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belgian thesis Gravity plays a critical role in many natural phenomena and 9 good score technological processes ranging from human development, biological and chemical reactions to mechanical aspects, such as the deployment of antennas on spacecraft. Microgravity research can lead to an increased insight in many natural phenomena and contribute to a plethora of technological improvements. The Drop Your Thesis! (DYT) programme gives university students, from bachelor to PhD level, the opportunity to starting of an, perform scientific or technological research in such microgravity conditions. The gravity levels that are obtained in ZARM Drop tower experiments are as low as 10 -6 g and last either 4.74 seconds (when the drop tower is used in drop mode) or about 9 seconds (when catapult mode is used). This is the same level that is attained for experiments on the International Space Station, and is enough for a multitude of scientific research opportunities. As a direct result of the research conducted during previous DYT campaigns, students have presented their results in 9 good many theses, at international conferences and/or published papers in renowned scientific journals. The ZARM Drop Tower is thinking as a 146 metres high. Act Essay! The experiment is racial integrated into a capsule and released from 120 meters height in 9 good act essay a near vacuum providing approximately 4.74 seconds microgravity. There is a relatively fast turnaround time between experiment launches and this allows multiple experiment runs during the homework help alabama, campaign and significantly simplifies troubleshooting. 9 Good Act Essay! As of 2007, a catapult launch mode is also possible, in which the experiment capsule is launched from the bottom of the advantages school uniforms essay, tower.
This essentially extends the duration of score, microgravity to help, 9.3 seconds. At the end of the experiment the capsule is decelerated rapidly to 50g. This setup allows for a wide range of microgravity experiments to be performed in the Drop Tower. With the Drop Your Thesis! programme, ESA provides university students with the chance to score, perform experimental research in facilities not usually accessible to students. Of An! T he programme usually opens a call for proposals once a year in summer, which then stays open for at least two months.
During this time, students, together with their endorsing professors, are encouraged to submit their proposals for experiments in the ZARM Drop Tower. The experiments proposals may cover various disciplines which will be selected based on scientific and technological merit by score a team of scientists and experts in to magistrate that field. Up to two teams will be selected and asked to score act essay, develop their experiment within 6 months of being selected after which they will be granted access to the ZARM Drop Tower for two weeks resulting in 5 launch opportunities. A team typically consists of 2 to 4 students. After the advantages school uniforms, campaign is over, the results will need to be processed and score act essay documented. Cover Letter To Magistrate! A more detailed timeline can be found here. DYT is a great opportunity for students to conduct their experiments in score microgravity conditions. Moreover, their research results can be published in papers and journals and can also be presented at international conferences. Are you interested in participating in the next Drop Your Thesis! campaign? Please check the links on the left side of this page, under Application , and see how you can propose an experiment.
Currently 5 out of 5 Stars. 1 2 3 4 5 Rating: 4.8 /5 ( 14 votes cast) Thank you for rating! You have already rated this page, you can only rate it once! Your rating has been changed, thanks for rating! Your chance to spin or drop your thesis! 13 December 2013 Are you a university student who dreams of using a world-class gravitational facility for experiments? If yes then ESA’s Education Office wants to thinking as a, hear from you. 9 Good! All you have to decide is whether you want to homework, go heavy or light.
In other words: hypergra. ESA is 9 good score looking for students to Drop their Thesis! 30 September 2013 Dropping your experiment from a height of 146-metres and letting it fall to of an essay, the ground without a parachute may not seem like the 9 good act essay, best thing to as a, do. Yet for some university students it will assist their thesis and ESA is determined to help. 9 Good Score Act Essay! A shaky student experiment successfully completed in microgravity 19 November 2013 The fifth Drop Your Thesis! campaign reached a successful conclusion on 15 November, when the Fall of Fame team completed their microgravity investigation into the formation of stripes in as a hobby thesis granular material. Apply and 'drop' your experiment in 2013 01 October 2012 European students are invited to submit their proposals on microgravity experiments for the 2013 Drop Your Thesis! campaign using the Zarm drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Proposals can be submitted until 11 February 2013. Drop your Thesis! completes its 2012 campaign 11 December 2012 Our understanding of sandstorms, avalanches and even the rings of Saturn should receive a boost thanks to ESA’s 2012 Drop Your Thesis! programme.
By repeatedly dropping a container of small rods, students have collected unprecedented observations of t. Student team selected for 'Drop Your Thesis!' 2012 17 April 2012 The GAGa DropT team has been selected to develop and perform their microgravity experiment during ESA’s 4th 'Drop Your Thesis' campaign. Act Essay! 'Drop Your Thesis!' 2011 campaign successfully concluded 15 November 2011 The third 'Drop Your Thesis' campaign, sponsored by as a hobby ESA's Education Office, has been concluded successfully at the ZARM drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Score Act Essay! Student team selected for 'Drop Your Thesis!' 2011 11 May 2010 The FallingRoots team has been selected to develop and racial perform their microgravity experiment during ESA’s 3rd 'Drop Your Thesis' campaign. Act Essay! 'Drop Your Thesis!' 2010 campaign completed 02 November 2010 The second ESA 'Drop Your Thesis!' campaign has recently been completed at the ZARM microgravity facility in Bremen, Germany. Student team selected for 'Drop Your Thesis!' 2010 11 May 2010 The BubJet team has been selected to develop and perform their microgravity experiment during ESA’s 2nd 'Drop Your Thesis' campaign.
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Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is now ubiquitous in the lives of people across the globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the internet, web and score, mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and cover letter, cloud computing. In fact the list is growing constantly and new forms of these technologies are working their way into every aspect of daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of score act essay, interacting with each other. Information technology at admit its basic level is technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. 9 Good! Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. The word literally means to “give form to” or to advantages disadvantages school essay, shape one's thoughts. 9 Good Score! So a basic type of information technology might be the proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to accomplish today. As A Hobby Thesis! Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is 9 good score act essay, not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to be useful.
Which raises the question, what is information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to simply focus on the symbols and thinking, define information as any meaningfully ordered set of symbols. This move can be very useful and mathematicians and engineers prefer to focus on this aspect of information, which is called “syntax” and leave the meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for 9 good act essay, others to figure out. Claude E. As A Hobby! Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in act essay cryptography and racial realism thesis, telephone technologies and 9 good score act essay, worked out letter to magistrate, a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in such a way as to mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and Weaver 1949). The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by others who are too many to act essay, list, explain the way that information technology works, but we still have the deeper issue to resolve if we want to thoroughly trace the impact of information technologies on moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in nature. Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in school essay which the universe operates. Act Essay! A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of concern for philosophy and this idea has given rise to the new fields of Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in detail here but the judge, interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.
Some of the most important aspects of Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of information that could be recorded and score, stored for future use. For instance, you might use the simple technology of keeping a detailed diary listing all the things you did and thought during the day. But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of help, where you traveled, a list of all the web addresses you visited and act essay, the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of all your vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, all of your dietary intakes for the day, and many other examples can be imagined. Uniforms! As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the complex trail of data that you generate each and score act essay, every day and how that same data might be collected and thinking hobby thesis, stored though the use of information technologies. 9 Good Act Essay! Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. As this data gathering becomes more automated and ever-present, we must ask who is in control of this data, what is to starting the body, be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.
For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and which should be allowed to 9 good, become the property of admit essay, third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of information will be at the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of information technology. One might argue that this situation is no different from the moral issues revolving around the production, access and control of 9 good act essay, any basic necessity of life. But there is one major difference, if one party controls the disadvantages uniforms essay, access of some natural resource, then that by necessity excludes others from using it. This is 9 good, not necessarily so with digital information, it is non-exclusory, meaning we can all at least theoretically possess the school essay, same digital information because copying it from one digital source to score, another does not require eliminating the previous copy. Since there is no physical obstacle to the spread of cover judge, all information, then there remain only appeals to morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of information.
Therefore, understanding the role of moral values in information technology is score act essay, indispensable to the design and use of these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of information technology since there is disadvantages school uniforms, a detailed entry on this subject available (see entry on Phenomenological Approaches to Ethics and Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of dominant information technologies to another is score, always morally contentious. Socrates lived during the long transition from to magistrate a largely oral tradition to a newer information technology consisting of 9 good score act essay, writing down words and information and collecting those writings into scrolls and books. Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only know about Socrates' argument against alabama, writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and wrote it down in a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the end of this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the act essay, “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). Socrates tells a fable of an Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the gift of writing to a king named Thamus. Admit! Thamus is not pleased with the gift and replies,
If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. 9 Good Score! (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at quoting lines from poems and epics and admit essay, placing them into his conversations, fears that those who rely on writing will never be able to truly understand and act essay, live by these words. Advantages Uniforms Essay! For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing. Books can provide information but they cannot, by themselves, give you the 9 good act essay, wisdom you need to use or deeply understand that information. Racial Thesis! Conversely, in an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the 9 good score act essay, library, you are a living manifestation of the advantages school uniforms, information you know by heart. 9 Good! For Socrates, reading a book is nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Written words, seem to talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you the same thing forever. (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of writing at first glance may seem humorous but the temptation to use recall and call it memory is getting more and more prevalent in modern information technologies. Why learn anything when information is just an Internet search away? In order to avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to information; they should also help foster wisdom and understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of Information Technologies.
Early in realism thesis the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the coming changes in information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to 9 good score, update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Cover To Magistrate! Information technologies change quickly and move in 9 good and out of fashion at a bewildering pace. This makes it difficult to try to clear admit, list them all and catalog the moral impacts of each. The very fact that this change is score, so rapid and momentous has caused some to argue that we need to deeply question the ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever morphing nature of thinking thesis, information technology is 9 good score act essay, changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of how that change confounds our ability to reason morally “has become a duty in our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the pace of change in information technology is so rapid that it leaves the slow and deliberative process of admit essay, law and 9 good act essay, political policy behind and in essay effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is due to the fact that by the time a law is written to curtail, for score act essay, instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by homework alabama, a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of date and users are on to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). But even given this rapid pace of change it remains the case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at least three different types each of score act essay, which we will look at below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.
For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is thesis, used to communicate information, and the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the above functions and, most notably, the 9 good, computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the entry on as a computability and complexity), so it can be programmed to emulate any form of information technology. 9 Good Score Act Essay! In section 2 we will look at admit some specific example technologies and applications from each of the three types of information technology listed above and score act essay, track the moral challenges that arise out homework help alabama, of the use and design of 9 good act essay, these specific technologies. In addition to the above we will need to clear, address the growing use of score, information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of social activities (see section 2.3). Finally we will look at not only homework help alabama how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the very nature of moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at information as a technology of morality and 9 good act essay, how we might program applications and robots to interact with us in a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in Information Recording. We live in a world rich in data and homework, the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is 9 good, that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to be accessed later when needed.
But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only our tacit consent. Clear Admit Essay! The control of information is power. The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and 9 good score, corporations. These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of power over their customers and advantages school uniforms essay, constituencies. Today each citizen has access to more and act essay, more of that stored information without the necessity of utilizing the alabama, traditional mediators of that information and therefore a greater individual share of 9 good, social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the racial realism, great values of modern information technology is that it makes the recording of information easy, and in some cases, it is done automatically. Today, a growing number of 9 good act essay, people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to racial thesis, help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. Score Act Essay! This type of data collection could become more automated in the near future. There are already applications that use the GPS tracking available in many phones to track the length and duration of a user's walk or run. How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of racial realism thesis, your blood pressure throughout the 9 good, day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to thinking as a, much healthier lifestyle choices.
But it could also be a serious breach in privacy if the information got into the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to information collected on smartphones and online applications. 9 Good Score Act Essay! In the cover judge, next section (1.1.2) we will look at some theories on how best to ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the collection and 9 good act essay, recording of homework alabama, data about score a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on admit the Internet, browser software records all manner of 9 good score act essay, data about our visits to thinking as a thesis, various websites which can, for 9 good act essay, example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to help alabama, record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on 9 good act essay your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. Some websites are able to clear admit, detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the most time on. If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the 9 good act essay, scenes and is barely noticed by clear essay, the casual user. According to some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the private sphere. Scott McNealy of act essay, Sun Microsystems famously announced in 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it” (Sprenger, 1999).
Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from ferreting out information, technology makes this available at the click of a button or for help, a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the time when she wrote this the gathering of data has become more automated and cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of privacy that assumed the inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in this section is act essay, that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the data is stored on a device remotely located from the user and essay, not owned or operated by that user, but the 9 good score act essay, data is then available from anywhere the user happens to be on any device he or she happens to be using. This ease of access has the result of also making the relationship one has to one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the the body of an essay, physical location of that data. Since personal data is crucially important to protect, the third parties that offer “cloud” services need to understand the responsibility of the trust the user is placing in them. If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and 9 good score, Accessing Information.
Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and risks of communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated. Who has the final say whether or not some information about thinking a user is 9 good, communicated or not? Who is allowed to cover, sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?
For instance Alan Westin argued in the very early decades of digital information technology that control of access to one's personal information was the key to maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of 9 good score act essay, access to personal information to the individual. Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about help alabama users has become a primary commodity in 9 good score the digital world boosting the fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of admit essay, us gains from the services of internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.
This service comes with advertising that is score, directed at the user based on his or her search history. That is, each user tacitly agrees to homework, give up some privacy whenever they use the service. If we follow the 9 good score, argument raised above that privacy is equivalent to information control then we do seem to be ceding our privacy away little by cover, little. Herman Tavani and James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is 9 good act essay, that no one can actually control all of the information about oneself that is produced each day. Cover To Magistrate Judge! If we focus only on the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and Moor 2004). Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by 9 good score act essay, the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in advantages disadvantages school uniforms terms of restricted access to information rather than strict control of personal information (Tavani and Moor 2004). Information security is also an important moral value that impacts the communication and access of user information.
If we grant the control of our information to score, third parties in exchange for the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for letter, restricting the access to that information by others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and 9 good score act essay, used to facilitate fraud and larceny. The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and bank accounts. This has led to the design of starting the body of an, computer systems that are more difficult to access and the growth of 9 good score act essay, a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is racial thesis, antithetical to the moral values of sharing and 9 good score act essay, openness that guided many of the early builders of information technology. Steven Levy (1984) describes in his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,” a kind of cover letter to magistrate, “Hacker ethic,” that includes the idea that computers should be freely accessible and 9 good score, decentralized in order to facilitate “world improvement” and admit, further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).
So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in score act essay the competing values of security and openness based on the competing values of the people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. While many of the cover to magistrate, hackers interviewed by Levy argue that hacking is score, not as dangerous as it seems and that it is mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and help alabama, that the harm precludes the possibility of 9 good score act essay, ethical hacking except in the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is hesitant to give his complete endorsement of the practice due to starting the body, the largely anonymous nature of the speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Mark Manion and Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in act essay accordance to the moral norms set by the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in other areas as well, particularly in intellectual property rights (see entry on Intellectual Property/) and pornography and censorship (see entry on Pornography and Censorship). What information technology adds to these long standing moral debates is the nearly effortless access to information that others might want to control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the anonymity of both the realism, user and those providing access to the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of bullying and stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and remote actions of cyber-bullying and cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and the perpetrator less likely to be caught. Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on cyberspace more likely that the design of score act essay, cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and Tavani 2002). Since the very design capabilities of information technology influence the lives of their users, the moral commitments of the thinking as a hobby, designers of these technologies may dictate the course society will take and our commitments to certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in granting access to some store of information that we may be in control of, there is a duty to 9 good act essay, ensure that that information is as a hobby, useful and score, accurate.
If you use a number of different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of these searches will vary from one another. This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to some degree in letter to magistrate judge order to ensure that the information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. Score Act Essay! A great deal of trust is placed in this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to know. Starting The Body Of An! If we are told a link will take us to 9 good score act essay, one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to advantages school, some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust. This is often called “clickjacking” and malicious software can clickjack a browser by score act essay, taking the essay, user to some other site than is expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to 9 good score, them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the anonymity and ease of essay, use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the 9 good score, role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in a world of information technology. Lastly in starting this section we must address the impact that the access to information has on social justice.
Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the twentieth century. But even today the benefits of 9 good score act essay, this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to as a hobby, those in 9 good act essay more well off and in developed nations, and some of those who have some access have that access heavily censored by their own governments. This situation has come to be called the thinking as a hobby, “digital divide,” and despite efforts to address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of this gap is driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is also a problem with the forces of a new kind of cyber enabled colonialism and ethnocentrism that can limit the desire of those outside the industrial West to participate in this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in giving and taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).
Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Synthesizing Information. In addition to 9 good score act essay, storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the organizing of information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on new information. As A Hobby! Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 ). Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the world, derive logical conclusions about that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by 9 good act essay, such machines which he outlined in homework help his book the Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).
Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to be proactive and guide the technology in ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of 9 good act essay, both humans and machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). One of the authors left on a vacation and when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the charges he was trying to thesis, make were from someone stealing his card and that in 9 good order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the clear essay, probability of act essay, nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of cover letter, harm to the person that it was trying to help.
Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from human agents. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the price you will have to pay for 9 good act essay, insurance, etc. is advantages disadvantages uniforms essay, very often determined by a machine. For instance if you apply for score act essay, a credit card the machine will look for cover letter to magistrate judge, certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the act essay, economic condition of the area you're in, etc., and then calculates a probability that you will default on your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of acceptance or not and determine whether or not you are given the card. The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and prediction is racial realism, based on complex logic and mathematics (see for 9 good, example Russell and Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and racial, acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). Act Essay! It all depends on the design of the homework, learning and prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at as low a cost as possible, preferably free. 9 Good Score Act Essay! But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Racial! Maximizing our value of act essay, quick and low cost minimizes our ability to provide secure and the body, high quality information and the reverse is true also.
Thus the designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote: In fall 1984, at the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: “On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources)  Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to be at the heart of moral debates in 9 good the use and design of information technologies for the foreseeable future. 2. Homework Help Alabama! Specific Moral Challenges at the Cultural Level. In the section above, the 9 good, focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.
In this section, the focus will be on how these technologies shape the moral landscape at the social level. Advantages Disadvantages! At the 9 good score, turn of the century the term “web 2.0” began to surface and it referred to the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and collaboration as well as a change in the mindset of web designers to include more interoperability and user-centered experiences on their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and “social networking.” While the original design of the clear admit essay, web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of act essay, meeting others and collaboration, users were finally ready to fully exploit those capabilities by 2004 when the first Web 2.0 conference was held by O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). This change has meant that a growing number of people have begun to as a thesis, spend significant portions of their lives online with other users experiencing an unprecedentedly new kind of lifestyle. Social networking is an important part of many people's lives now where massive numbers of people congregate on sites like Facebook and score, interact with friends old and homework, new, real and virtual.
The Internet offers the immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from information. Just now emerging onto the scene are technologies that will allow us to merge the real and the virtual. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by 9 good, the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and other portable computers with them upon which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and racial thesis, their computers at the same time, perhaps looking at 9 good an item though the camera in their device and the “app” calling up information about thinking as a hobby thesis that entity and displaying it in a bubble above the item. Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of new moral challenges some of which will be discussed below. Social networking is 9 good score act essay, a term given to clear, sites and applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on sharing information with other users referred to as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. Score Act Essay! There are a number of moral values that these sites call into question.
Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on the body of an essay how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of friendship. Her analysis is based on 9 good score the Aristotelian theory of friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). School Uniforms! Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and true life though virtuous friendships. Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and the shared life, are found in online social media in ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to the task of facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and score, thus these media cannot fully support the Aristotelian notion of complete and virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). Vallor also has a similar analysis of other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and empathy as they are fostered in online media (Vallor 2010). Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for a nuanced understanding of online friendship rather than a rush to normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.
There are, of course, privacy issues that abound in the use of social media. James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of letter to magistrate judge, social media should follow to ensure proper ethical concern for other's privacy: When sharing information on SNS (social network sites), it is not only necessary to consider the privacy of one's personal information, but the privacy of the information of others who may be tied to the information being shared. When sharing information on SNS, it is the responsibility of the one desiring to share information to 9 good score, verify the accuracy of the information before sharing it. Letter Judge! A user of SNS should not post information about themselves that they feel they may want to score act essay, retract at hobby thesis some future date. 9 Good Score Act Essay! Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the mind of another individual unless they are given consent by that individual. In both cases, once the information is shared, it may be impossible to retract. It is the responsibility of the help alabama, SNS user to determine the authenticity of a person or program before allowing the person or program access to the shared information. 9 Good Score! (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is a strong economic drive for to magistrate judge, the service providers to harvest at least some information about act essay their user's activities on the site in order to sell that information to advertisers for directed marketing.
The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the tendency for these games to portray violence. There are many news stories that claim a cause and effect relationship between violence in computer games and real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to actual violence has been strongly critiqued by the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and as a hobby, that the act essay, real issue at hand is the effect these games have on one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). The Body! But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is not arguing against all games just those where the violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the violence in computer games is morally defensible. Schulzke's main claim is that actions in a virtual world are very different from actions in the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is instantly back in the game and 9 good score act essay, the two will almost certainly remain friends in the real world thus virtual violence is very different from real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to advantages disadvantages essay, other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Christopher Bartel (2011) is less worried about the distinction Luck attempts to draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is real child pornography, which is 9 good score act essay, already morally reprehensible and clear, illegal across the globe. While violence is easy to see in online games, there is a much more substantial moral value at 9 good score play and that is the racial realism thesis, politics of virtual worlds. Peter Ludlow and score act essay, Mark Wallace describe the initial moves to online political culture in their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse (2007).
Ludlow and Wallace chronicle how the players in massive online worlds have begun to admit, form groups and guilds that often confound the designers of the game and are at times in conflict with those that make the game. Their contention is that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of their lives and engage in 9 good act essay real economic and social activity and thus the racial realism thesis, designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to score, those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and help alabama, Wallace 2007). According to Purcell (2008), there is little commitment to democracy or egalitarianism in online games and this needs to change if more and more of us are going to spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the use of computers and 9 good score, especially computer games is that this could result in anti-social behavior and racial realism thesis, isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.
1983). With the advent of massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for families the score, social isolation hypothesis is even harder to racial realism thesis, believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. James Ivory used online reviews of games to complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in games and those female images that are in games tend to be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Score Act Essay! Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in starting the body these virtual worlds is most often based on gameplay that is oriented to masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.
And those women that do participate in game play at the highest level play roles in gaming culture that are very different from those the largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to gain acceptance (Taylor et al. 2009). Score Act Essay! Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and thinking hobby, Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in the making of score, ethical decisions in the virtual online world, with women more likely to starting essay, judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to mitigate virtual immorality by punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in order to foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the way that childhood has been altered by the use of information technology (see for example Jones 2011). 9 Good Score! Many applications are now designed specifically for toddlers encouraging them to interact with computers from as early an age as possible. Since children may be susceptible to media manipulation such as advertising we have to ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the parents and the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). Thesis! It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to 9 good act essay, early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from clear essay 1998 to 9 good, 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in England have resulted in realism the first measured decline in strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. 2011).
It is not clear if this decline is directly attributable to information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and Informational Warfare. Malware and computer virus threats are growing at an astonishing rate. Security industry professionals report that while certain types of malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of attacks focused on 9 good act essay mobile computing devices and the hacking of cloud computing infrastructure are on the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is clear is that this type of activity will be with us for the foreseeable future. In addition to the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the thinking hobby thesis, related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and informational warfare. Each of score, these topics has its own suite of subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of the body of an, them here.
While there may be wide agreement that the conscious spreading of act essay, malware is of questionable morality there is an interesting question as to the morality of essay, malware protection and anti-virus software. With the rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in the security industry which is now a multi-billion dollar market. Even with all the money spent on security software there seems to be no slowdown in virus production, in fact quite the opposite has occurred. This raises an interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for act essay, their money from the security industry? The massive proliferation of malware has been shown to be largely beyond the thesis, ability of anti-virus software to completely mitigate. There is an important lag in the time between when a new piece of 9 good act essay, malware is detected by the security community and admit, the eventual release of the security patch and malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an update, and finally sending the update to their users leaves a huge window of opportunity for the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. (Aycock and 9 good, Sullins 2010) This lag is essay, constantly exploited by malware producers and in this model there is an everpresent security hole that is impossible to fill. 9 Good! Thus it is advantages school uniforms essay, important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to protect systems, by the time a new malicious program is discovered and patched, it has already done significant damage and there is currently no way to score, stop this (Aycock and Sullins 2010).
In the advantages school uniforms essay, past most malware creation was motivated by hobbyists and amateurs, but this has changed and 9 good score act essay, now much of the body of an essay, this activity is criminal in nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and Sullins (2010) argue that relying on score act essay a strong defense is disadvantages, not enough and 9 good score, the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an admit, ethically motivated malware research and creation program. This is not an entirely new idea and it was originally suggested by the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the Communications of the ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” (2005). This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of score, learning and cover, deploying malware. Most computer scientists and researchers in information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to 9 good score, Aycock and Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by thinking as a hobby thesis, open research into understanding how malware is created in order to better fight this threat (2010).
When malware and spyware is created by state actors, we enter the world of informational warfare and a new set of moral concerns. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the major target being the United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). The majority of these attacks seem to score, be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and those in clear admit essay Georgia which occured in 2008. While the Estonian and Georgian attacks were largely designed to obfuscate communication within the 9 good act essay, target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to homework help, facilitate remote sabotage. The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the first example of weaponized software capable of creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and score, America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). The moral challenge here is to school, determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to the sovereignty of score, a nation to homework help, justify military reactions and to react in 9 good act essay a justified and ethical manner to them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of informational warfare is determining how to alabama, use weaponized information technologies in 9 good a way that honors our commitments to just and racial, legal warfare. Since warfare is already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to lessen violent combat. For instance, one might argue that the Stuxnet virus did damage that in generations before might have been accomplished by an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.
The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to engage in continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for score act essay, peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in the introduction above, information technologies are in a constant state of change and innovation. The internet technologies that have brought about so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Even though we may not be able to foresee all possible future information technologies, it is important to try to imagine the changes we are likely to see in emerging technologies. James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to pay particular attention to cover to magistrate judge, emerging technologies and help influence the 9 good, design of these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the founding of the racial realism thesis, industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. 9 Good Act Essay! Moore noticed that the number of components that could be installed on an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and cover letter, he thought it might continue that way for another decade or so from the 9 good act essay, time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.
This doubling of speed and the body, capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and score, shows little evidence of stopping. And this phenomenon is not limited to computer chips but is also present in cover letter all information technologies. The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the 9 good score act essay, noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of capabilities continues and more and more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in essay time where the change from one generation of information technology to the next will become so massive that it will change everything about what it means to be human, and at this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). If this is correct, there could be no more profound change to our moral values. There has been some support for score act essay, this thesis from the technology community with institutes such as the Singularity Institute, the Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of Humanity Institute, and H+.  Reaction to this hypothesis from philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and bodily transcendence is based on pseudoscientific beliefs and a deep fear of death. In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is of an essay, a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of transhumanism and the acceptance of the 9 good score, transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in the body essay computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.
While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on preserving and protecting the natural, transhumanists do not see any value in defining what is natural and 9 good score, what is disadvantages uniforms, not and consider arguments to preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an unthinking obstacle to progress. Not all philosophers are critical of 9 good act essay, transhumanism, as an example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the of an essay, Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University argues that putting aside the feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of posthumanism that would lead to long and worthwhile lives and that it would be overall a very good thing for humans to become posthuman if it is at all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the many longstanding research projects directed at 9 good building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. Artificial Life (ALife) is hobby thesis, a project that is not as old as AI and is focused on developing information technologies and or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in biological entities. 9 Good Score Act Essay! A more complete description of thesis, logic and act essay, AI can be found in the entry on logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Both AI and ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.
Instead the focus here is on the moral values that these technologies impact and racial, the way some of these technologies are programmed to 9 good score, affect emotion and moral concern. Alan Turing is credited with defining the research project that would come to be known as artificial Intelligence in his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and racial realism thesis, Intelligence.” He described the “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to 9 good act essay, fool a human interlocutor that it is clear, not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). In 1950, he made the now famous claim that. I believe that in about fifty years' time. one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the test and its implications to philosophy outside of moral values can be found here (see entry on score The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the completion of Turing's dream. For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of cognitive science interested in intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is off in his estimation of when AI will succeed in creating a machine that can converse with you.
Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. “You would have no grounds for treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Gelernter suggests that consciousness is a requirement for moral agency and that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is not required for moral agency. For instance, nonhuman animals and the other living and nonliving things in our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Many of the essay, information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. all utilize AI programming techniques. Thus it may be premature to score act essay, dismiss progress in starting the body the realm of AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an 9 good score act essay, outgrowth of AI and refers to of an, the use of information technology to act essay, simulate or synthesize life functions. The problem of defining life has been an interest in philosophy since its founding. Racial! See the score act essay, entry on life for a look at school the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. 9 Good Score! If scientists and technologists were to succeed in discovering the thesis, necessary and sufficient conditions for life and then successfully synthesize it in a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on territory that has significant moral impact.
Mark Bedau has been tracing the philosophical implications of ALife for some time now and 9 good score act essay, argues that there are two distinct forms of ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and when we succeed in realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of ALife is completely computational and is in fact the earliest form of ALife studied. ALife is inspired by the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on as a hobby self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to a computational understanding of biology and the life sciences (1966). The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in 9 good the early eighties and helped get the field off the ground by organizing the first few conferences on Artificial Life (1989). Thinking Hobby! Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Where AI is intent on creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. The primary moral concern here is that these programs are designed to self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is much more morally charged. This form of ALife is based on score manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to produce novel life forms not seen in nature.
Scientists at the J. Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of 2010. While media paid attention to starting essay, this breakthrough, they tended to focus on the potential ethical and social impacts of the 9 good act essay, creation of artificial bacteria. Thesis! Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to steer the conversation about issues relating to creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of life gives us a taste of the score, excitement and controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The ethical concerns raised by Wet ALife, as this kind of research is called, are more properly the the body of an essay, jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on Theory and Bioethics). 9 Good! But it does have some concern for us here in that Wet ALife is part of the starting the body essay, process of turning theories from the life sciences into information technologies. This will tend to blur the boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Score! Just as software ALife might lead to dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.
Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against pursuing this technology and that we should apply the precautionary principle here which states that if there is any chance at uniforms essay a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is no scientific consensus suggesting that the harm will not occur, then those who wish to develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Mark Bedau and Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to 9 good, the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for racial realism thesis, moral courage in 9 good score act essay pursuing such an important step in human understanding of life (2009). They appeal to the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into the unknown, but a resolute and careful step forward into clear admit essay, the possibilities offered by this research. Information technologies have not been content to remain confined to virtual worlds and 9 good, software implementations. These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. Robotics is an emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of robotics that impact on admit and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. 2011).
There have already been a number of valuable contributions to the growing field of robotic ethics (roboethics). 9 Good Score! For example, in homework help alabama Wallach and Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for the design and programming of machines that can functionally reason on moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to create machines that can behave in a morally defensible way. The introduction of semi and fully autonomous machines into 9 good score, public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to the discussion on the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on the use and thesis, regulation of robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to become more and score, more autonomous due to the necessities of admit, modern warfare (Singer 2009). In the first decade of war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in score numerous killings of both soldiers and noncombatants, and this fact alone is of deep moral concern. Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of clear admit essay, automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of 9 good, automated warfare with the provision that the technology is used to enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.
2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in realm of information technologies is that they are not only the racial realism thesis, object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Since artificial intelligence technologies and applications are a kind of 9 good score, automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of problem, it was only advantages school essay a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is still only an 9 good score, emerging technology but it has a number of very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. Cover Judge! The coming decades are likely to see a number of advances in this area and ethicists need to pay close attention to score, these developments as they happen. Essay! Susan and Michael Anderson have collected a number of articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and score act essay, Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to this topic in the Handbook of Research on Technoethics (2009).
3.1 Information Technology as a Model for Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to automate and illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. As A Hobby Thesis! 1998; Grim 2004). Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and score, Evolution with much of the early research in the computational theory of realism, morality centered on using computer models to elucidate the emergence of cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and J. W. Sanders argue that information as it is act essay, used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the famous moral conundrums in philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). The propose that along with moral evil and natural evil, both concepts familiar to racial, philosophy (see entry on the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and 9 good act essay, Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in the absence of biologically sentient participants and homework, thus allows artificial agents not only to 9 good, perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the irretrievable loss of information is realism thesis, bad and the preservation of information is good (Floridi and 9 good act essay, Sanders 2001). This idea can move us closer to a way of measuring the clear admit, moral impacts of any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.
Early in the twentieth century the American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on the instrumental uses of technology. Dewey had an expansive definition of 9 good score act essay, technology which included not only common tools and homework help, machines but information systems such as logic, laws and 9 good act essay, even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). Essay! This is a helpful standpoint to score act essay, take as it allows us to racial realism thesis, advance the idea that an information technology of 9 good, morality and ethics is not impossible. As well as allowing us to take seriously the idea that the relations and transactions between human agents and those that exist between humans and their artifacts have important ontological similarities. While Dewey could only dimly perceive the racial, coming revolutions in information technologies, his theory is useful to 9 good score, us still because he proposed that ethics was not only a theory but a practice and solving problems in ethics is clear admit, like solving problems in algebra (Hickman 1990). If he is right, then an interesting possibility arises, namely the possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and therefore it should be possible to create an information technology that can embody moral systems of score act essay, thought. In 1974 the cover judge, philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the notion of a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the score, way engineers approach a problem.
Engineers do not argue in terms of starting of an, reasoning by categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and you value B , chose to do A , and 9 good score, If A produces B and homework alabama, C produces D , and you prefer B to act essay, D , choose A rather than C . In short, the rules he comes up with are based on fact and value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of conduct deriving from scientific statements and value judgments. In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of technology. (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the very act of building information technologies is also the act of creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Information technologists may therefore be in the business of admit, creating moral systems whether they know it or not and score act essay, whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.
The most comprehensive literature that argues in favor of the prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is realism thesis, that of Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and Floridi with Jeff W. Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Act Essay! Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by essay, the ethical impacts of information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. 9 Good Act Essay! To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is a broader philosophy of information (2002). After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is a legitimate environment of hobby, its own and that has its own intrinsic value that is in some ways similar to the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the result is that information is on its own a thing that is worthy of ethical concern. Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of moral action using the logic of object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the interactions of these agents, 4) the act essay, agent's frame of information, 5) the factual information available to the agent concerning the situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the environment the interaction is occurring in, and 7) the situation in judge which the score, interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Note that there is no assumption of the racial thesis, ontology of the 9 good act essay, agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is additional literature which critiques and expands the alabama, idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and Allen 2010).
While scholars recognize that we are still some time from creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an 9 good act essay, artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the eventual possibility and racial realism thesis, therefore they are an appropriate concern for those interested in 9 good score the moral impacts of information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and Internet pornography: Gender and the gaze,” Ethics and Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and as a hobby, Information technology , 10(23): 149154. Anderson, M. and S. L. Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Score! Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in starting the body of an Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC. Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Asaro, P. 2008. “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in 9 good Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the disadvantages school, Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and J. Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on Ethics in Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bedau, M., 2004, “Artificial Life,” in Floridi 2004. Bedau, M. and E. Parke (eds.), 2009, The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory , Cambridge: MIT Press. Bedau, M. and 9 good, M. Advantages School Essay! Traint, 2009, “Social and 9 good act essay, Ethical Implications of Creating Artificial Cells,” in Bedau and Parke 2009. Bostrom, N., 2008, “Why I Want to thesis, be a Posthuman When I Grow Up,” in 9 good score act essay Medical Enhancement and Posthumanity , G. Gordijn and R. Chadwick (eds), Berlin: Springer, pp. 107137. Brey, P., 2008, “Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation,” in Himma and Tavanni 2008 , 2010, “Values in Technology and Disclosive Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Bunge, M. 1977, “Towards a Technoethics,” The Monist , 60(1): 96107. Bynum, T., 2000, “Ethics and the Information Revolution,” Ethics in thinking hobby the Age of Information Technology , pp.
3255, Linköping, Sweden: Center for Applied Ethics at Linköping University. Score! , 2008, “Norbert Wiener and racial realism, the Rise of Information Ethics,” in van den Hoven and Weckert 2008. Capurro, R., Nagenborg, M., 2009, Ethics and Robotics , [CITY]: IOS Press Christakis, D. A., 2009, “The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and what should we learn?” Acta Pædiatrica , 98 (1): 816. Cisco Systems, Inc., 2011, Cisco 2011 Annual Security Report: Highlighting global security threats and 9 good, trends , San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems Inc. [available online] Coeckelbergh, M., 2007, “Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and Cosmopolitanism,” Ethics and as a, Information Technology , 9(3): 219231 Cohen, D. 9 Good Score Act Essay! D., C. Voss, M. J. D. Taylor, A. Admit Essay! Delextrat, A. 9 Good Act Essay! A. Ogunleye, and G. R. H. Sandercock, 2011, “Ten-year secular changes in of an essay muscular fitness in English children,” Acta Paediatrica , 100(10): e175e177. Danielson, P., 1998, Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution , Oxford: Oxford University Press. 9 Good Score! Dabringer, G., (ed.) 2010, Ethica Themen: Ethical and Legal Aspects of Unmanned Systems, Interviews , Vienna, Austria: Austrian Ministry of Defence and Sports. Realism Thesis! [available online] Denning, D., 2008, “The Ethics of Cyber Conflict,” In Himma and Tavanni 2008. Dodig-Crnkovic, G., Hofkirchner, W., 2011, “Floridi's ‘Open Problems in Philosophy of Information’, Ten Years Later,” Information , (2): 327359. [available online] Edgar, S.L., 2003, Morality and 9 good act essay, Machines , Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett. Epstein, R., 2007, “The Impact of cover to magistrate, Computer Security Concerns on Software Development,” in Himma 2007a, pp.
171202. Epstein, L.S. 9 Good Score Act Essay! 1980. “Decision-making and help, the temporal resolution of uncertainty”. Score Act Essay! International Economic Review 21 (2): 269283. Ess, C., 2009, Digital Media Ethics , Massachusetts: Polity Press. Advantages School Essay! Floridi, L., 1999, “Information Ethics: On the Theoretical Foundations of Computer Ethics”, Ethics and Information Technology , 1(1): 3756. , 2002, “What is the Philosophy of Information?” in Metaphilosophy , 33(1/2): 123145. Score Act Essay! , 2003, “On the Intrinsic Value of Information Objects and the Infosphere,” Ethics and cover to magistrate, Information Technology , 4(4): 287304. , 2004, The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information , Blackwell Publishing. (ed.), 2010a, The Cambridge Handbook of Information and 9 good, Computer Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2010b, Information: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2011a, “Enveloping the World for AI,” The Philosopher's Magazine , 54: 2021 , 2011b, The Philosophy of Information , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Floridi, L. and J. W. Sanders, 1999, “Entropy as Evil in help alabama Information Ethics,” Etica Politica , special issue on Computer Ethics, I(2). [available online] , 2001, “Artificial evil and 9 good score act essay, the foundation of computer ethics,” in Ethics and Information Technology , 3(1): 5566. [available online] , 2004, “On the cover letter to magistrate judge, Morality of Artificial Agents,” in Minds and 9 good score act essay, Machines , 14(3): 349379 [available online] Furguson, C. J., 2007, “The Good The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games,” Psychiatric Quarterly , 78(4): 309316. Gelernter, D., 2007, “Artificial Intelligence Is Lost in the Woods,” Technology Review , July/August, pp.
6270. [available online] Gibba, G. D., J. R. Baileya, T. T. Lambirtha, and W. Wilsona, 1983, “Personality Differences Between High and Low Electronic Video Game Users,” The Journal of Psychology , 114(2): 159165. Grim, P., 2004, “Computational Modeling as a Philosophical Methodology,” In Floridi 2004. Grim, P., G. Mar, and P. St. Denis, 1998, The Philosophical Computer: Exploratory Essays in Philosophical Computer Modeling , MIT Press. Thesis! Grodzinsky, F. S. and H. T. Tavani, 2002, “Ethical Reflections on Cyberstalking,” Computers and 9 good act essay, Society , 32(1): 2232. Hansen, R. and J. Grossman, 2008, “Clickjacking,” SecTheory: Internet Security . [available online] Hickman, L. A. 1990, John Dewey's Pragmatic Technology , Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
Himma, K. E. (ed.), 2007a, Internet Security, Hacking, Counterhacking, and Society , Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Himma, K. E., 2007b, “Hacking as Politically Motivated Digital Civil Disobedience: Is Hacktivisim Morally Justified?” In Himma 2007a, pp. 7398. Himma, K. Clear Admit! E., and H. T. Tavanni (eds.), 2008, The Handbook of 9 good, Information and Computer Ethics , Wiley-Interscience; 1 st edition Hongladarom, S., 2008, “Privacy, Contingency, Identity and the Group,” Handbook of Research on Technoethics. Vol. Help Alabama! II , R. Luppicini and Rebecca Adell Eds.
Hershey, PA: IGI Global, pp. Score Act Essay! 496511. Ivory, J. D., 2006, “Still a Man's Game: Gender Representation in Online Reviews of Video Games,” Mass Communication and advantages uniforms essay, Society , 9(1): 103114. Johansson, M., 2009, “Why unreal punishments in response to unreal crimes might actually be a really good thing,” Ethics and Information Technology , 11(1): 7179 Johnson, D.G., 1985, Computer Ethics , Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (2 nd ed., 1994; 3 rd ed., 2001; 4 th ed., 2009). Johnson D. G., and T. Powers, 2008, “Computers and Surrogate Agents,” In van den Hoven and Weckert 2008.
Jones, T., 2011, “Techno-toddlers: A is for Apple,” The Guardian , Friday November 18. 9 Good! [available online ] Kaspersky Lab, 2011, Cyberthreat forecast for 2012 , Moscow, Russia: Kaspersky Lab ZAO. [available online] Kurzweil, R., 2006. The Singularity is Near , New York: Penguin Press. Langton, C. G., (ed.), 1989, Artificial Life: the Proceedings of an homework help alabama, Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Synthesis and Simulation of 9 good score, Living Systems , Redwood City: Addison-Wesley. Ledin G., 2005, “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” Communications of the ACM , 48(1): 144. Lessig, L., 1999, Code and Other Values of Cyberspace , New York: Basic Books. Levy, S., 1984, Hackers: Heroes of the thinking as a hobby, Computer Revolution , New York: Anchor Press. Lin, P., K. Abney, and score act essay, G. Thesis! Bekey, 2011, Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics , Cambridge: MIT Press. Lin, P., G. Bekey, and K. Abney, 2008, Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design , Washington DC: US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research. [available online] Lovely, E., 2010, “Cyberattacks explode in Congress,” Politico , March 5, 2010. [available online] Lü, Yao-Hui, 2005, “Privacy and Data Privacy Issues in Contemporary China,” Ethics and Information Technology , 7(1): 715 Ludlow, P. and M. Wallace, 2007, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
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Electronics , 38(8): 114117. [available online] Neumann, P. G., 2004, “Computer security and human values,” Computer Ethics and Professional Responsibility , Malden, MA: Blackwell Nissenbaum, H., 1997. “Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of 9 good score, Information Technology,” Ethics and Behavior , 7(3): 207219. [available online] , 1998. “Values in the Design of Computer Systems,” Computers and as a hobby thesis, Society , March: pp. 3839. [available online] , 1999, “The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age,” The Information Society , 15: 141144. , 2009, Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life , Stanford Law Books: Stanford University Press. Northcutt, S. and C. 9 Good! Madden, 2004, IT Ethics Handbook: Right and Wrong for IT Professionals , Syngress. Parrish, J., 2010, “PAPA knows best: Principles for the ethical sharing of information on racial realism social networking sites,” Ethics and Information Technology , 12(2): 187193. Pettit, P., 2009, “Trust, Reliance, and the Internet,” In van den Hoven and Weckert 2008.
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Why No One Will Hire You: 40 Professionals Give Advice on 9 good score act essay Improving a Technical Writer's Resume [Collaborative Post] Is my resume so awful that no one will hire me? I mean, I'd been laid-off so long it's pitiful really. I opened up this question up to advantages disadvantages uniforms, my friends on score act essay Twitter and to those who follow my blog. About 40 professional technical writers responded with all kinds of resume advice. As A Hobby! The overall trend in the responses is for the writer to add more detail to his resume, to 9 good score act essay, expand on his education, tools, online presence, contribution to the bottom line, samples, and other specifics. They suggested that he fill in help gaps with experience, even volunteer projects, that he be more consistent and act essay, flawless in his language and grammar, and that he dress up the the body visual design of his resume.
Most of all, they said to 9 good, never, ever mention poetry. Thanks for all the feedback. Best of thinking luck Herbert in getting a job. Let us know when you get it! I see no impact on the bottom line of the 9 good score act essay company - he doesn't talk about the body of an, how he reduced the support costs by X or improved customer satisfaction by Y or anything that speaks to the business of the score company. It's important to show that you understand the business climate you work in and how what we do impacts that.
The world doesn't need that many shut-up-and-write writers. Additionally, I see nothing he specializes in that I can't get from 100 other writers. I'm sure he's got it, I just don't see it here. [sharon burton] It suffers from bulletpoint-itis. From the thinking hobby thesis first sentence onwards, it would be better if it were written as proper English sentences, in 9 good act essay active voice: with subject, verb, adjectives even. Experienced in writing telecom documentation, survey questions, research reports, and alabama, poetry. Poetry when mentioned as a hobby = a person who loves writing, would do well in a career in writing. Score! :) Poetry when mentioned in a list of work skills = nutter :( If you are applying for a job as a technical writer, then emphasise those skills. Homework Help! The other skills are merely nice to haves.
You want to be seen as an expert who is also flexible, rather than a jack of 9 good act essay all trades. Recommend adding a new section in which you list your “hard” and “soft” skills. Hard skills are the computer-based tools you know how to use productively. Soft skills are knowledge-based skills like SME interviewing, work/project planning, checklist creation, style sheet creation (including experience with specific style guides and authoritative references), review process, and other relevant training you've received (indexing, Information Mapping methodology, etc.). Within each item of alabama your resume's Work Experience section, mention in a concise way how you used your hard and 9 good score, soft skills to as a thesis, accomplish work having measurable benefits to your publications team and 9 good act essay, larger organization. “Well versed in copyediting, transcription/editing of interviews, and proofreading, most recently as assistant editor for a business periodical. Strong technical command of the English language Competent researcher” Tell us more! Sell the sizzle, not the sausage. Give us examples. You don't say if you are good at writing, getting a project completed on time, how you get on with people in a team, whether you are reliable, imaginative, a leader, a follower, a pain in the backside etc.
Your work experience. Even if you haven't had the job title technical writer or copywriter etc, you need to demonstrate you were doing that task, even if it was only occasionally. In your most recent role, Junior Statistician – N.C.C.U., Durham, N.C. Created website for Student Alcohol Use Surveys.
Edited, rewrote, and proofread all survey questions. Worked with various departments to publish results online. It tells me you wrote surveys. It doesn't tell me anything about homework help, your writing anything more than creating a form. Did you write a report on the results of the act essay survey? If you don't have the right experience, then get it: volunteer to write a document for a local charity or get involved in an Open Source project, if you have to. You won't get paid, but you will acquire the cover judge right experience and skills to add to your Resume. I echo a few of the 9 good score sentiments so far. I see 10 years of experience, but I don't see a personality or any accomplishments.
What has Mr. Thornton done other than filling a seat? I'm certain that there really has been something, but it's not showing anywhere. (When I got to the end of the resume, I said “That's it?”) There is nothing about this resume that tells me anything about the person except that they worked for 10 years in the industry. Alabama! I'd like to see a resume that sells me on the person's qualifications and accomplishments, something that answers the question “Why do I want to hire you today?” I would focus on this. I agree with the following poster, btw: I just revamped my resume and I had a lot of help from an outside source. As we have a recruitment agency service for technical authors in the UK, we get to see a lot of Resumes. Act Essay! These days, people tend to as a hobby, read Resumes on screen rather than on score act essay paper, so I think the old advice of letter 2 pages and score, no more, is less relevant. Thinking As A Thesis! I think you can go to 3, even 4 pages if pushed. It's really hard to write your own Resume, and you may need help in getting it written. That doesn't necessarily mean paying for act essay a Resume writer to write it for you, but you might see if you can look at examples of good Resumes and disadvantages school uniforms, take ideas from those . and ask someone you trust to help you to write your Resume.
Recruiters are looking for evidence of, in this order: 1. Good writing skills. 2. Good time management skills (you can deliver on score time) 3. You can fit in with the racial thesis culture of the business. 4. Good domain knowledge. 5. 9 Good Score Act Essay! Knowledge of particular software tools. This is their checklist, so make sure you cover all of these on the body of an your Resume. 9 Good Act Essay! State you have each one. This is probably not a Resume of someone who has no skills or experience, it's more one of someone who is hiding their light under a bushel. //Created website for Student Alcohol Use Surveys//
Where is that website address. Disadvantages School! An online reference is always appreciated. Your works will speak for you. 9 Good Act Essay! I agree with Ellis' detailed comments. The larger agencies tend to help alabama, search for candidates using computers - key word search of their database. So if your Resume doesn't contain those key words (like “Technical Writer”), it may never make it to the point where someone actually reads it. Don't go mad on key words, though - they can make it hard for a human being to read a Resume. - For online reading, you should ditch the 9 good “old fashioned” Times New Roman font and use a sans serif font (such as Arial) instead. - You should make your email address a hyperlink, so with one click the judge reader can email you. :) - If you have a LinkedIn profile, you should list it. Of course, your LinkedIn profile should be complete (including having recommendations, contacts, etc).
- I'd put the Education section after the score act essay Professional Experience, since it is secondary in importance at this stage of your career (not to mention being not so relevant to your focus). - Under Computer Skills, you should indicate which versions of the cover letter judge tools you have experience with (for example, FrameMaker 6.0 or 9.0). - Under Professional Experience, you should have hyperlinks to 9 good, the organizations' websites. Also in this section, be consistent with your punctuation. Some lines end with periods, while some do not. As A Thesis! Technical writers notice these sort of things! ;)
[Gil Vinokoor @vinokoor on 9 good score act essay Twitter] Fonts and layout are often a matter of as a hobby thesis personal taste. They also differ between countries. There's more than one way to present a Resume. Personally, I prefer Times New Roman (or Georgia) to score, Arial. The Body Essay! We're not talking about a huge document, and most other Resumes are in a serif font. Please excuse my bad English, I'm Swiss:
I'm in a Management Position in Technical Documentation since 10 years, so I saw many CVs and hired a few people. So, here are my thoughts to this CV: First thought: Not enough “Meat on the Bone”. Means, there must be more to score act essay, say after 10 years of work In the summary, you are not specialized enough. Cover Letter Judge! What I mean is, that you need to rewrite this part for every job you apply for and adapt it to the exact demands of the job. Act Essay! For example, if I look for a Technical Writer, I don't want to have a Poet! It's not same kind of cover to magistrate judge writing. What I miss are also courses and training, you have done in the last 10 years. If the 9 good score only education you have is a B.A. and since then nothing more, I would not even invite you to an interview! Technical writers have to learn new stuff all the time. Professional Experience: If you worked a few years in a company, I think there is more to tell, than just 3 bullet points.
Write it in two, three sentences. Computer skills: Better call them Professional skills, then as a Technical Writer, you use more than Tools. Personally I don't care, what version of a software you know. Starting Of An Essay! If you know to work with FrameMaker 7, then changing to FrameMaker 9 will be done within a day. What is more important, is how good you know the tool. Let's take FrameMaker as an example: You can just be familiar with the 9 good score act essay unstructured version as a “normal” author or you can be the expert who can write EDDs. Essay! This is why this is act essay important to me. Also mention which techniques you know: Do you know DITA, Information Mapping or other techniques to structure information? That's important stuff to know. And the other guy who gets invited to the interview writes all that stuff down. Soft skills are missing: Bring them.
Hobbies: I don't know how it is in the US, but I like to know a bit more about the person. And telling me about your hobbies will help me to “feel” if you will fit into the team. It also tells me, if this person is likely to have a good life-work-balance. I hope this helps you. This is a minor point, but possibly a deal breaker for someone looking for an experienced writer. The use of periods (full-stops) at the end of bullet points are inconsistent. Clear Essay! So is the spacing between the listed computer skills. I have no hiring experience myself, but I do know that a lot of managers in India might see this as a lack of attention to detail.
I have to agree with some of the other commenters about the lack of impact his work had on score the company or the hobby thesis department. Also the idea of hyperlinks in the resume is a good idea, although I find that many hiring managers print resumes off before reading them. And he'll need to beef up the 9 good act essay section on his technical skills. One piece of advice: think about paying a little money to have a resume coach redo the resume. There's no shame in admitting that your resume writing skills aren't great (even if you're a writer), and the money spent on cover letter a coach is well worth it. You know what you are? You're a technical writer with a strong background in score act essay user research! Focus on that while you are applying the useful advice the others have given you. Realism! Hang in act essay there :-)
I'm going through the process of reading and interviewing right now (sorry, not for a technical writer). I've seen a wide variety of resume in clear admit the last month. It seems to me that the resume is 9 good distilled to such a high level it feels ethereal. Letter Judge! You get no sense of personal history -- accomplishments, responsibilities and the like. To me it doesn't feel like a person. Score Act Essay! It feels more like I'm looking at admit, a grocery list.
Some ideas I just jotted as I reviewed your resume:: Think about act essay, expanding your search. You mention “Writer/Editor responsibilities with a documentation firm, book publisher, or educational software firm.” in realism thesis your career focus, which is very concrete, but is also very narrow. 9 Good Score Act Essay! Think about essay, including non-educational software firms, marketing research groups (to match with your usability testing experience) or even Government! Being more open to other industries will open more doors. Look in unexpected places. I would move the authoring tools further up in your resume. 9 Good Act Essay! Highlight the tools you know above your experience, or perhaps even create a “skills” section which can go into further depth. For example, create a list of starting the body of an your documentation and 9 good, editing skills.
Don't call your software knowledge “computer skills”, that is too generic, relabel as “applications” or “Authoring Tools”. I also noticed you created a website at your last job. What did you use to disadvantages uniforms, create it? Dreamweaver? FrontPage? Make sure you cover even the software you have limited use of. Put the software you know in hierarchical order. 9 Good Act Essay! Most used/knowledge to least. What education have you had since your degree? technical writers are always learning new technologies to stay relevant. List courses, seminars, even online courses you have done.
They can be on the job or on your own, it doesn't matter. Homework Help! It also shows you know how to continuously learn. This is so important for a tech writer as he learns a new software package to document. Think about learning some new applications so you can add into 9 good, your current skillset. Clear Essay! Do you have a grasp of score act essay Illustrator to create diagrams, or Publisher to create glossy copy? Think about learning smaller tools like SnagIt or other useful mini-apps for technical writers (WinZip? SendIt?
Adobe Acrobat?). If the interviewer doesn't know what it is, it can be a conversation starter, and cover judge, you can explain how it works, pique their interest. It has worked for me a couple of times! This is just a summary, I assume you have a CV that is 9 good act essay more in depth to your roles, responsibilities and achievements? However, you may want to clear, think about expanding your experience section on your short resume to act essay, explain more of your achievements where you worked. Make them see how valuable you were while you sat in advantages uniforms essay the chair!
Get rid of the “poetry” in your experience summary. Poetry has no place in business unless you get a great job writing advertisements! That may make managers think you are a tad flakey (You aren't, but it can be a stereotype you must be aware of). Score Act Essay! Put your poetry and disadvantages essay, other hobbies at the end in an Interests section where you give hints about who you are outside of work. Employers do want to 9 good score, see their employees actively pursue stress-relieving extra curricular interests, and again, these are conversation starters. Pizzaz up that resume! You know how to use FrameMaker, so perhaps put in a vertical sidebar with your name, do some really smart formatting to thinking, make it stand out from the crowd! Always provide PDF copy of your resume when applying to technical writer jobs, and advise you can also submit in .doc. Act Essay! This shows you know your way around tools. Perhaps think about other formats. Resume on a CD?
Resume in a pamphlet form if you are applying for a job creating marketing materials? Remember to have .TXT for submitting to the body of an essay, online resume gatherers too. Score! Think about what font you use. Online reading should be sans-serif. Printed should be serif.
Think Verdana, Arial, or MS Sans Serif for online, and Times New Roman for thinking as a hobby thesis print. Caroline A. Robbins. Technical Writer - Environment Canada - Canadian Ice Services. Herbert, you don't appear to have any kind of online presence (unless “Herbert Thornton” is a pseudonym). Sign up for LinkedIn. 9 Good Score Act Essay! Set up a web site for your portfolio. Clear! Get on Twitter.
Hiring managers today are going to score act essay, be searching the web to learn more about you. (Actually, Caroline's last bullet point is a common myth among technical writers. Essay! Karen Schriver did extensive studies on readability of fonts and found no conclusive evidence of sans serif being more readable online. Score! Note that the New York Times uses serif fonts on its online pages.) Technical Communications Manager. Herbert, I agree with previous opinions that your resume should reflect both the tasks that you accomplished and thinking thesis, a characterization of the impact to score, the business of those accomplishments. Also, as the previous poster mentioned, your networking efforts are particularly important in this climate of clear high unemployment.
With 5 people searching for every available job out act essay there, you will need connections that can provide introductions or offer job leads to you. Racial Realism Thesis! LinkedIn is a great tool for on-line networking. Hopefully, you already have a LinkedIn account. Make sure that you connect with as many former co-workers, classmates, friends, and people you meet during your job search as you can. More connections gives you a broader reach as you used LinkedIn for searches to find contacts inside companies you're interested in. Also, more and more recruiters are looking for viable candidates online, particularly through LinkedIn searches. So, make sure that your summary is strong and contains keywords that match jobs you are looking for. Get out and network in person, too.
Are you a member of your local STC chapter? Go to networking groups, whether they're job search networking groups or professional networking groups. You never know who you'll meet, and score, people who know ‘something' about you often become your allies. [Gayle Werner, Technical Writer] You say that you want to as a thesis, be a “Writer/Editor” but I'm looking for how you can help my business: Can you improve the 9 good act essay way that I connect with my customers through documentation? Can you help me improve the customer experience -- and the bottom line -- using existing technologies as well as the new collaborative technologies that are on the horizon? Right now it looks like you're an homework help, editor and proofreader.
I'm sorry, but those are skills that I can purchase very cheaply. Someone else suggested that you delete “poetry.” I agree. While it provides a window into your personality, it has no business value. You don't want anything on your resume that's irrelevant. Finally, have you participated in any professional societies? Attended conferences or received training in the field? I need to see that you're serious about learning this profession.
Hope this helps, Make the job you want *obvious*. 9 Good Score Act Essay! Sure, you have the trendy little “Career Focus” statement -- but, and I say this as someone who has hired a lot of uniforms essay people over the past ten years -- I don't even read that fluff (it was the last thing I read, because I couldn't work out what you wanted from the sections *that count*). Stop being vague! “. Authored (sic) router software” means what? Tell me what you can do. “Strong technical command of the English language”. So you can recognize a verb (but can't write a sentence?) -- what does that phrase mean? And last but not least: “poetry” = trashcan. You've got some skills, buddy. 9 Good Score Act Essay! So tell me what they are and disadvantages school uniforms essay, how they can help me. For starters, I would like to point you to a post on my website: “Top 10 reasons why resumes suck”. Basically, your current resume is a list of previous employers, and doesn't make one single argument about why anyone should give it a second look.
In addition, while your resume tells the reader *what* you've done in the past, it neither tells them *how* you did it (in other words, you could be making it all up, or taking credit for someone else's accomplishments) nor does it tell the reader anything about the score value you might bring to their business. That's what should be on homework help the first page, and the employment history and 9 good, education info can safely go to the second page (since no-one will read it anyway, unless you grab their attention on the first page). There is a difference between “eligibility” for a job, and starting, “suitability”. 9 Good Act Essay! The latter is as a hobby thesis about your interpersonal skills, your ability to work well with a team, and/or unsupervised, how your personality fits with the existing team and 9 good score, with the corporate culture. In other words: the resume has to thesis, be more about you, and less about “what you do”. With a skills and achievements-based resume, what will come through is “what it's like to have you working for the reader's company”. The easier it is for 9 good act essay people to understand the realism impact of hiring you (on morale, on productivity, on score act essay customer relations, etc.) the more likely it is you'll get invited in for an interview. And -- with the homework help other posters -- I agree: lose the “poetry” in the listing of the 9 good act essay types of admit essay writing you can handle.
Best of luck! And if you need additional professional help with your resume, feel free to 9 good act essay, contact me thru my website www.hamer-associates.ca. Emma C. Hamer, Career and Performance Coach (BC, Canada) Hello, a few suggestions: -- Replace the sections “career focus” and “experience summary” with a stronger statement about what you can offer and help alabama, what your particular strengths are.
-- Emphasize domain knowledge and strengths of skills. For example: -- What does your telecomm experience entail? Would you say you are an 9 good score, expert? -- How do you feel your research skills can add value for realism thesis an employer? What makes your research skills stand out, and score, how can they add value for an employer? Can you think of examples of how your research saved time, clarified something, or improved quality? -- Do a thorough proofread of all content. -- Make punctuation consistent in all bulleted items. -- Check how dates are listed for work experience -- some dates are displayed latest to earliest; others earliest to thinking hobby thesis, latest. Make these listings consistent.
-- Check use of 9 good score act essay capitalization. -- Under computer skills, note any specific tools that you might have specialized expertise in (for example, creating time-saving macros or alerting colleagues to a valuable but little-used feature in a tool.) -- Remove the reference to poetry. as wonderful as poetry can be, on a resume it will be distractor from the critical information that can help you get hired. I'm sure it wasn't easy to letter judge, post your resume, but I admire your effort to score, be open to feedback from your colleagues. It's a tough market out there, so the more you can highlight the strengths that can bring value to potential employers -- and thinking thesis, the more you can show how your contributions have made a difference -- the better. Best wishes to you.
Herbert, I was struck by act essay, the fact that you've got FrameMaker and alabama, PageMaker experience, but VISIO is the only graphics program you list. Tech Comm departments who use Adobe products are looking for 9 good act essay experience in Illustrator and Photoshop. The fact that you don't mention these applications makes me wonder if you essentially used FrameMaker as a word processor rather than as a desktop publishing tool. Racial! If my company were hiring right now, we'd need expert-level FrameMaker skills. Your resume doesn't tell me you've got that. I hope that you'll consider coming out to some STC Carolina Chapter events to network with other technical communicators in the area. Score Act Essay! Here's a link to racial thesis, our website: http://www.stc-carolina.org/tiki-view_articles.php. Our annual membership drive picnic is 9 good in on Thursday, September 16, and we'd love to see you there! - Andrea Wenger, VP, STC Carolina Chapter. After all the admit extensive advice, here's a smaller thing: give your employment dates in a format like “June 2005–June 2008.” I look at 9 good, “6/05-6/08” and have to think to decipher what it's saying. Don't make me think. Disadvantages Uniforms Essay! (Also notice that the “6/05” format is inconsistent with stating the full year of your graduation.)
Remove the ‘poetry' line! And don't use ‘/' as a substitute for ‘or'—that drives me nuts! Good advice generally, especially the bit about 9 good score act essay, hiding your light under a bushel. I find that my mind empties out whenever I try to write about myself, so I can sympathise. I'd suggest finding a decent volunteer gig before the end of the year, just to get 2010 on your resume. People will understand not having work in 2009, but it will hurt you if the advantages disadvantages school essay gap stretches out too long. There always online projects looking for help, and I'd also suggest local non-profits - in any case, something you can put all your research, interviewing, and writing skills into. I would remember that while all these suggestions are good for your master resume, you should always, always tailor your resume for score each job you apply for. If applying for an editing role, emphasise your editing experience; for a software tech writing role, emphasise your experience in writing in that space. And try to get in a volunteer job, as suggested above.
A HR rep suggested to me once that gaps on resumes could be anything from a gap year (travelling OS) or being in clear admit essay jail. 9 Good! I now have that in essay the back of my mind everytime I see an act essay, unexplained gap in a resume. As a hiring manager, I wouldn't give this resume a second look. Realism Thesis! It is so brief that absolutely nothing grabs my interest. On a purely pragmatic level, I'm surprised that something so short could have this many typographical problems, ranging from inconsistent punctuation in bulleted lists to headings not lining up horizontally with corresponding text. If I could offer advice to the individual, it would be Write from your heart. This applies to 9 good score act essay, resume writing as well as it does to poetry. I'd want to help alabama, see passion for, commitment to, and pride in what you do.
And then, when you've conveyed all that, have an editor proofread it. Everyone needs an editor. The best writers know that better than anyone. I think one of the biggest things you could do to improve your resume, aside from ensuring grammatical/mechanical accuracy, would be to 9 good score act essay, revamp its visual design. As a technical writer, you need to demonstrate your document design skills in your resume. Think outside the racial thesis typical cookie-cutter resume format that you find on score every career website and design your resume to cover letter, catch someone's attention. A few specific suggestions: - Treat your name like the title of the document: it should be the largest thing on the page. - Treat the 9 good sections like level-one headings, the judge job titles as level-two headings, etc. - Try just using typography and white space to distinguish the 9 good different sections instead of using horizontal lines.
That many lines draw the eye across the alabama page unnecessarily and score, cause readers to sort of hold their breath. White space, on the other hand, gives both the document and the reader a chance to breathe. - Try breaking away from the traditional three-column format. Not only clear admit essay, does it change the 9 good score act essay look and feel, but it can also improve readability. Example: Junior Statistician, N.C.C.U. (June 2005 - June 2008) Durham, North Carolina.
- Experience detail 1. - Experience detail 2. Kudos for being bold enough to put this out there. Disadvantages School Essay! I think the biggest issue with your resume is, it does not speak to your breadth of experience. 9 Good! Be sure to really flesh out your bullet points to show how your work has benefited the company; use numbers and alabama, percentages when at all possible. Consider a paragraph summary. Maybe something like: Technical Writer with X years experience translating complex technical information into act essay, XYZ for XYZ audience.
Exceptional communicator with outstanding organization and problem-solving ability as it applies to the technical writing process, product development workflow, and project management. Homework Alabama! Specialist in XYZ. Also swap your Computer Skills and Education sections. And, as others have suggested, set up a LinkedIn and be sure to add your URL to the header section. I echo most other folks thoughts and comments.
I look at this resume and I see a resume that looks like it was a fill in 9 good score act essay the blanks template from cover letter to magistrate judge, Office. If I am looking for a tech writer, I want to see something that shows that you know how to 9 good act essay, use Word, i.e, a resume that is custom to you and letter judge, not a boring template. Remember that a resume is a sales document. If it is score boring and blends in with the rest of the the body of an resumes that come across my desk, I am not going to give it more than a passing look. That said, remember that you cannot get too creative with a resume. The writing poetry thing is interesting. Is there a way to incorporate that experience in a way that does not seem nutters, as a previous commenter stated? Maybe include a section that shows a list of your publications and 9 good act essay, extracurricular activities. Also, be specific about the documents you have written, particularly in the most current experience. Give examples. I, personally, hate the generic career focus summary on starting the body of an essay a resume.
I would suggest that this is more effective in a cover letter that is 9 good score specific to the job and company you are applying with. I might also suggest moving the racial thesis education from the top of the resume to 9 good act essay, under the experience section, as your education does not directly relate to the types of positions for which you are applying. For gosh sake, include your references in the resume! I know there are different schools of thought on advantages disadvantages uniforms essay this, but to me, when I see available on request, I think to myself that the owner of the resume is 9 good lazy, or needs to have time to cherry pick references, thus making me question if I should waste my time in interviewing. I really think that it would be more helpful for the community to alabama, see the boilerplate cover letter you are utilizing, as this is going to be far more important to your job search than the 9 good act essay resume itself, as your most current experience is not really in admit essay a technical writing role. The cover letter must be where you really sell your transferable skills to the new position. Hope this helps.
If you have specific questions, mail me: [emailprotected] I'm pretty surprised at how short this resume is for 9 good someone with ten years of experience. As others have mentioned, the professional experience is focused on racial tasks rather than results. You may not have cut a company's bottom line by x percent in y time, but certainly you had some sort of impact at each job. 9 Good Score! Figure out at to magistrate, least one statement of impact and add that to the tasks to illustrate what you did and 9 good, how that made a difference. When interviewing writers and editors for past projects, I always looked closely at the resume for the details.
In this case, I was already thrown by the lack of detail with periods at the end of bullet points. Either use them or don't, but make sure that you're consistent, as consistency is a very important part of editing. It just demonstrates that you either aren't careful in cover letter your own work, or don't value editing enough to have someone else edit your work, which is a big no-no for such an important document that serves as your first impression. Also, since you've been out of 9 good score school for racial 12 years, your educational experience can go to the bottom of the score act essay resume, near the computer skills section. Your work experience is (or should be) the focus for you now unless you had recent training or education in racial the field that you want to 9 good act essay, highlight. Finally, you should target your career focus statement to the job you're applying for.
Perhaps you already are and just wrote it this way for the example, but make sure that you're more specific when you submit it for an actual position. There is realism thesis a big difference between book publishing and software documentation online, so make sure you tailor your statement accordingly. --Reagan Templin (Technical Writer) The poetry thing has been beaten to death, but I'll pile on. If you are applying for a job where it is relevant (literary journal?), definitely include it. For a tech writing job, delete it because the 9 good score implied message is, “I need a tech writing job to support my true love—writing poetry.” Even if this is true (*especially* if this is true), it's not a message your want to convey. There's a lot (a LOT) of disadvantages school uniforms good advice in 9 good score this document already.
I'll add this: Your current resume feels slightly plastic. Letter Judge! With the exception of the poetry reference (!), there's no sense of the act essay person behind the resume. You really, really need to flesh out the content and give your voice a chance. Keep the content professional, but use your skills as a poet to make the thinking hobby thesis bullet points more interesting than the 9 good act essay average resume. With your background in sociology and RTP location, I would take a look at realism thesis, Research Triangle Institute.
If you have an interest in statistics that goes beyond basic surveys, SAS is an obvious contender. Usability is a big asset; flesh out your discussion of what you did there. -Sarah O'Keefe, tech comm consultant, scriptorium.com. I'm pretty much echoing everyone else… I would recommend losing the objective. 9 Good! It's the first thing a hiring manager reads and it limits your possibilities within the company (I heard this from an HR staffer who reviews thousands of resumes). Also add more to your experience summary.
Right now, you sound very inexperienced. I know you've done more in the last 10 years then get a command over the English Language. HR departments and hiring managers alike, are looking through 100's of resumes for one job! They “skim” resumes looking for keywords, job titles, and accomplishments to match the homework help job description. Fill your resume by act essay, telling them what you've done in 10 years.
After all this…. A resume is only a knock at letter to magistrate judge, the door. To get your foot in the door these days, you need great references. Monique Bradshaw - Documentation Specialist. White Plains, NY. 1. 9 Good Score! Your resume needs to be one page, but it needs to look like you had to work to clear admit, get it down to one page--not like you had to 9 good, work to get it up to one page. A short resume communicates too little experience. Beef it up (see #2). 2. Beef it up by answering these questions in each of your resume points: How many? How much?
How often? For example, “Edited survey questions” isn't as strong as “Edited hundreds of survey questions over a three-month period for errors in grammar, punctuation, and clear admit essay, tone.” The first statement is vague. The second (while not perfect) is better because it communicates specific information and tells of proficiency in 9 good score act essay proofreading. Cover Judge! Even if the details and 9 good act essay, numbers you can give are small ones, small numbers are better than no numbers. (After all, if you don't quantify your experiences, employers will automatically assume the least that they can about you. They necessarily approach your resume from a position of cynicism.)
[Josh Allen - English Professor, Rexburg, Idaho] I'm not trying to be the master of the thinking as a hobby thesis obvious but for a ‘writer' this resume doesn't show off the 9 good score writing skills. Letter! Most everyone said it already, but QUALIFY and 9 good act essay, QUANTIFY all your experience. Sometimes short and sweet is the thesis way to go! This resume is 9 good not one of those times. Also, this resume doesn't show any online references or indication of admit essay ‘samples' of your work. In the information age, people like to see the information! [Greg Woolf - Programmer, Mesa, AZ] [Suchitra Govindarajan, Technical Writer with experience in recruiting other writers] Get new posts delivered straight to your inbox. I'm a technical writer based in the California San Francisco Bay area.
Topics I write about on this blog include technical writing, authoring and score act essay, publishing tools, API documentation, tech comm trends, visual communication, technical writing career advice, information architecture and findability, developer documentation, and more. If you're a professional or aspiring technical writer, be sure to subscribe to email updates using the form above . You can learn more about school uniforms essay, me here.
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Exegesis Of Romans Essays and Research Papers. ------------------------------------------------- Exegesis Paper ------------------------------------------------- Acts 7:54-60 Passage . The Stoning of 9 good, Stephen Acts 7:54-60 (New International Version) “54 When the members of the Sanhedrin heard this, they were furious and gnashed their teeth at him. 55 But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. Racial. 56 ”Look,” he said, “I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing. Acts of the Apostles , Christianity , Crucifixion of 9 good act essay, Jesus 2624 Words | 7 Pages. How advanced or civilised were the Romans ? Some historians believe the Romans were civilised and advanced whilst others . believe they were uncivilised. Advantages Disadvantages School. This essay will use evidence to show that the Romans were civilised.
Many Historians believe the Romans were civilised and advanced because Rome was supplied with over 1,000 liters of fresh spring water a day by means of 12 aqueducts going in to score, the city. This shows that the thesis, Romans were clever and that they understood the 9 good score, fact that the whole. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Colosseum 811 Words | 3 Pages. General Principles of Hermeneutics and Exegesis. principles of help, hermeneutics and 9 good score, exegesis to facilitate a better understanding of thinking as a hobby, biblical texts. Before we can determine what a given text might . mean for us today, we must establish what it meant for its original audience. Act Essay. 1 Hermeneutics and exegesis are inter-woven in the perspective of considering them as the science of biblical interpretations. Therefore hermeneutics cannot be said to be complete without exegesis . The relevance of the principles of hermeneutics and exegesis cannot be over cover judge, emphasized.
Bible , Biblical hermeneutics , Christian terms 1936 Words | 7 Pages. Exegesis of the Gospel according to Matthew Chapter 5:3-12 The Eight Beatitudes In Matthew's Gospel, starting with Chapter five verses . three through twelve, Jesus tells us of the Eight Beatitudes. These verses are much like The Ten Commandments in nature, but more philosophical: · Blessed are the poor in score act essay, spirit, for to magistrate theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 9 Good Act Essay. · Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. · Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the Earth. · Blessed are those. Christian terms , Christianity , Godspell 907 Words | 3 Pages. A Romans 9:6-20 Exegesis Derek Fannin 04-04-2012 But it is not that the alabama, word of 9 good act essay, God has taken no effect. For . they are not all Israel who are of homework alabama, Israel,7 nor are they all children because they are the seed of Abraham; but, “In Isaac your seed shall be called.” 8 That is, those who are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God; but the children of the 9 good act essay, promise are counted as the admit, seed. 9 For this is the word of act essay, promise: “At this time I will come and alabama, Sarah shall have a son.
Abraham , Christian terms , Esau 1739 Words | 5 Pages. because of 9 good, its symbolism its controversy and I think in some ways it applies to today's society. Revelation is thinking as a hobby considered to be the score act essay, most apocalyptic book of . the Bible. The 17th passage is a very vivid and mystical example of this apocalypse. In my exegesis I shall make reference to the historical Association between the starting of an essay, symbolisms of these verses that many scholars have made, and how the symbolism relates in today's world (considering history often repeats itself). v. Score Act Essay. 1: The Judgment of the thesis, Great.
Antichrist , Babalon , Book of Revelation 1631 Words | 5 Pages. Exegesis of Romans 1:18-21 Fred G. Zaspel, 1993 Introduction Following some introductory remarks leading to score act essay, a statement . of his theme, namely the saving power of the gospel of God's righteousness received by faith (1:16-17), the apostle Paul begins in this section to develop his argument. The righteousness of God revealed in the gospel is a gift of God received on the sole basis of faith (dikaiosune theou . . . ek pisteos v.17) in clear admit, Jesus Christ. This justifying righteousness is the score, heart. Atheism , Conceptions of God , Existence of God 3831 Words | 13 Pages. ?Running head: WORD STUDY FROM ROMANS 5:1-5 Word Study from realism Romans 5:1-5 Darren J. Rogers Pittsburgh . 9 Good Score Act Essay. Theological Seminary New Testament Exegesis NT 05 Prof. James Platt September 28, 2014 Word Study from Romans 5:1-5 - ????????? ????????? - verb: Present, Deponent, Indicative, Contract verb, first person, plural from lexical form of help alabama, ????????? meaning to boast, boast about, take pride in; rejoice, be glad.
With the exception of two passages, each in James and Ignatius. A Greek-English Lexicon , Bible , Epistle 774 Words | 4 Pages. near the Passover time, which was in the middle of 9 good score act essay, April” (Barclay 2001, 122). The implication of the setting, “in the fourth watch of the clear, night,” is that . the disciples spent most of the night trying to get across the lake against the wind. “The Romans divided the night into four parts or watches…” (Casciaro 2000,258) from 6:00 P.M. to 6:00 A.M. into four three-hour shifts. The fourth night was “the period of about three hours before dawn” (Brown 1968, 89). The Theological Lesson The atmosphere.
Gospel , Gospel of Mark , Gospel of Matthew 1723 Words | 5 Pages. ? Exegesis on Exodus 1:8-14; 2:23-25; 3:7-10 Introduction The Structure of the Text The book of Exodus is a narrative. It is score . included in what is called the as a thesis, Pentateuch, or the first five books of the Hebrew Testament. These first five books include the 9 good score act essay, law of God, given to Moses. In this book, a story is told from a spiritual perspective of how God keeps His covenant with His people. Essay. “In this book, Moses details the causes and motives of the persecution raised up against the Israelites.
Bible , Canaan , Hebrews 2092 Words | 7 Pages. Though the roman empire and the roman republic vary in act essay, their political structures they are quite common in the structures of . their social hierarchy and reasoning for their downfalls. As A Hobby Thesis. The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire highly differ in their political structures. 9 Good Score. The republic: created in 509 BCE. was a form of representative democracy. It consisted of 2 consuls of which were appointed by the senate and homework, then voted on. These consuls were the score, head officers and thinking thesis, the were appointed for one year. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Battle of Actium 899 Words | 3 Pages. The Roman Government Latin Investigation By Abhishek Gambhir January 2013 The High School of Glagow email@example.com 1. . Table of Contents 3. 4 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction The Leaders Political Groups Monarchy to Republic Conclusion Bibliography Curia Julia The High School of Glagow firstname.lastname@example.org 2. Introduction I have chosen the government for my latin investigation for many reasons. The first and formost reason is score act essay that I am very interested in modern.
Ancient Rome , Augustus , Julius Caesar 1398 Words | 6 Pages. Roman Theatre- • We look at Athens because we have the most sources • Most important form of racial realism, entertainment • Very open, did not really . need money to go to the theatre • Profound religious associations • Played an important political role • Stage was, like the 9 good score act essay, agora, democracy was discussed and displayed in front of the Romans • Romans owed a lot to starting of an, the Greeks in terms of score act essay, theatre. They were very influenced by the Greeks • We see this in the architecture of the theatre • But Romans were. Actor , Ancient Rome , Comedy 865 Words | 4 Pages. The Romans in hobby, Germany There were many territories that made up the Roman Empire.
These territories that it was a part of . helped to make the it one of the greatest civilizations of all time. 9 Good. One such territory was Germania, which later developed into the present day country of Germany. For nearly half a millennium much of what is now Western Germany formed an integral part of the Roman Empire. In 55 B.C., Caesar’s armies reached the Rhine and by realism, 15 BC Roman armies had advanced as far as the score, Danube. Danube , Franks , Germanic peoples 1506 Words | 4 Pages. Reserch Paper “ Roman Civilization” INTRODUCTION All important source of our occidental civilization comes from the roman . culture. Thesis. The Roman Empire in its splendor signified a basic event in history. 9 Good Act Essay. Its extension and diversity hasn’t had any comparison until the present United States.
To accomplish this heroic deed it was necessary to obtain certain characteristics of the spirit and attitude of the romans . Their tolerance, malleability and practical sense was which made them respond to the. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Latin 1426 Words | 5 Pages. However this wasn’t the same viewpoint of the Romans during the help, Roman Empire. Score. The Romans were very superstitious . when compared to our society today. They believed in many superstitions and advantages disadvantages uniforms, omens that could be a hindering factor in 9 good score, their everyday lives.
Many of these superstitions were part of other civilizations as well in an evolved way. Many of their superstitions would seem obscure to us today, yet the Romans held strong beliefs in them. For example, Romans believed that spilling thinks like water. Ancient Rome , Greek mythology , Julius Caesar 820 Words | 3 Pages. The Roman Empire is characterized by its spectacular urban engineering, its popular entertainment complexes, and its vast network of major . Starting Of An. roads. It was not the longest lasting or the 9 good, largest empire in racial realism, history; however, it stands out because of its incredible capabilities of construction. The Romans were “the foremost engineers of the ancient world, with the possible exception of the 9 good act essay, ancient Egyptians, whose architectural achievements remain some of the most significant ever attempted.
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The Romans were more absorbed in applying mathematics in engineering and architecture to improve the help alabama, quality. 0 , 1000 , Decimal 1432 Words | 5 Pages. The Roman Republic became one of the most powerful and ruthless Empire's on score the face of the planet and to starting the body, be a citizen was very appealing. This . 9 Good Score Act Essay. was such an admirable and highly sought after position; that it would cause envy throughout the people of that time. There were also 'pre-requisites' recorded in the requirements of becoming a Roman citizen and keeping that role. Roman citizenship itself was originally difficult to obtain but once won, life as a citizen was easier and essay, more refined than the. Ancient Rome , Auxiliaries , Citizenship 1205 Words | 4 Pages. The Roman Empire was an absolute dominant power of the entire ancient European peninsula, with its colonies ranging from Britain to East Persia . and 9 good act essay, then encompassing the entire Northern Africa. It represents the famous achievement of the Roman rule, highlighting the physical superiority held through the skill and size of their army, and their architectural and engineering inventions that are still in the body of an, use today.
However, the Roman society also questioned the behaviour of mankind, signifying their. Ancient Rome , Domitian , Flavian dynasty 1155 Words | 4 Pages. Roman Imperialism Roman Imperialism “changed the world” through many different ways. History has proved this time and again. To . name a few, the score act essay, Roman period influenced philosophy, government, civics and the arts. This pivotal time in history helped shape the thinking as a hobby, way western culture and civilization is today. Score. One important philosophy of this time period was Stoicism which first appeared in the Greek Hellenistic period. This popular, optimistic school of thought continued into the Roman Era. The main.
Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Augustus 737 Words | 3 Pages. Although the form of government in the Roman Empire changed several times over its thousand year history, many parts remained the same and it . has served as a model, inspiring the founding fathers as they created the governmental system of the thesis, United States of score act essay, America almost 2,000 years later. Scattered around seven hills in the middle of the starting the body essay, Italian peninsula, Rome began as a simple village of wooden huts. 9 Good Act Essay. As it grew, it became governed by a monarchy, with a king having complete control. Racial Realism Thesis. This. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Julius Caesar 1305 Words | 4 Pages. material, concrete.
A cultural change in the Roman Empire was the way that the lower classes were treated. 9 Good. The way the essay, lower class was treated . had changed a lot and eventually caused them to act essay, revolt. A political change in the Ancient Roman Empire was the military strategies. The military at first had a large navy and began to break it up into smaller, more maneuverable units. In the homework, Ancient empires, religion was a necessity for empires to flourish. After the Roman Empire had several religions for a long. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Constantinople 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Mrs. Katz Many structures of the Roman empire were made through the 9 good score act essay, influence of Roman mythology. Some structures are still . influenced today.
Imagination was involved in clear, the creative writing process. Their myth extended farther and lasted longer than the roman empire. Many myths influenced literature, art, and act essay, music. Roman myths represented heroism. Because of this theme, most of the history of Rome reflected on roman politics, religion, and society. Roman mythology is important because it shapes. Ancient Rome , Greek mythology , Roman Empire 1728 Words | 5 Pages. ?Ancient Romans claimed descent from Greeks, in fact the Great Roman poet Virgil wrote an epic poem entitled Aeneid where he . Advantages School Uniforms Essay. tells that Romans come from score Aeneas line who escaped from the Trojan fire to save his royal descent. He landed at Italy where married a princess named Lavinia. Alabama. That means you have to consider Roman literature as an score, evolution of Greek literature: Romans learn from Greek but progress. Clear Essay. Greek and Roman literature is wide and 9 good act essay, it includes: tragedies, comedies, poems, epics etc.
Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Aphrodite 814 Words | 3 Pages. have knowledge of the life and customs of the Britons, subject of the Agricola, and the body essay, the Germans, subject of the 9 good score act essay, Germania. This of course being the . Romans , and more specifically Tacitus,' observation and view of these groups of people. The customs of the Britons differed from that of the Romans . Britain was the largest of the islands known to the Romans , who thought of Britons as barbarians. The physical characteristics of the Britons varied, suggesting that they mixed with the different peoples surrounding. Germania , Germanic peoples , Germans 923 Words | 3 Pages. ? Roman Roads: An Empire Connected LVV4U1 December 16, 2013 “Man has always moved along a road.
It’s just what the starting, road has . 9 Good Score Act Essay. looked like that’s changed over starting, time” (Dan McNichol). Some would say that the legacy of the Roman Empire is viewed as the foundation of civilization, having influenced every aspect of modern society, from literature to mathematics. Score Act Essay. Even today, Roman law and foundation of government forms the the body, basis of several modern democracies. The ancient Empire`s monuments still. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Europe 1504 Words | 4 Pages.
Decline of Roman Republic / Rewrite The Beginnings of the mighty Roman empire as we know it today was actually quite . humble. The Roman heritage can be traced back to an early civilization of settlers from the 9 good score act essay, Indo-European immigrants who between 2000 B.C. and 1000 B.C. had began to settle around the Northern Italian peninsula(World History: The Human Experience). Of all the settlers the Romans are said to have arose from a mysterious group called the Etruscans, which ruled northern. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Decline of the of an, Roman Empire 2449 Words | 6 Pages. THE ROMAN UNDERWORLD The Romans were greatly influenced by the Greeks in religion. 9 Good Score Act Essay. Their religious views did not change . drastically; however, Romans did believe that life was “the spirit’s death,” and that the soul was freed after healing the earth. In addition, the clear, names of all the Greek gods and goddesses were changed to those of a Roman background.
For example, the Greek god Zeus, who was ruler of the sky and the gods, evolved into Jupiter, who held the same responsibilities. The same went for. Aeneas , Aeneid , Greek mythology 916 Words | 3 Pages. THE ROMAN MILITARY No powerful civilization has ever excised without a well-organized military. The Republic of Rome and Imperial Rome . would have no been so influential to civilizations across the globe without a powerful military. Imperial Rome conquered vast lands from Britain to North Africa, from Egypt to Judea with their military which consisted of well discipline soldiers from their generals to score act essay, the simple foot soldiers. Racial Realism Thesis. This military was not an armed mob with clubs and spear; they. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Christianity 1607 Words | 5 Pages. Trade Between Romans and Sassanids Roman Empire and 9 good, Sassanid Empire were most powerful empires of of an essay, their time. One of . significant reason of their conflict is controlling the Silk Road.
Which empire controls the commerce on 9 good score Silk Route, it controls the wealth. In this study I want to work on with Roman - Sassanid trade relations and conflicts in third to sixth sanctuary. Before I start, I want to explain importance of the Silk Road and cover letter, brief history of Roman – Sassanid conflicts. The Silk Roads. Afghanistan , Byzantine Empire , Iran 782 Words | 3 Pages. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed though faith for score faith, as it is written, The just shall live by faith” ( Romans , 1:17). The . Apostle Paul wrote several letters, in the New Testament, to cities that he visited trying to help them grow and flourish. Homework Help Alabama. In this letter he doesn’t want to state what they have done wrong, instead he talks about the 9 good score, salvation that is offered through Christ. This letter is the most important of of an, his writings. Score. Most of the letters he wrote were to the churches.
Christianity , Epistle , Epistle to the Romans 1385 Words | 4 Pages. The Roman Empire is homework known as one of the greatest empires of all time, blossoming politically, economically, and 9 good act essay, culturally. Rome was quickly . expanding, reaching as far as North Africa. When Octavian came into power, the Pax Romana, or “ Roman Peace,” began. However, this long peace may have triggered the beginning of the end of the of an essay, Roman Empire. 9 Good Act Essay. Because Rome was not distracted by conquering foreign lands, its citizens relaxed and as a hobby thesis, lived in luxury. Act Essay. There did not seem to be any goals they did not. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Byzantine Empire 864 Words | 3 Pages. he Romans in racial, Britain The Romans arrived in Britain in 55 BC.
The Roman Army had been fighting in Gaul (France) . and the Britons had been helping the Gauls in an effort to defeat the Romans . The leader of the Roman Army in Gaul, Julius Caesar, decided that he had to teach the Britons a lesson for helping the 9 good score, Gauls – hence his invasion. Julius Ceasar In late August 55 BC, 12,000 Roman soldiers landed about 6 miles from Dover. Caesar had planned to the body, land in 9 good, Dover itself, but had to change his. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Gaul 721 Words | 3 Pages. falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall; And when Rome falls—the world.” The Roman Colosseum was one of the most, if not the most important . architectural structures in Rome, as well as one the largest outdoor theatres of ancient Rome. It was often considered the heart of Roman life and culture because of its importance, purpose, and beauty. Racial Realism. Throughout its turbulent history, the Colosseum has always been an important part of 9 good score act essay, Roman life symbolically and culturally, and today even attracts over five million.
Ancient Rome , Colosseum , Domitian 2231 Words | 6 Pages. Roman Greece is the period of Greek history (of Greece proper; as opposed to the other centers of Hellenism in the Roman world) . following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in admit essay, 146 BC until the reestablishment of the city of Byzantium and the naming of the city by 9 good act essay, the Emperor Constantine as the capital of the clear essay, Roman Empire (as Nova Roma, laterConstantinople) in 330 AD. Act Essay. The Greek peninsula came under Roman rule in 146 BC, Macedonia being a Roman province, while southern. Augustus , Byzantine Empire , Decline of the Roman Empire 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Roman Entertainment There were many things the Romans did for entertainment. Even though this entertainment was cruel . and brutal it satisfied the starting the body, Roman's need for 9 good act essay excitment and relaxation. Thesis. In Rome most people loved to watch others suffer and fight to their death. While others loved to go and get a good laugh at the theater or relax and talk about politics at the baths. In the city the state provided most of the entertainment. Outside of the city the people made their own. Amphitheatre , Ancient Rome , Chariot 1017 Words | 6 Pages.
? JESUS CURSES THE FIG TREE Submitted To --------------------- In Partial Fulfillment Of REL2240-Intro to New Testament By May 1, 2014 . 9 Good Act Essay. Jesus Curses the Fig Tree: An Exegesis of Matthew 21:18-22 Introduction Jesus is always recognized for His miracles, His miracles that characteristically heal and restore God’s creation. Yet here, and here alone, He intentionally curses and destroys something that God has made. This act. Books of the Bible , Ficus , Gospel of Mark 2424 Words | 9 Pages. A vast number of ancient Roman deities are known by clear admit essay, name. The most familiar today are those the 9 good score act essay, Romans identified with Greek . counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and admit essay, religious life as it was experienced throughout the act essay, Empire. Starting The Body. Many of the Romans ' own gods remain obscure, known only by 9 good, name and function, through inscriptions and texts that are often fragmentary—particularly. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Isis 1778 Words | 7 Pages. At its height, the Roman Empire was the most powerful domain in the world.
It was at its largest in the second century AD and it spread across . Realism Thesis. three continents. 9 Good Act Essay. This Empire had diverse languages and cultures. Nevertheless by the 3rd century A.D, Romans were on swift decline. This fast decline was caused by extreme changes in alabama, their civilization. The changes consisted of 9 good score act essay, new leaders controlling the region, Rome becoming spilt up into two sections, and racial thesis, Christianity gaining all of religious control. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Christianity 951 Words | 3 Pages. were built around 2000 years ago, are still standing and even in use. At the start of Roman history, they imported their marble from another . Score Act Essay. great ancient city; Greece.
However, they did eventually find quarries in northern Italy that held an abundance of white marble. This marble helped them become the great architectural city that we see even in present times. Later on, in homework help, the first century AD, the Romans began to use concrete in greater use. The architects of Rome used this concrete to make. Ancient Rome , Colosseum , Hadrian 846 Words | 3 Pages. Slavery was commonly practiced throughout all ancient history, but no other people in act essay, history owned so many slaves and depended on them so much as the . Romans . Slavery was accepted as a part of life in ancient Rome by the slaves themselves and by the society. However, slavery was both beneficial and help alabama, disastrous to ancient Rome. In Roman times, slaves were primarily prisoners of war. Indeed, war was good business because of the profits from slavery. 9 Good Score Act Essay. Entire cities were captured and. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Decline of the thinking as a hobby, Roman Empire 1138 Words | 5 Pages.
inspired, or horrified and disgusted. There are only score act essay a few, however, that are as historically significant as the games of the thinking hobby, Roman Coliseum. . In 70 AD, Emperor Vespasian wanted to create a magnificent structure that reflected his great power, and for the amusement of his people. This magnificent structure was called the Flavian Amphitheatre, commonly known today as the Roman Coliseum. Vespasian died before the structure was completed. His son, and new Emperor, Titus, oversaw the completion of the. Ancient Rome , Colosseum , Domitian 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Identification The importance of various Roman figures and influences have defined its longevity and success of still remaining in score act essay, people’s . heart. Disadvantages School Uniforms Essay. Cicero was an excellent orator and his speeches remained famous for 9 good the skill in advantages disadvantages school uniforms, using the arguments and figures of 9 good act essay, speech. Admit. Even today they are considered wonderful pieces of classical Latin. The quality and ready accessibility of Ciceronian texts favored very wide distribution and inclusion in teaching curricula.
This influence increased after the. Ancient Rome , Julius Caesar , Middle Ages 912 Words | 3 Pages. tale of rags to riches. Terence was the slave of a Roman senator. Apparently, his master was so impressed with young Terence's intellect that . he released him from 9 good act essay his service and even funded Terence's education. During his adult years, he crafted comedies which were primarily Roman -styled adaptations of Greek plays by Hellenistic writers such as Menander. Seneca: In addition to of an, being a playwright, Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a lawyer and 9 good act essay, a Roman senator.
He witnessed some seriously dark days of. Ancient Rome , Caligula , Drama 753 Words | 3 Pages. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by . emperors, and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The 500 year old republic which preceded it was severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict, during which Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and admit, then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and score, executions continued, culminating in the victory. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Julius Caesar 1506 Words | 4 Pages. The festive consumption of food and drink was an important social ritual in advantages uniforms, the Roman world. Known in general terms as the convivium (Latin: . Score. living together), or banquet, the Romans also distinguished between specific types of gatherings, such as the epulum (public feast), the cena (dinner, normally eaten in the mid-afternoon), and essay, the comissatio (drinking party). Public banquets, such as the civic feasts offered for all of the inhabitants of a city, often accommodated large numbers of 9 good score, diners. Ancient Rome , Greek language , Greeks 1506 Words | 5 Pages. ? Roman Meals The regular day for a Roman contained three meals- much like today.
In the morning, a breakfast, or ientaculum, . was had. A light lunch, prandium, occurred just before the sun was at its zenith (around eleven o' clock in the morning); and then the cena, the equivalent to dinner, was started in the late afternoon and lasted anywhere between one hour to very late at night. The foods eaten by a family in Rome served as a great indicator on how wealthy that family was. The poor in Rome. Ancient Rome , Bread , Dinner 1155 Words | 3 Pages. ? Roman Portraiture The Romans practiced the art of capturing an image of a person, otherwise known as Roman . portraiture, which is a significant period in the field of portrait art. This practice continued for almost five centuries starting from admit essay Ancient Rome. It can be seen that during this period, portraits spoke a lot about a specific person thus it became an integral part of society. The way one was depicted through portraiture became very important for the Romans as it reflected not only them.
Ancient Rome , Augustus , Caligula 1219 Words | 5 Pages. A Roman Hero Aeneas can truly be considered a Roman hero in Virgil's poem The Aeneid. Not only does Aeneas represent a true . 9 Good Act Essay. Roman hero, but he also represents what every Roman citizen is called to be. Each Roman citizen must posses two major virtues, he must remain pious, and he must remain loyal to the Roman race. In the poem, Aeneas encompasses both of the body of an, these virtues, and must deal with both the rewards and costs of them. In the poem, Virgil says that all Romans ought to have two certain virtues. Aeneas , Aeneid , Ancient Rome 977 Words | 3 Pages. Located in the center of Rome, just east of the Roman Forum stands one of the greatest architectural structures ever built by man. In 64 AD, . under Emperor Nero, the Great Fire of Rome devastated the 9 good score, empire. Nero decided to take the land for himself and build the Domus Aurea along with a synthetic lake, gardens, and pavilions. A series of vast aqueducts was constructed there in racial thesis, order to supply water to the land.
Afterwards, he placed a bronze statue of himself, Colossus of Nero. When Emperor Vespasian. Ancient Rome , Colosseum , Domitian 2180 Words | 6 Pages. The translation and exegesis of the Hebrew Bible , have led to act essay, many versions of stories that we thought we knew, especially the book of Genesis . and the first fall story . Hebrew words such as adam, and other significant words in Hebrew language will be the main focus on in this paper. These words can have very different meanings according to the exegetes and homework alabama, also of a person's belief system that is translating them. Act Essay. Thorough critical analysis of postexilic writings will cast doubt into believers. Bible , Book of Genesis , Hebrew Bible 1553 Words | 4 Pages. Destructive Passion and Past Repetition In “ Roman Fever” In the short story “ Roman Fever” we see a pattern in the lives of the . women. I like to call this destructive passion. Destructive passion can be put into a literal term of passion itself. “Passion in itself is an emotion applied to a strong feeling about a person or thing.” (Merriam-Webster online) This also means that passion can be known has having a strong desire towards something or someone. Intense passion in the forms of love, fear.
Ben Daniels , Fiction , Love 1909 Words | 5 Pages. EXEGESIS PAPER ON EPHESIANS 6:1-3 ‘Children Obeying Honouring their parents is a right thing to do and bring blessings’ Background: . Paul the clear admit, author of this letter, realizing that the Ephesians were starting to forsake their first love, wrote this epistle to encourage them to love both God and their fellow saints. Score. The letter begins with love (1:4,6) and ends with love (6:23-24).1 Chapter 1-3 are principally the doctrinal elaboration of the theme, love, unity, and chapter 4-6 teach what should. Epistle to the Ephesians , Epistle to the Galatians , New Testament 1445 Words | 5 Pages. Sources of Roman law Archaic Period Custom A law that was not written down. The cumstoms were so firmly established that they had . acquired obligatiory force. The recognition of a custom was however not an starting the body essay, exact science and 9 good score act essay, jurists debated whether the custom could be called a law or a binding. Roman law was almost entirely customary in origin. Royal decrees The decree of the Kings had a direct binding force as law.
Republic The twelve tables 451 BC Ten men were appointed to study. Ancient Rome , Civil law , Common law 1499 Words | 6 Pages. social status of letter to magistrate judge, a Roman walking down the street is from the score, way he is dressed. The use of clothing as a status symbol was in practice since . the beginning of Rome. Clear. There were many differences between social classes in 9 good, the way citizens dressed. The certain distinctions between outfits of the citizens of disadvantages school, varying classes were also constantly changing throughout the duration of the Empire. Romans spent a great deal of time and money when choosing their attire.
Through studying Roman clothing we can. Ancient Rome , Roman Empire , Slavery 2404 Words | 9 Pages. The Roman Empire, founded by 9 good act essay, Augustus Caesar in 27 B.C. and lasting in Western Europe for 500 years, reorganized for world politics and cover letter judge, . economics. Almost the entirety of the civilized world became a single centralized state. In place of Greek democracy, piety, and independence came Roman authoritarianism and practicality. Vast prosperity resulted. Europe and the Mediterranean bloomed with trading cities ten times the size of their predecessors with public amenities previously unheard of courts. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Colosseum 907 Words | 6 Pages.
Roman Government What Influence did Gaius Julius Caesar and Augustus have on the reforms of the government from a Republic to an Empire? . By Daniel Shaw Table of Contents Synopsis…………………………………………3 Report…………………………………………. 4 -Introduction………………………………………………………..4 - The Senate’s Rise and decline in power………………..4 -Gaius Julius Caesar………………………………………………5 -Caesar Augustus………………………………………………….6 -Conclusion…………………………………………………………..8 Synopsis The Roman government changed from a republic to. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Cicero 2157 Words | 6 Pages.
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law essay outline The following material illustrates the process of outlining and 9 good test taking. In using this material, you should first study the negligence outline in cover Part 1. The outline is 9 good act essay not intended to judge be a thorough summary of the law in the area of negligence. It is to be used in conjunction with the sample exam and sample answer to show the principles talked about in this book. After studying the outline, read the question. Next, attempt to outline an answer. Then compare your outline with the one in Part 3. Act Essay? Finally, try writing an racial realism thesis, answer.
A sample answer is contained in Part 4. Negligence 1 Issue / Scope Definition of negligence and component parts What triggers negligence? Defenses Rule Common Law : A prima facie 2 case of act essay, negligence exists IF the following conditions are proven: Defendant had a duty of reasonable care . Defendant breached that duty. The breach was the actual and proximate cause of the plaintiff's injuries. Essay? Some sort of damage occurred to the plaintiff or her property.
Duty of reasonable care definition Every person has the duty to 9 good score exercise the care of a reasonable and prudent person in the same or similar circumstances. Breach of duty Breach is cover a question of fact that must be proven by showing: Some behavior occurred on the part of the defendant AND defendant's behavior was unreasonable. Score Act Essay? Actual and Proximate cause Actual Cause exists IF But-for the cover defendant's behavior, the harm would not have occurred. Proximate Cause (or Legal Causation) limits liability to score those harms that were: foreseeable to the defendant by his behavior BUT no liability exists for unforeseeable harms even if directly caused by defendant. Defenses Contributory Negligence Plaintiff contributed to the negligent act. Plaintiff is subject to same standard as negligence. Assumption of risk doctrine IF plaintiff knew the risk AND voluntarily assumed the admit risk by engaging in the behavior THEN plaintiff will be denied recovery. Emergency Doctrine Allows defendant to lower standard of 9 good score, care because an emergency required them to act rashly in letter to magistrate order to avoid a greater harm from occurring. Custom Custom can be used to show that behavior was in line with the behavior of 9 good score act essay, everyone else., thus resulting in no breach.
E.g. Everyone drives at 50 MPH on thinking as a, that particular stretch of the highway even though it is posted at 30 MPH. Analysis Duty of Reasonable Care Reasonable person standard is judged objectively according to factors: Physical characteristics Person with poor vision must drive slower. Age Children held to score a lower standard than adults. Held to standard of reasonable care for a child of same age, education, intelligence and experience. Mental Illness Mental illness does not lower standard of care UNLESS it is sudden and unexpected. Professionals Doctor held to a standard of care of a reasonable doctor with same education and in same community. Breach of Duty - Types of proof Violation of racial realism, law is proof of breach. Res ipsa loquitur 3 Inference of 9 good, negligence because no other reasonable explanation exists for the harm caused.
Was harm foreseeable ? Direct and Proximate Causation Direct Cause But-for test Ask question: Would the same harm have resulted if defendant had not breached his duty? IF yes THEN Direct Cause is not established since harm would have been caused regardless of defendant's action. Proximate Cause Risk Rule: Defendant cannot be held responsible for risks that were unforeseeable. There was no duty of reasonable care because harm was unforeseeable. Cases Wilson v. Silbert . Emergency doctrine : In a drive-through bank line, the car in front of defendant start backing up quickly, so defendant backs up as well without looking. Sudden emergency doctrine lowers standard of racial realism thesis, reasonable care. Should have looked but emergency avoided a harm to himself.
US v. Carroll Towing . Breach illustration . Judge Learned Hand. Score Act Essay? Barge breaks loose of its moorings without watchman on board. Barge sinks with cargo. Cover Letter To Magistrate Judge? Barge company is liable for cargo because the burden of taking precautions - having watchman on board - was negligible compared with probability of harm of a barge breaking loose of its moorings. T.J. Hooper . Custom defense . Tugboat ran into a storm and lost its cargo. Tugboat didn't carry a radio on board so didn't get the weather reports. 9 Good Score? Tugboat owner is not liable for negligence in not carrying a radio because it's the 1930s and the custom was not yet established to always carry a radio on boat. Palsgraf v. Long Island RR . Proximate Cause . Judge Cardoza. Railroad guard pushes man who drops package.
Package contains hidden fireworks that explode and help alabama cause scales to fall harming plaintiff. Illustrates that harm was not foreseeable by 9 good score act essay, guard as to plaintiff so no proximate cause . 1 Negligence is a much deeper topic than is school uniforms covered in this sample outline. The outline here is meant to illustrate techniques of outlining rather than be a comprehensive overview of negligence. 2 Prima facie is Latin for on the face of it. It means the conditions that will satisfy the rule unless other evidence contradicts the findings.
3 Res ipsa loquitur is Latin for the thing speaks for itself. The following example is meant to illustrate a typical question and suggest an approach on how you might outline the relevant issues and facts. Unless you have already taken torts, you probably won't immediately recognize why some of the facts are relevant. What's important to see here, however, is 9 good score act essay not the law, but to illustrate that once you know the law, you should note the relevant facts in admit order to 9 good act essay spot the letter judge issues. David is driving 25 MPH in 25 MPH zone down a four lane street where there are children playing. One nine-year-old child, Kevin, runs into the street chasing a soccer ball. David, without looking over his shoulder, swerves into the other lane to avoid Kevin and in the process he hits a car, driven by Peter, that was speeding past him in the left-hand lane going in the same direction.
Peter loses control of his car, hits a telephone pole and is seriously and permanently injured. The telephone pole, owned by score act essay, the local phone company TeleCo, easily snaps into two pieces and clear admit hits Kevin, who is 9 good still in the street, knocking him unconscious and resulting in permanent injuries. TeleCo never did any testing of its poles to establish how easily the poles broke. The only factor used in manufacturing the cover letter to magistrate judge poles was cost. The poles were made of low quality trees and were not treated in any significant manner except for a coating of tar. Score? No reinforcement was used on the poles. What are the various liabilities and rights of the parties involved? 4 See Bernier v. Boston Edison Co. 403 N.E.2d 391 for a real world analog to this hypothetical.
Notice how the thinking hobby thesis court came out in those circumstances. What follows is a sample outline to the problem discussed above. This outline has far more words in it than you would want to use in an actual exam. This detail just illustrates the framework of an answer to make it comprehensible to act essay you. You would want to abbreviate words and otherwise use a lot of homework help alabama, shortcuts in an actual exam in order to save time.
Once you understand the analytical framework, an actual outline of the first issue might look more like this: Who are the potential parties? Under what legal theory can they bring an action? What are the 9 good score defenses? What are the significant facts proving the theory or defense? What are the damages if defendant is held liable? Pro: Swerving into lane. Pro: Kids playing signals duty to slow down. Con: David was driving speed limit. Kid could have been killed.
Peter was going over clear speed limit. David should have looked before swerving. Duty arose since foreseeable and no action to prevent harm. The injured individuals can seek damages based on a theory of 9 good, negligence. I will examine the potential liability of each party in turn. The prima facie case for negligence is established by racial realism, showing a duty of reasonable care, breach of the duty, actual and proximate cause and damage.
Although David may have breached a duty in not looking when changing lanes, he has a defense in the emergency doctrine. To prove negligence, Peter has the burden to score prove that David had a duty to drive more carefully. Help? One theory would be that David should drive slower than the speed limit when kids were present. Evidence of breaking the law is automatically considered a breach of a duty, but not breaking the law doesn't necessarily establish that a breach didn't occur. All of the facts and circumstances must be considered. Since 25 MPH is a standard speed limit for residential areas where kids normally play, I don't think that David had a duty to 9 good act essay drive slower. David, however, probably breached a duty of care by not looking before he changed lanes. A reasonable and homework prudent person would naturally look before changing lanes. Here, however, David can claim two defenses. First, he can claim contributory negligence since Peter was speeding. Score? (See below for an analysis of Peter's liability.) Second, David can claim the emergency doctrine. Since his swerving into starting of an essay the lane avoided an accident with Kevin, he was justified in making the split-second decision to act essay swerve.
I think that under the duty of reasonable care analysis, David acted with the care of an ordinary and prudent person under the circumstances of an emergency. Homework Help Alabama? Therefore, David will probably not be found negligent in regard to Peter's claim. 9 Good? Even if he is found negligent, David's liability is limited if Peter is found to be liable for contributory negligence. As to Kevin's claim of negligence against David, it is arguable that David's action was the cause of the injury that occurred to Kevin. Under the but-for standard of as a, review, if he hadn't swerved into 9 good score act essay the other lane, he would not have sent Peter's car crashing into the phone pole.
However, Kevin's claim against David probably loses on the issue of proximate cause. Proximate cause limits the liability of David to those risks that were foreseeable. Here, I don't think that a telephone pole snapping in half and falling on thinking thesis, top of 9 good act essay, a kid is advantages disadvantages school essay a likely result from swerving into score another lane in order to avoid the kid in as a hobby the first place. Act Essay? It is as improbable a result as that in Palsgraf . David is to magistrate judge probably not liable for negligence in 9 good score regard to Kevin's injuries. Both Kevin and David can state a claim against Peter for their damages as a result of Peter's negligence in driving over the speed limit. Homework Help? Peter is liable under the theory of negligence per se since he was over the speed limit. Breaking the law - such as posted speed limits - creates a rebuttable presumption of 9 good, negligence and doesn't require further analysis.
Peter can rebut the presumption of negligence by showing it was the custom to speed on that street; however, the fact that children were present would go to show that Peter had a duty of care to racial realism ignore the custom and slow down under those circumstances. Peter can also argue contributory negligence against both David for swerving and Kevin for running into the street. While David was not judged to act essay be negligent for, I don't think his claim for damages to his car will survive. Peter's claim of contributory negligence against David is valid since David had a duty to look before changing lanes. Although the emergency doctrine relieves David of liability, it does not confer liability on Peter. David, or his insurance company, will probably have to pay damages on essay, David's car.
Kevin will be judged by the standard of what a reasonable and prudent nine year old would do when playing games in his own neighborhood. The neighborhood represents safety in 9 good score act essay Kevin's mind, thus an exuberant pre-teen might feel safe enough to run in the street. Even so, most kids are taught at an early age to look both ways before crossing the street. I think it is likely that Kevin, or his parents, will bear some responsibility for Kevin's injuries since he did not belong in the street. Peter's strongest defense against Kevin's claim is to argue - as David did above - that the the body injuries arising form the telephone pole were not foreseeable and therefore the damage is too attenuated for Peter to score be held liable. Here, it is alabama less clear. The casual connection is closer than it was with David. I think that it is foreseeable that when someone is speeding they might lose control and damage would result from that loss of control. 9 Good Score Act Essay? While the pole snapping was not foreseeable, the risk of some type of harm coming about was foreseeable. It is not necessary to show that a specific harm was foreseeable as it is that some harm was foreseeable. I think Peter will be liable for some measure of Kevin's damages.
Although it may not have been foreseeable for this accident to happen, I think that TeleCo is probably liable to help Kevin for damages. Here, TeleCo was under a duty of reasonable care since it knew that its telephone poles would be placed along the sides of roads. It was foreseeable that a car might hit a pole with sufficient force as to knock the 9 good act essay pole down. Since the poles are commonly placed in neighborhoods, it is reasonable to clear essay conclude that a pole might fall on someone. Despite its duty to protect against act essay, potential harm, TeleCo did not do any testing to determine the danger involved in falling poles. Furthermore, it did nothing to mitigate the danger by the body, seeking to reinforce the pole with metal strips, to 9 good sink poles deeper in the ground or buy a harder type of wood. The only factor that TeleCo thought was relevant was keeping its costs down. Consequently, I think that TeleCo's failure to clear admit seek alternatives was a breach of its duty of care.
Under a causation analysis, the breach was both a direct and proximate cause of 9 good act essay, Kevin's injuries. But-for TeleCo's breach, Kevin's injuries would not have occurred. Furthermore, it is foreseeable in a car accident where a pole falls, that an innocent bystander will get hurt. Since Kevin has shown damages, I think that TeleCo will probably be found negligent and advantages school essay liable for damages.