in our restricted sample with relatively wide confidence intervals suggests that there may be other effects that could be detected in a larger sample with tighter intervals. Another limitation was the necessity to research paper, randomise at the class level. It is probable that a certain amount of class contamination occurred, such that the behaviour of the control participants was affected by compare and contrast essay on two of art the experiences of the intervention participants as they progressed through the programme. Indeed, certain behaviours showed significant improvements pre- and post-intervention in the control sample.
While the probability of class contamination does not negate the research, observed effects of the programme (true effects would be dampened rather than enhanced), it would be preferable for future studies to randomise at the school level. Also, we decided not to request the media communication, return of the children's booklets at the completion of the study (in case they were used in future), and consequently we had no record of homework compliance. While all participating teachers assured us that almost all of the statistics research, children completed their homework each week, it is not known if some children completed more tasks than others. Ohio Fisher Mba Essays! Future studies should consider asking the teacher to maintain a log of completed homework tasks to enable compliance to statistics research paper, be monitored more closely. Essay About Media! Finally, the effects of the homework programme on family members of participating children were not assessed in this study. Many of the tasks were designed to foster family involvement, with the intended side effect of improving relationships and promoting healthier lifestyles throughout the family. Statistics Paper! Further research is about communication needed to elucidate these factors. Compared with the paper, control group, the paper on should, Healthy Homework pilot study resulted approximately 25% more physical activity each day in both boys and girls, and statistics research paper was effective at encouraging activity on both weekdays and sujets weekends. Promising improvements to other important behaviours, such as vegetable and unhealthy food consumption, suggest that compulsory health-related homework offers multiple benefits for paper children. Implementation in a larger sample over sujets, a longer assessment period would enable the statistics paper, short- and sujets long-term effects of this approach to be determined.
This study was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (08/384). Paper! The authors would like to thank the children, parents, and school staff who participated in the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SD conceived and ohio designed the study, developed the research paper, intervention, contributed to essay on two pieces, the statistical analysis, and drafted the statistics research, manuscript. Outline Athletes! JCM collected and statistics research paper entered the data and helped to reform essay, draft the manuscript. PJS participated in the design of the statistics research, study and performed the statistical analysis. CZ assisted with the development of the intervention and the data preparation. RS participated in the development of the intervention. GS helped design the paper on should athletes be paid, study and develop the intervention. All authors reviewed and statistics approved the final manuscript.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an research paper outline athletes Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Scott Duncan 1 Email author Julia C McPhee 1 Philip J Schluter 2 3 4 Caryn Zinn 1 Richard Smith 5 Grant Schofield 1 1. Centre for research Physical Activity and Nutrition AUT University New Zealand 2. Department of Public Health and General Practice University of Otago Christchurch New Zealand 3. Compare And Contrast Essay On Two Pieces Of Art! School of statistics paper, Public Health and Psychosocial Studies AUT University New Zealand 4. School of Nursing and Midwifery University of Queensland Australia 5. National Institute of Education Singapore. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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essays on ageing Close log in window. More from Ethical Corp EC Player Whitepapers Promotion Facilities Research Reports Advisory Board Editorial Calendar Jobs Channels Communications Reporting Environment Business Strategy Stakeholder Engagement Supply Chains People Careers Events. Essay: ageing society - Grey skies thinking. David Grayson says that companies can benefit from recognising that society is ageing. Madonna and I have at statistics paper, least two things in common. We both like her music.
And we are both defined as “older people” by the UK government. I recently reflected that if Madonna and I count as “older people”, perhaps society needs to adjust its perceptions and language, in preparation for what some commentators have described as the world’s ageing tsunami. At present just under 11% of the world’s 6.9 billion people are over 60. Paper Outline On Should Be Paid? By 2050 that will have risen to 22% (of a population of over nine billion), and in developed countries to 33%. Statistics? In the rich world, nearly one in themes for thesis, 10 will be over 80. Statistics Paper? (See diagram one.) While an ageing population is currently more a developed-world phenomenon, developing countries are predicted to experience the same pattern, just two or three decades later. (See diagram two).
China, for example, thanks to the one child policy introduced in 1977, will by about social communication, 2050 be one of the research paper, oldest countries the fisher, world has ever seen. Statistics Research? The Chinese median age by 2050 will be over 45, compared with 22 in 1980. (The comparable figures for the UK are 42.5 and healthcare, 34.4). We know the research paper, environmental imperatives of sustainable development. But, growth today without endangering the resources available to future generations also involves – among other things – the essay about media communication, sustainable financing of pensions. Hence, the increasing references to “intergenerational equity” – fairness between the generations. Already, we see some of the challenges this creates in statistics research paper, the heated debates about who will provide and who should pay for long-term care of the elderly. Henri de Castries, AXA’s chairman and chief executive, has said: “Our social welfare systems, designed for a past demographic situation, will no longer be able to provide financial independence for and contrast pieces of art, the majority of research paper people. Compare Essay Pieces Of Art? The situation will generate either human drama for the elderly or social tensions due to the risk of an inter-generational economic imbalance.”
One of the most cerebral of current front-line British politicians – current minister for higher education David Willetts – last year produced a carefully argued book The Pinch. It had a provocative sub-title: “How the statistics, baby-boomers stole the future – and why they should give it back.” Intergenerational equity is an integral and important element of social sustainability. Yet the implications of the dramatic demographic changes now unfolding have yet to translate into healthcare a coherent and comprehensive narrative of what the statistics, ageing society means for corporate sustainability and responsibility (CSR). The implications of an ageing society should be particularly important for businesses committed to CSR. This is pretty much analogous to and contrast essay pieces the disability issue some 15 to 20 years ago for research, companies. As with other dimensions of fisher CSR, addressing demographic change effectively should be an integral part of how business behaves. It is both a commercial and a moral imperative. And managed well it can be a source of competitive advantage and opportunity.
People past traditional retirement age will make up a larger and larger share of the research paper, pool from which employers draw. Essay About Media Communication? There are a number of implications of this. Research? As the workforce ages, mandatory retirement is phased out and retirement ages rise, employers will need to offer more flexible work opportunities such as part-time and seasonal working, job-sharing, sabbaticals, and allowing people to move out of line-management roles and move to lower pay without any loss of social status within the organisation. One positive effect of the closure of many final salary pension schemes may be, albeit unintentionally, to make such practices easier. Employers will also have to ohio fisher ensure that older people are not discriminated against – either through ignorance and paper, bias or through lack of opportunity and relevant skills.
A number of British retailers, such as Asda and reform, BQ, have pioneered more flexible working for older staff. This has had positive results for profitability and absenteeism rates – and crucially for statistics paper, customer satisfaction. It does require innovation to work out how to use older workers to the best effect. A recent article in the Harvard Business Review co-written by dissertation sujets, Christoph Loch, professor of technology management at business school Insead, looks at what happened when car company BMW decided to staff one of its production lines with workers of an age likely to be typical at the firm in 2017. At first “the pensioners’ line” was less productive. But the firm brought it up to the level of the rest of the factory by statistics, introducing 70 relatively small changes, such as new chairs, comfier shoes, magnifying lenses and adjustable tables. Many organisations will be facing the challenge of managing four generations at work at the same time. With this comes the risk of conflicting expectations, difficulties in communication, differential use of technology, and diverse approaches to essay about media problem solving and innovation. The resulting social tensions could soon present challenges far exceeding those associated with efforts to fracture the glass ceilings associated with gender or ethnicity.
Handled effectively, there are opportunities to pioneer new forms of mutual mentoring between baby-boomers and statistics research, generation Y-ers, as John Elkington and Charmian Love of Volans and I argue in a new paper for the Second Half Network. Instead of traditional, one-way help from older to younger staff, we need organisations prepared to themes for thesis encourage mutual mentoring. The older partner will need to acquire new skills – for statistics, example in use of social media and for thesis, other new communications technology, and in embedding sustainability. Senior executives can help by transferring knowledge, skills and personal contacts, while ensuring that institutional memory is statistics research, retained. They can help younger generation X and Y managers eager to assume greater responsibility, and find effective ways of essay translating their ambition into realistic and relevant action. This will require new language to describe older managers stepping out from executive responsibility and becoming effectively non-executive advisers and counsellors. Individuals and organisations will need new mindsets and new procedures to ensure that senior staff are not seen to have been shunted aside but willingly assumed new and statistics research, valuable roles. One of the most exciting initiatives in this field is Civic Ventures in the US, which is leading the call to healthcare engage millions of baby-boomers as a vital workforce for change. Founded in 1998 by social entrepreneur and author Marc Freedman, Civic Ventures works to define the second half of adult life as a time of individual and social renewal.
Make experience count. Freedman has pioneered third age careers in social enterprises for senior executives from companies such as HP through tailored retraining and paper, placement programmes. Ford runs a technical assistance programme for their suppliers, using Ford retirees. One reason many workers currently leave the workforce before they want to is that they have caring responsibilities for elderly relatives. Yet it is dissertation sujets, estimated that only one in five UK employers currently has a policy to help staff balance work and care responsibilities. In the late 1980s, tax breaks encouraged major companies such as HSBC in the UK to provide childcare for employees, thereby increasing workforce participation and opportunities for statistics paper, female staff. Today, leading companies, including BT, are calling on dissertation, law-makers to introduce a tax break enabling employers to offer vouchers for employees caring for a dependent relative. It is not just in the workplace that demographic changes demand new approaches from responsible businesses, but in the marketplace too. With an research paper, ageing population, sooner or later almost everyone will develop at least some limitations in vision, hearing, dexterity or learning.
By 2050, most elderly people will have been using mobile communications for compare and contrast essay pieces, years and will expect to continue doing so. Meeting their needs presents a significant business opportunity for statistics research paper, firms such as Nokia. The ageing of the population, combined with the potential increase in relative spending power of older consumers, will create growth in sujets, markets for statistics research paper, health products and of art, services, and in recreation and cultural activities. The Age OK accreditation mark, launched in April 2009 by the UK’s Engage Network, is awarded to products and services that an expert panel has judged to be sufficiently age-friendly. The specially designed Sky accessible remote control is the statistics, first product to be awarded the compare and contrast essay pieces, Age OK accreditation.
Know your consumer. Businesses should market to older people as mentally young people with growing physical impairments (visual, hearing, motor). Paper? Successful marketing will appeal to the young part of the older person while recognising the needs generated by these impairments. The key to sujets good business is to have empathy – designers and statistics, marketers need to ohio fisher adopt the “Apple model” and think like their customers. Companies such as GE, with its Healthymagination programme, and Philips Electronics are riding a new technology wave called “ageing in place” that is designed to help older people stay longer where they’re most comfortable – at home – rather than having to move into nursing or assisted-living facilities. The ageing population also reinforces the need to research paper improve the accessibility of buildings and urban infrastructure. Retailers and companies running shopping malls have a responsibility to ensure their premises are senior-friendly – rather than seniors-free.
Advertisers too need to stop airbrushing older people out of the picture. As words such as “retired” and “old” become increasingly inaccurate to describe much longer and much more varied stages of life, we need clever wordsmiths to help create new language. An ageing society means a larger number of older consumers – and a larger percentage of themes spending power controlled by older people. There is going to be greater demand for new financial products and services. Will financial institutions offer more tailored equity release schemes for older people to finance long-term eldercare? Will pharmaceutical companies, for research, example, invest more in RD for new products offering not just enhanced longevity but greater functional physical and mental longevity? Will retailers customise services for older people? Germany’s Kaiser supermarket chain opened a pilot store in Berlin in 2006 targeted at healthcare reform, older people. The store boasts a number of “senior-friendly” features, including wider aisles, magnifying glasses to statistics research paper aid the sujets, reading of labels, shopping carts with locking wheels and research, turndown seats. Tesco has piloted something similar in Newcastle. And what responsibilities do the dissertation, credit card and utilities companies have to statistics research modify direct sales activities so as not to take advantage of older customers who may be in the early, undiagnosed stages of some form of sujets dementia, and statistics research, who may, therefore, not be able to give informed consent when subject to high-pressure sales techniques?
Help where required. Responsible businesses can help by about social, paying more attention to older people in their community activities. Statistics Research? Companies can join pioneers including Zurich Financial Services, which has partnered with Age UK to encourage employee volunteers to make regular social phonecalls to befriend lonely and essay about, isolated older people. Business can provide volunteers and management capacity for collective self-help initiatives such as the Southwark Circle, in South London – a membership organisation that helps older people take care of household tasks, forge social connections and take advantage of new opportunities. There is also a need for more action-research. The Sun Life Financial Chair in Design for Health and Aging at Nova Scotia College of Art Design University, Halifax, Canada, for example, is the first partnership of its kind in the field of research in statistics, design for a healthy and ageing population. It is encouraging to and contrast on two pieces of art see an increasing range of organisations exploring the responsibilities of business in an ageing society.
In the UK, there is the Employers Forum on Age. At the EU level, as part of CSR Europe’s Enterprise 2020 initiative, Hitachi, Vodafone and BASF are participating in statistics research, a “collaborative venture” to address the impacts of demographic change in Europe. The Doughty Centre has teamed up with Volans and Accenture to create the “Second Half Network” – where individuals and organisations interested in the interface between demographic change and sustainability and/or entrepreneurship can develop thinking and action. In ancient times, later life was described as bleak winter. It should be – as gerontologist Prof George Giarchi puts it – “a second summer”. A good later life might be defined as “where the physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual needs of older people are addressed in themes, a safe, caring and secure environment, with dignity and the maximum opportunities for independence and choice”. Paper? It includes physical, mental, social, emotional and spiritual well-being. It is not the job of companies – or indeed of dissertation governments or the media or civil society – to create a good later life. It should be the responsibility of all these players to statistics paper help older people create a good later life for themselves. Compare Essay Pieces Of Art? For businesses this is not just an urgent responsibility – it is also a significant opportunity.
David Grayson is director of the Doughty centre for corporate responsibility at Cranfield School of statistics research paper Management and reform essay, chairman of the social enterprise Housing 21 which serves older people. He is a member of the Ethical Corporation editorial advisory panel. As we introduce a series of interviews with employees who are driving inclusive social change from within their organisations, we look at how firms can nurture an intrapraneur culture and attract purpose-driven millennials. Nigel Sizer of statistics research paper Rainforest Alliance tells Ethical Corporation editor Terry Slavin how the upcoming union with the Dutch certifier will boost the new organisation’s ability to ohio fisher protect biodiversity and farmers’ livelihoods. A raft of firms set science-based targets to cut emissions, CEOs see business benefits of CSR, supply chains pose reputational risk, food companies failing to tackle water issues and ethnically diverse firms outperform. Exclusive: ‘Under Natura The Body Shop will return to its activist roots’ Mars in research, strategic push to eradicate slavery from its entire value chain. Dell’s innovation-lead approach to help meet the UN’s Global Goals. MS calls for collaboration over antibiotics use in essay about social media communication, food supply chains. Interview: How Covestro is using CO2 as a building block for a more sustainable world.
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