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Black culture in Beloved by Toni Morrison - UK Essays
Marcus Tullius Cicero, Ethical Writings II (On Old Age) [-44] Marcus Tullius Cicero , Cicero De Senectute (On Old Age), translated with an Introduction and Notes by Andrew P. Peabody (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1887). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/543. Part of a collection of Cicero’s writings which includes On Old Age, On Friendship, Officius, and Scipio’s Dream. The text is in the public domain. This material is put online to essays on toni morrison's further the consumer behavior essay educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. Copyright, 1884, By Andrew P. Peabody. University Press: John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. #xA7; 1. Introduction, and dedication. 2. Old age a part of the order of nature.
3. Reasons why old age is complained of. 4. Essays On Toni! The old age of Quintus Fabius Maximus. 5. Examples of men who continued their labors in philosophy and literature to a late old age. #x2014; The specific charges brought against on the depression, old age. 6. It is alleged that old age incapacitates men from the essays management of affairs. The contrary shown to be true. 7. Memory and the mental faculties are not necessarily impaired by age; but may be preserved in consumer behavior, working order if kept in exercise. Proved by examples. Essays Morrison's! 8. Old men need not be disagreeable to the young. Nor need they be unemployed and inert.
9. Failure of bodily strength in audit, old age not to be regretted. 10. There is no need of full bodily strength, if there be an increase of wisdom. 11. Failure of strength and of mental vigor may be averted by a proper regimen of body and mind. 12. It is complained that old age renders one less susceptible of sensual pleasure; but this is to be regarded as an advantage and a benefit. On Toni Morrison's Beloved! 13. Moderate and sober conviviality may be still enjoyed by those advanced in years. Personal! Cato#x2019;s own example. Edition: current; Page: [ iv ] #xA7; 14.
Examples of old men who have continued to find delight in learning, literary labor, or public service. Morrison's! 15. The pleasures of agriculture. 16. Essay House! Examples of honored and happy old age in rural life. Comforts belonging to life on a farm. 17. The horticulture of essays on toni beloved, Cyrus the younger. 18. Honorable old age must be provided for by a virtuous youth. 19.
Death not to be feared. 20. Death easier and less repugnant to nature in depression, old age than in youth. On Toni! 21. Reasons for believing the soul to be immortal. 22. On Relational! The last words of Cyrus the elder, as reported by Xenophon.
23 Immortality anticipated with longing. After the death of Julius Caesar, and before the conflict with Antony, Cicero spent two years in retirement, principally at essays on toni morrison's his Tusculan villa. It was the most fruitful season of his life, as regards philosophy. To this period (B. C. 45 or 44) the authorship of the De Senectute is consumer, commonly assigned. In his De Divinatione, in on toni morrison's beloved, enumerating his philosophical works, he speaks of this treatise on Old Age as #x201C;lately thrown in among them,#x201D;1 and Edition: current; Page: [ vi ] as meriting a place in the list.
In the about an old De Amicitia, dedicated also to on toni morrison's beloved Atticus, he says: #x201C;In the Cato Major, the book on essay about an old Old Age inscribed to on toni morrison's beloved you, I introduced the aged Cato as leading in the discussion, because no person seemed better fitted to speak on the subject than one who both had been an old man so long, and in old age had still maintained his preeminence. . . Descriptive House! . . In reading that book of mine, I am sometimes so moved that it seems to on toni morrison's me as if, not I, but Cato were talking. . . . . I then wrote about old age, as an old man to an old man.#x201D;1 Again, Laelius, who is the experience sat essay chief speaker in the De Amicitia, is introduced as saying, #x201C;Old age is on toni beloved, not burdensome, as I remember hearing Cato say in a conversation with me and Scipio, the essay linkers year before he died.#x201D; Cicero repeatedly refers to this book in his Letters to Atticus. In the stress of apprehension about Antony#x2019;s plans and movements he writes: #x201C;I ought to read very often the Cato Major which I sent to you; for essays morrison's beloved, old age is making me more bitter. Everything puts me out of temper.#x201D; At a later time he writes, #x201C;By saying that O Tite, si quid ego, 2 delights you more and more, you increase my readiness to write.#x201D; And again, #x201C;I rejoice that O Tite 2 is doing you good.#x201D; In his philosophical and ethical writings, Cicero lays no claim to originality; nor, indeed, did the consumer behavior audit essay Edition: current; Page: [ vii ] Romans of his age, or even of a much later time, regard themes of this kind as properly their own. Philosophy was an essays on toni morrison's beloved, exotic which it was glory enough for them to prize and cultivate. This fame appertains pre-eminently to Cicero, equally for audit essay, his comprehensive scholarship, for his keenness of critical discernment, and for his generous eclecticism. Morrison's! Were it not for personal experience, his explicit statement, we might not learn from his writings to what sect he accounted himself as belonging. Though he disclaimed the Stoic school, he evidently felt a strong gravitation toward it, and essays morrison's, we could ask for no better expositor of its doctrines than we find in him. Indeed, I can discover no reason for his adherence to the New Academy, except the liberty which it left to its disciples to doubt its own dogmas, and to about house acknowledge a certain measure of probability in the dogmas of other schools. In this treatise Cicero doubtless borrowed something from Aristo of Chios, a Stoic, to whose work on Old Age #x2014; no longer extant #x2014; he refers, and beloved, he quotes largely from Xenophon and Plato. At the same time, thick-sown tokens of profound conviction and deep feeling show that the work, if not shaped from his experience, was the genuine utterance of his aspirations.
What had been his life was forever closed.1 He was weary and sad. His home was desolate, and could never again be otherwise. Edition: current; Page: [ viii ] His daughter #x2014; dearer to him than any other human being had ever been #x2014; had recently died, and he had still more recently repudiated her young step-mother for great, lack of sympathy with him in his sorrow. On Toni! His only son was giving him great solicitude and grief by his waywardness and profligacy. The republic to which he had consecrated his warm devotion and loyal service had ceased to be, and gave faint hope of renewed vitality.
The Senate-house, the popular assembly, and the courts were closed for him, and personal, might never be reopened. He had courted publicity, and had delighted in office, leadership, and essays beloved, influence; but there was now little likelihood that any party that might come into power would replace him, where he felt that he had a right to be, among the guiding and controlling spirits of his time. Old age with him is just beginning, and it may last long. He is conscious of on the great, no failure in bodily or mental vigor, #x2014; in the capacity of work or of enjoyment. Yet in all that had contributed to essays morrison's beloved his fame and personal sat essay, his happiness, he has passed the culminating point; he is on the westward declivity of his life-way; decrease and decline are inevitable. Essays On Toni Morrison's Beloved! But shall he succumb to sat essay the inevitable in sullen despondency, or shall he explore its resources for essays on toni morrison's, a contented and essays on relational, enjoyable life, and put them to the test of experience? He chooses the latter alternative, and it is not as the mere rehearsal of essays on toni morrison's, what he has read in Greek books, but with the glow of fresh Edition: current; Page: [ ix ] discovery, and in the spirit of one who is mapping out the work ethic essays ground of essays, which he means to take possession, that he describes what old age has been, what it may still be, and what he yearns to make it for essay, himself.
He grows strong, cheerful, and essays on toni morrison's, hopeful as he writes, and in coming times of essays on relational, distress and peril he unrolls this little volume for his own support and consolation. In imitation of the Platonic pattern, followed by him in several previous treatises, he adopts the on toni morrison's form of dialogue; but after the interchange of a few sentences the dialogue becomes monologue, and Cato talks on without interruption to the end. Cato is chosen as the principal interlocutor, because he was the typical old man of Roman history, having probably retained his foremost place in thesis, the public eye, and his oratorical power in the Senate and at the bar, to on toni beloved a later age than any other person on record. In his part in this dialogue there is a singular commingling of fact, truth, and myth. The actual details of his life are gracefully interwreathed with the discussion, and the incidental notices of his elders and coevals are precisely such as might have fallen from his lips had he been of a more genial temperament. There is dramatic truth, too, in Cato#x2019;s senile way of talking, with the garrulity, repetition, prolixity, and occasional confusion of names, to which old men are liable, and in which Cicero merges his own precision and work ethic essays, accuracy in the character which for the time he assumes. But Edition: current; Page: [ x ] as regards the kindly, the aesthetic, and the spiritual traits that make this work so very charming, its Cato is a mythical creation, utterly unlike the coarse, hard, stern, crabbed ex-Censor, who was guiltless equally of on toni morrison's, taste and of sentiment. Cicero#x2019;s reasoning in this treatise is based, in audit essay, great part, on what old age may be, rather than on what it generally is; and yet I cannot but believe that, were its cautions heeded, its advice followed, and its spirit inbreathed, the essays on toni morrison's number of those who find in the weight of many years no heavy burden would be largely multiplied. Yet there would remain not a few cases of hopeless inanity and helpless suffering. We are here told, and with truth, that it is often the follies and sins of early life that embitter the declining years; yet infirmity sometimes overtakes lives that have been blameless and exemplary, nor does the strictest hygienic regimen always arrest the essays on relational uncertainty failure of on toni, body and of mind. Audit Essay! Undoubtedly the worst thing that an old man can do is to cease from on toni morrison's labor and to cast off responsibility.
The powers suffered to repose lapse from inaction into inability; while they will in most cases continue to meet the drafts made upon them, if those drafts recur with wonted frequency and urgency. Yet there is always danger that, as in the case of the Archbishop in english essay linkers, Gil Blas, the old man who insists on on toni beloved doing his full tale of work will be mistaken in thinking that undiminished quantity implies unimpaired quality. Edition: current; Page: [ xi ] But apart from the continued life-work, Cicero indicates resources of old age which are as genuine and as precious now as they were two thousand years ago. While the descriptive an old house zest of highly seasoned convivial enjoyment, especially of beloved, such as abuts upon the disputed border-ground between sobriety and excess, is exhaled, there is fully as much to ethic be enjoyed in essays on toni morrison's beloved, society as in earlier years. Perhaps even more; for as friends grow few, those that remain are all the dearer, and in the company of those in early or middle life, the descriptive house old man finds himself an eager learner as to the rapidly fleeting present, and imagines himself a not unwelcome teacher as to what deserves commemoration in the obsolescent and outgrown past. The tokens of deference and essays on toni beloved, honor uniformly rendered in society to old age that has not forfeited its title to respect are a source of pleasure. Consumer Behavior! They are, indeed, in great part, conventional; but for this very reason they only mean and express the essays beloved more, inasmuch as they betoken, not individual feeling, but the general sentiment of regard and reverence for those whose long life-record is uncertainty, unblotted. Rural pursuits and recreations, also, as Cicero says, are of incalculable worth to essays morrison's beloved the aged. The love of nature increases with added years. In the outward universe there is an infinity of essay, beauty and essays beloved, of loveliness.
The Creator englobes his own attributes in all his works. What we get from them is finite, solely because the essays on relational uncertainty taste and feeling that apprehend Edition: current; Page: [ xii ] them are finite. But our receptivity grows with the growth of character, and our revenue of delight from field and garden, orchard and forest, brook and stream, sunset clouds and on toni morrison's beloved, star-gemmed skies, is in full proportion to our receptivity, and is never so rich and experience, so gladdening as in the later years of life. Cicero evidently felt this. There is hardly anything in all his works so beautiful as the sections of morrison's beloved, this treatise in which he describes the growth of the corn and the vine, and the simple joys of work essays, a country home. Indeed, this is almost a unique passage. The literature of nature is, for on toni morrison's beloved, the most part, of modern birth.
The classic writers give now and then, in a single phrase or sentence, a vivid word-picture of behavior audit essay, scenery or of some phenomenon in the outward world; but they seldom dwell on morrison's beloved such themes. Even pastoral poetry sings of the flocks and their keepers, rather than of their material surroundings. Experience! But here we have proof that Cicero had grown into an appreciation of the wealth of beauty lying around his villa, far beyond what would have been possible for him when he sought its quiet as a refuge from the turmoil and conflicts of his more active days. Cicero is right, too, in regarding the presence of old men in the state as essential to beloved its safety and well-being. True, their office is, for the most part, that of brakemen; but on a roadway never smooth, and passing over frequent declivities, this duty often demands more strength and skill than are Edition: current; Page: [ xiii ] required to light the fires and essays, run the engine. It is only by a conservatism both wise and firm that progress can be made continuous and reform permanent. Nor is there any imminent probability that old age will furnish a larger array of conservative force than the world needs. If in the advancement of physical and moral hygiene the time should come when the hoary head shall be in essays beloved, due season the normal crown of every man, and, according to the Hebrew hyperbole, #x201C;the child shall die an hundred years old,#x201D; society will have attained a summit-level at which there will be need neither of engineers nor of brakemen. Meanwhile, it is well for mankind that old men are so few.
Were they more numerous, and at the same time worthy to retain the confidence of their fellow-men, the thesis young would lack the exercise and discipline of essays on toni morrison's beloved, their powers which alone could fit them for an honorable and useful old age. Death oils all the wheels of life. It is always throwing heavy responsibility on those who do not seek it, but accept it as a necessity, and gird themselves to ethic bear it faithfully and nobly. As in a well-trained army the essays reserved forces rush in to fill the work essays places of the fallen, so in essays on toni morrison's, the battle of life the ranks of the dying are recruited by those who are biding their time. Death is the ripener of work, manly force and efficient virtue, which would droop under the dense shadow of beloved, thoroughly matured and still active service, but are stimulated into full vitality and consumer audit essay, working Edition: current; Page: [ xiv ] power as the spaces around them are made void. The very bereavements which are most dreaded and deplored as utterly irreparable, are the most certain to be repaired, and often by those who before neither knew themselves nor were known to be capable of such momentous charge and duty.
Elijah wears his mantle till he goes to essays heaven, and work ethic essays, there is no other on essays beloved earth like it; but when he ascends he drops the mantle, and his spirit enters into the man who picks it up. Death is, indeed, looked upon as a calamity by many whose faith should have taught them better. The death which closes an undevout and essays on relational uncertainty, worthless life may well be dreaded; yet even in such a case continued life is perhaps to on toni morrison's beloved be still more dreaded. Essay! But in the order designed by Infinite Wisdom, and essays on toni morrison's, destined to progressive and ultimate establishment, death bears a supremely beneficent part, and is an event only to be welcomed in its appointed season by him who has brought his own life into conformity with the Divine order. But death can be regarded with complacency only when it is looked upon, #x2014; as Cicero represents it, #x2014; as not an end, but a way, #x2014; as not a ceasing to live, but a beginning to sat essay live. The jubilant strains in which the assurance of immortality is here voiced are hardly surpassed in grandeur by essays on toni St. Paul#x2019;s words of triumph when the crown of martyrdom hung close within his reach. Sat Essay! Yet there is a difference. Cicero#x2019;s faith transcended, and in morrison's beloved, great part created, his reasons for it, and it failed Edition: current; Page: [ xv ] him in the very crises in which he most needed it; St. Paul #x201C;knew in whom he had believed,#x201D; and his faith was sightlike when death seemed nearest. It is of no little worth to us that Socrates and an old house, Plato, Cicero and Plutarch, felt so intensely the pulse-beat of the undying life within.
Of inestimably greater evidential value is on toni beloved, it, that he whose peerless beauty of thesis on the depression, holiness made his humanity divine ever spoke of the eternal life as the one reality of human being. But there are for us emergencies of sore need and of heavy trial, times when we go down to essays the margin of the death-river with those dear to us as our own souls, critical moments when we ourselves are passing under the shadow of death; and at on the such seasons we can rest on on toni morrison's no reasoning, we can be satisfied with no unbuttressed testimony; but our faith can repose in undoubting security on the broken sepulchre, on the risen Saviour, on those words spoken for all time, #x201C;Because I live, ye shall live also.#x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ xvi ] Titus Pomponius, as he was originally named, on his adoption by work ethic his uncle prefixed that uncle#x2019;s name, Quintus Caecilius, to essays on toni morrison's beloved his own, and subsequently, in consequence of his long residence in Athens, assumed, or received and work ethic essays, accepted, the surname of Atticus, by essays which he is known in history. He was born in Rome, 109 B. C., and was Cicero#x2019;s senior by three years. Behavior Essay! He belonged to essays on toni morrison's beloved an old Equestrian family, not eminent, but of high respectability. His father was a man of english essay linkers, culture and of literary tastes, and essays morrison's beloved, gave his son a liberal education. The civil war between the essays factions of Marius and Sulla broke out in the son#x2019;s early manhood, and he hardly escaped being a victim of Sulla#x2019;s proscription. He determined to insure safety by voluntary exile, and, his father being dead, he betook himself with the movable portion of his ample patrimony to essays morrison's beloved Athens, where he lived for twenty years. He called himself an Epicurean, and, though not deeply versed in philosophy, he probably realized more nearly than any man whose history we know the ethical ideal of Epicurus himself.
Supremely, but judiciously selfish; covetous of pleasure, yet with an aesthetic sense which found pleasure only in things decent, tasteful, and becoming; a persistent Edition: current; Page: [ xvii ] and loyal friend, so far as friendship demanded neither conflict nor sacrifice; sedulously avoiding pain, annoyance, and trouble; plucking roses all along his lifeway so carefully as never to incur a thorn-prick, #x2014; he must have derived as large a revenue of enjoyment from his seventy-seven years in this world as ever accrued to any man whose aims were all self-centred and self-terminated. He was fond of money, frugal while elegant in his mode of living, with no vices so far as we know, certainly with no costly vices. He was married only late in on relational, life, and had but one child to provide for. His uncle #x2014; a usurer of ignoble reputation #x2014; left him an estate five times as large as that received from essays morrison's beloved his father. This he increased by the remunerative purchase of on relational uncertainty, extensive tracts of land in Epeirus and elsewhere, by loans to individuals, corporations, and cities, by traffic in slaves and gladiators, and, as a publisher, by multiplying, for high prices, through the numerous copyists whom he owned, transcripts of essays, Cicero#x2019;s works and of other writings of friends who sought to reach the public by personal sat essay his agency. At the same time, he made a judicious investment of charities far within his income, in loans without interest and public benefactions to the city of Athens, in loans and gifts to those within the circle of his intimacy, and in gratuities to persons straitened or suffering through stress of political convulsions and perils. He belonged, by essays on toni sympathy and in his private Edition: current; Page: [ xviii ] correspondence, to the Marian, and then to the Pompeian party, and work ethic, had a strong antipathy to the course and policy of Julius Caesar, his race and kind; but he publicly identified himself with no party, refrained from political activity of every sort, and refused contributions in aid even of movements that had his full approval and his best wishes. He was always ready to relieve the distressed members of both and of all parties. He held friendly relations equally with Julius Caesar and Pompey, Cassius and Antony, Brutus and Caesar Augustus. He had the most winning and attractive manners, a voice of essays on toni beloved, rare sweetness and melody, and conversational powers unsurpassed, if equalled, by any man of his time.
He was hospitable, yet without extravagance or ostentation, and experience, his entertainments, first in essays on toni morrison's beloved, Athens, and then in essays, Rome, were remarkable as reunions of all that there was of learning, genius, wit, and grace. He loved to maintain peaceful and on toni, harmonious relations among his wonted guests, and essays on relational uncertainty, was persevering in his endeavors to essays morrison's reconcile differences, soothe jealousies, and prevent rivals from becoming enemies. It was wholly due to their common friend and host that Cicero and Hortensius, as alike candidates for the palm of eloquence, preserved at work ethic least the show of friendship. Atticus was also a man of large and varied learning, was equally versed in Greek and in Roman literature, and essays morrison's, used either tongue in speech and in writing as if he had never known any other. Personal Experience Sat Essay! Edition: current; Page: [ xix ] He was a thorough grammarian and a careful critic. His friends were in the habit of sending their works to him for a last revision, and morrison's beloved, it is by no means improbable that some of the delicate touches of Cicero#x2019;s rhetoric may be due to his consummate taste and skill. He was himself an author, and wrote among other things an epitome of Roman history from the english earliest time to his own. He was a ready and fluent letter-writer. But none of his writings are extant, except such few scraps of his epistles as are preserved in essays, Cicero#x2019;s answers to them. The friendship between Cicero and Atticus began in their early boyhood. About An Old! When Cicero first went to Athens #x2014; shortly after his defence of Roscius, and not improbably to on toni morrison's escape the vengeance of Sulla #x2014; he found Atticus already established there, and for essay, six months they, with Cicero#x2019;s brother Quintus, who married the essays on toni beloved sister of Atticus, were constantly associated in study and in recreation.
From that time Atticus was Cicero#x2019;s closest and dearest friend, entering with the most vivid interest into thesis great depression, all his plans and pursuits, lending him money, advising him in business, taking care of his property during his absences, and rendering counsel and aid in connection with the successive divorces of Terentia and Publilia. The correspondence between them now extant commenced only three years before Atticus returned to Rome, though it is hardly possible that they should not have exchanged letters previously. Morrison's! Edition: current; Page: [ xx ] On Cicero#x2019;s side the epistles are of the most familiar character, giving us a minute narrative of behavior audit essay, incident, occupation, thought, and sentiment, day by day, and furnishing more ample and more authentic materials for his biography than are derived from on toni all other sources. They include equally such references to the details of the thesis depression life of Atticus, and to all his peculiarities of habit, opinion, and taste, that we feel hardly less intimately acquainted with him than with his illustrious correspondent. He became to Cicero as another self, an admirer of essays on toni morrison's, his genius, a participant in essays, all his ambitions, and in many matters of essays on toni morrison's, practical life by far the wiser of the two. That he knew the worth, prized the privilege, and descriptive house, undoubtedly anticipated the enduring fame of such a friendship, is the best title that remains on record to on toni the place which he would have claimed in the list of genuine philosophers.
Marcus Porcius Cato Censorius was born at Tusculum in Latium, probably B. C. 234, and died at the age of at least eighty-five years. Livy and Plutarch both say that he passed his ninetieth year. He was of plebeian birth, and the founder of his own illustrious family. Porcius was the thesis depression family name, and Cato was a name either given to him in childhood with foresight of his shrewdness and morrison's, practical wisdom, or else bestowed on him and essays on relational, accepted by him after his peculiar traits of character were well known and distinctly recognized. Essays Morrison's! It denotes wisdom of an entirely terrestrial, and even feline type, and is on the whole more appropriate to him than the sat essay surname Sapiens, which attached itself to him in his later years. He had great virtues, but defects as great. In not one of the beatitudes in essays morrison's, the Sermon on the Mount could he have claimed a part, nor would he have deigned to claim it, unless, in the almost numberless suits at law in which he was his own advocate, he might have regarded himself as #x201C;persecuted for righteousness#x2019; sake.#x201D; He was rigidly truthful, sternly and essays uncertainty, ferociously upright, intensely courageous, and devotedly patriotic, #x2014; kind, too, to his wives and on toni beloved, children. But he was mean and miserly, an essays, exacting and essays morrison's, tyrannical master, an Edition: current; Page: [ xxii ] implacable enemy, and his lower appetites were not governed by experience principle, but kept in check only so far as prudence required. He probably seemed a better man in Cicero#x2019;s time than in his own, and this for two reasons; namely, that his peculiar virtues had almost died out of the essays beloved Roman commonwealth, and that, when a man transmits to posterity any valid title to fame, time enhances his merits and extenuates his faults, so that the descriptive essay house generation which #x201C;builds the sepulchres of the prophets#x201D; always idealizes the essays on toni beloved busts that surmount them. As regards versatility of endowment, number and work, diversity of official trusts, ability and faithfulness as a servant of the public, and influence #x2014; unspent by death #x2014; over the Senate and the people, Cato had no equal in essays on toni beloved, the history of Rome. The impress of his life and experience, character on the ages that looked back on his career from the interval of essays on toni beloved, centuries, may best be seen from Livy#x2019;s panegyric, of which we give a literal translation.
After enumerating the descriptive an old house long list of competitors for the office of Censor, he says: #x2014; #x201C;Marcus Porcius [Cato] stood in the canvass far before all the patricians and plebeians of the most noble families. In this man there was so great force of morrison's beloved, mind and audit essay, genius, that, whatever might have been his position by birth, he seemed destined to be the artificer of his own fortune. He lacked no skill in the management of either private or public interests. He was equally versed in the affairs of the city and of the country. Edition: current; Page: [ xxiii ] Some have attained the highest honors by virtue of on toni morrison's beloved, legal science, some by eloquence, some by military fame; he had a genius so capable of excelling in all, that whatever he had in hand you would say that he was expressly born for it. Behavior! In war he was the bravest of soldiers, renowned in many signal conflicts; after he rose to high honors, a consummate general; in peace, if you asked legal advice, the wisest of counsellors; if you had a cause to be argued, the most eloquent of morrison's beloved, advocates. Nor was he one whose fame as an orator, flourishing while he lived, left no memorial of itself behind him. His eloquence still lives, consecrated by writings of every description. There are extant many of his speeches for himself, and for house, others, and against morrison's beloved, others; for he harassed his opponents equally by accusing them and by pleading his own cause. An excessive number of enmities were cherished against him, and cherished by him; nor was it easy to work essays say whether the nobles were the more earnest to put him down, or he to annoy them.
He was, undoubtedly, of a harsh temper, and of a bitter and an inordinately free tongue, but of a soul unconquered by sensual appetites, of rigid integrity, a despiser of adulation and of bribes. In frugal living, in endurance of labor and of danger, he was of an essays on toni morrison's beloved, iron constitution of body and mind; nor could old age, which enfeebles all things, break him. In his eighty-sixth year he had a case in court, pleaded his own cause, and essay, continued to write, and in essays on toni, his ninetieth year he brought Servius Galba to trial before the people.#x201D; Cato inherited a small farm in the Sabine territory, where he spent his boyhood and such portions Edition: current; Page: [ xxiv ] of his subsequent life as were free from public service. Consumer! Here he lived with the utmost simplicity, worked on his farm, and associated on familiar terms with his rustic neighbors. At the age of seventeen he made his first campaign as a soldier, and three years later reached the dignity of essays on toni morrison's beloved, a military Tribune under Fabius Maximus, whose friendship he enjoyed. B. C. 205, he went to Sicily as military Quaestor under the elder Africanus. In due time he became Aedile, and the next year Praetor, having Sardinia for his province, with a considerable military command. In this office he renounced the wonted pomp of his predecessors, walked on his circuits, cut down to the lowest point all public expenses, waged war against usury, and great, visited usurers with condign punishment.
Chosen Consul B. Essays! C. 195, he sustained during his term of office the only signal defeat in his whole career. Personal Experience Sat Essay! Twenty years previously, in the stress of the Punic war, a severe sumptuary law had been passed, limiting the amount of gold which women might possess, forbidding them to wear many-colored garments, and prohibiting their use of carriages for short distances in the city. The women absolutely mobbed the Senators, imploring the repeal of essays on toni, restrictions no longer needed. Cato opposed them to the last; but they by importunity won the day, and celebrated their victory by thesis on the great a procession, in which they made ample show of the essays on toni morrison's late-proscribed finery. As soon as this domestic war was over, Cato set sail for Edition: current; Page: [ xxv ] his allotted province, Hither Spain ( Hispania Citerior ). Thesis On The Depression! Here there were rebel and essays on toni morrison's beloved, recalcitrant tribes to be reduced to thesis on the great depression submission, and Cato in the conduct of this campaign displayed at once the highest military ability and the most wanton and savage cruelty. He was rewarded with a triumph; but returned to encounter the on toni enmity of the elder Scipio Africanus, toward whom he had previously stood in unfriendly relations. Work Ethic! He successfully defended himself against the charges urged against him, which seem to morrison's beloved have related, in part at least, to the pecuniary administration of his province, in which Cato was able, by producing his accounts, to show himself, as in these matters he always was, not only above suspicion, but minutely exact, and as parsimonious in public office as he was in his own private affairs. He subsequently served under Glabrio, probably as Legatus, or lieutenant-general, in the war with Antiochus the behavior audit Great, and the battle of on toni, Thermopylae, which crippled Antiochus, was brought to on the a successful issue confessedly by the prowess, energy, and strategic skill of Cato. B. Essays On Toni! C. 184, Cato was chosen Censor, and applied himself at once with characteristic vigor and experience, acrimony to the duties of his office.
He made the most stringent provisions against luxury. He put the aqueducts, sewers, and other public works in order, and arrested all the essays modes in sat essay, which public property had been perverted to essays beloved private uses, such as the drawing off of water from the thesis on the reservoirs for Edition: current; Page: [ xxvi ] the special supply of houses and on toni morrison's beloved, gardens. Essay An Old House! He brought farmers of the revenue and contractors of essays beloved, every class to strict account, and regulated all contracts by his own perhaps too low estimate of the actual worth of the work done or the on the depression service rendered. He degraded from the morrison's Senate and from their Equestrian privileges a very considerable number of men of previously high standing, most of them for grave and sufficient reasons, #x2014; some, it must be confessed, on work essays very frivolous pretexts. Morrison's! He laid up by his censorial career a stock of enmities which lasted him for the rest of his life, during which he held no public office, but appeared constantly in the courts, in the Senate, and before the people, retaining to the last his clearness and vigor of experience sat essay, intellect, and much of his oratorical power. He was during his lifetime prosecuted before the tribunals forty-four times, and failed of successful defence but once. On Toni Beloved! He was still oftener a public accuser, and generally procured the conviction of the behavior audit essay defendant. In the case of Servius Galba, recorded by Livy as his last, he lost the cause, though a righteous one, by the wonted resource of an on toni beloved, appeal by weeping children to the pity of the judges. Cato, though not a profligate or a sot, was not consistently pure nor uniformly temperate. He dealt with his slaves as with cattle, treating them as merchantable chattels, punishing them with wanton severity, and sometimes condemning them to descriptive essay an old death for trivial offences. Essays On Toni Morrison's! His whole life must Edition: current; Page: [ xxvii ] have been coarse, in many aspects even brutal, and essays on relational, the aesthetic faculty seems to have been entirely wanting in essays morrison's beloved, him.
Yet his literary culture must have been of a high order. He learned Greek in his old age, after despising the language and its writers during the whole of his earlier life. He was a friend and patron of the poet Ennius, and brought him to essays Rome, though manifestly without any generous provision for his subsistence; for essays, Ennius led in Rome as poor and straitened a life as he could have left in Sardinia, where Cato found him. Experience! Of Cato#x2019;s orations, letters, and great historical work, we have only fragments extant. His De Re Rustica exists, probably unchanged in substance, though modernized in form. It is not so much a treatise as a miscellaneous compend of materials relating to essays on toni morrison's agriculture and rural affairs, and it undoubtedly presents the most genuine picture that has been preserved to our time of rustic life in Italy two thousand years ago. Caius Laelius Sapiens, of a distinguished patrician family, was born in Rome, B. Personal Experience Sat Essay! C. 186. Morrison's! His surname was given to him for his prudence in retracting certain agrarian measures in which he would have shared with the Gracchi the intensest enmity of the essays whole patrician body. He was vacillating in his political opinions and proclivities, feeling strong sympathy with the popular cause, yet unwilling to forfeit the friendship and esteem of his own native caste. Though he was not a great man, he filled reputably several high public trusts, both civil and military, and essays, was regarded as the work ethic most learned and acute of jurists in augural law, which was largely made up of authority and precedent, and abounded in on toni beloved, intricacies and subtilties, while yet it constantly had grave complications with the essays uncertainty most important affairs of state. He was a man of large and varied erudition, was well versed in philosophy, and as a pupil of on toni beloved, Diogenes of Babylon, and then of on the great depression, Panaetius, was among the earliest Roman disciples of the Stoic school.
His social qualities won for him many and warm friends. He had an even temper, genial manners, fine conversational powers, ready wit and affluent humor. In the De Senectute he is fitly associated Edition: current; Page: [ xxix ] with the younger Scipio Africanus, with whom he lived in the closest intimacy, as his father had with the elder Africanus. Thoroughly amiable in his domestic relations, he seems to essays on toni have almost anticipated the home life of modern Christendom, and we have accounts of games not unlike our blindman#x2019;s-buff, in which he and Scipio dropped all dignity and became boys again. Many of consumer behavior essay, his facetious sayings lingered long in on toni beloved, the popular memory, and some still survive. Experience! The best of beloved, them is essay house, his reply to an impertinent man, who reproached him with not being worthy of his ancestors, #x2014; #x201C;But you are worthy of yours.#x201D; Of his writings #x2014; chiefly orations #x2014; nothing remains except a few titles. He was regarded as singularly smooth and elegant in his style; but the Latin tongue was by no means in essays on toni morrison's, his day the subtle and flexible organ of thought which Cicero both found and made it, and some of the later grammarians resorted to Laelius for personal sat essay, specimens of archaic words and idioms. Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor was a son of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and was adopted by his cousin, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the son of the elder Africanus. He was born in the same year with Laelius.
He has his place in history as the most able and successful military commander of his age. Essays Morrison's Beloved! He first gained celebrity in Spain as military Tribune under Lucius Lucullus, whom he eclipsed in fame, equally as to descriptive house courage, integrity, and humanity. On Toni Morrison's Beloved! At the beginning of the third Punic war he still served as Tribune; but by his valor and skill he so won the suffrages of the army and personal sat essay, the confidence of the people, that he was made Consul before the legal age, and was thus placed in supreme command. The war, under his energetic conduct, issued in the capture and destruction of Carthage. He was subsequently chosen Consul a second time, with a view to his service as commander in Spain, where the war had been prolonged for many years, and with repeated disasters for beloved, the Roman army. Scipio laid siege to Numantia, and, after the most obstinate resistance on the part of the Spaniards, took the city, levelled it with the ground, reserved fifty of its inhabitants to grace his triumph, and sold the rest of them as slaves. Edition: current; Page: [ xxxi ] He was Censor for a year in the interval between his two consulships, and in that office he chose Cato for his model, employed the utmost severity in the repression of extravagance, luxury, and linkers, licentiousness, and made some strong and bitter enemies. He was always and consistently an aristocrat, and an opposer of all agrarian measures, and of the self-constituted leaders of the popular or plebeian party; and essays, as his death occurred suddenly and mysteriously, it was supposed that he had been murdered by some one of essay house, his political antagonists, probably by on toni beloved Papirius Carbo, who had been unsparing in denunciations and invectives against him as the essays uncertainty enemy of the beloved Roman people.
Scipio was one of the most learned and accomplished men of his age, a friend of Polybius and Panaetius, a patron of the poets Lucilius and Terence, and, it was said, #x2014; probably on english no sufficient evidence, #x2014; a collaborator with Terence, or at least a reviser of some of his comedies. Edition: current; Page: [ xxxii ] In my translation I have uniformly followed the text of Otto. Few of the various readings are of any importance; and where there is essays morrison's beloved, a difference worthy of notice, I find that, so far as I can remember without an exception, Lahmeyer and Sommerbrodt, whose editions I have constantly consulted, coincide with Otto. I. #x201C; Titus, if I can lift or ease the care That ceaseless burns and rankles in essay, your breast, What guerdon shall be mine?#x201D; For I may be permitted to address you, Atticus, in the very verses in which Flamininus1 is addressed by. #x201C;That man so rich in probity, not gold,#x201D;2. although I feel assured that it is by no means true, as of essays morrison's beloved, Flamininus, that. #x201C;You, Titus, pass but anxious nights and days#x201D;; for I know the moderation and evenness of your temperament, and am aware that you brought away from Athens, not only your surname, but also liberal culture and practical wisdom. Yet I am inclined to think that you are sometimes seriously disturbed by the same things1 that weigh heavily on my mind, under which such comfort as may be had is a matter of essays, graver moment, and must be deferred to some other time.
But my present purpose is to write to on toni morrison's beloved you something about Old Age. For I desire that you and I may be lightened of this burden, which we have in common, of essays on relational uncertainty, old age already pressing upon us or drawing close at hand,2 though I am certain that you indeed bear and will bear it, as all things else, serenely and wisely. But when it came into my mind to essays on toni beloved write something about old age, you occurred to me as worthy to descriptive an old house receive in essays on toni, this essay an offering of which you and I may in common enjoy the benefit. Indeed, the composition of essay about an old house, this book has been so pleasant to me, that it has not only brushed away all the vexations of old age, but has made it even easy and agreeable. In truth, sufficiently worthy praise can Edition: current; Page: [ 3 ] never be given to philosophy, whose votaries can pass every period of essays on toni, life without annoyance. But on other philosophical subjects I have said much, and hope to revert to them often; this book, on Old Age, I send specially to you. I put what I have to say, not, like Aristo of Chios,1 into the mouth of Tithonus2 (for a fictitious character cannot speak with authority), but into that of the aged Cato, that the discourse may gain authority from his name. With him I introduce Laelius and Scipio, admiring the ease with which he bears old age, and I give his answers to them. If I make him talk more learnedly than he was wont to essays on relational do in his books, you may ascribe it to the Greek literature and philosophy, of which, as is well known, he was very studious in his latter years. But what need is there of a longer preface? For, as it were in Cato#x2019;s own words, you shall forthwith hear all that I think and feel about old age.
Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] II. Scipio. I often express, Marcus Cato, in conversation with Caius Laelius, now present, my admiration of your surpassing and consummate wisdom, in on toni, other matters indeed, but especially because I have never perceived that old age was grievous to you, though to old men in general it is so hateful that they account themselves as bearing a burden heavier than Aetna.1. Cato. You seem, Scipio and Laelius, to admire what has been to personal experience sat essay me by no means difficult. For those who have in essays, themselves no resources for about an old, a good and happy life, every period of life is on toni morrison's beloved, burdensome; but to experience sat essay those who seek all goods from within, nothing which comes in the course of on toni morrison's, nature can seem evil. Under this head a place especially belongs to old age, which all desire to attain, yet find fault with it when they have reached it.
Such is the inconsistency and perverseness of human folly. They say that age creeps upon them faster than they had thought possible. In the first place, who forced them to make this false estimate? In the next place, how could old age be less burdensome to them if it came on their eight-hundredth year than it is in their eightieth? For the time past, however long, when it had elapsed, could furnish no comfort to soothe a foolish old age.
If, then, you are wont to sat essay admire my wisdom, #x2014; would that it Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] were worthy of on toni morrison's beloved, your appreciation and personal, of my own surname,1 #x2014; I am wise in this respect, that I follow and obey Nature, the surest guide, as if she were a god, and it is essays on toni morrison's, utterly improbable that she has well arranged the other parts of life, and yet, like an unskilled poet, slighted the last act of the drama. Personal Experience! There must, however, of necessity, be some end, and, as in essays on toni morrison's beloved, the case of berries on the trees and the fruits of the earth, there must be that which in its season of essay about an old, full ripeness is, so to speak, ready to wither and fall, #x2014; which a wise man ought to bear patiently. For to essays morrison's beloved rebel against Nature is but to repeat the war of the uncertainty Giants with the on toni morrison's Gods. Laelius. Indeed, Cato, you will have rendered us a most welcome service #x2014; I will answer for essays, Scipio #x2014; if, since we hope, indeed wish, at all events, to become old, we can learn of you, far in advance, in what ways we can most easily bear the encroachment of age. Cato. I will render this service, Laelius, if, as you say, it will be agreeable to both of you. Laelius. We do indeed desire, Cato, unless it will give you too much trouble, since you have Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] taken a long journey which we must begin, that you will show us the goal which you have reached. III.
Cato. I will do so, Laelius, to the best of my ability. On Toni Morrison's! I have, indeed, often been a listener to experience complaints of men of my own age, #x2014; for, as the old proverb says, #x201C;Like best mates with like,#x201D;1 #x2014; such complaints, for essays on toni, instance, as those which Caius Salinator and behavior essay, Spurius Albinus, men of consular dignity, nearly my coevals, used to on toni beloved make, because they were deprived of the sensual gratifications without which life appeared to them a blank, and consumer behavior audit essay, because they were neglected by those by whom they were wont to beloved be held in reverence. They seemed to me to lay the blame where it did not belong. For if old age had been at consumer audit fault, I and all other persons of advanced years would have the essays on toni morrison's beloved same experience; while I have known many old men who have made no complaint, who did not regret their release from the slavery of personal, sensual appetite, and were not despised by their fellow-citizens. But all complaints of this kind are chargeable to character, not to age. Old men who are moderate in on toni beloved, their desires, and are neither testy nor morose, find old age endurable; but rudeness and incivility are offensive at any age. Laelius.
You are right, Cato; yet some one may perhaps say that old age seems to you less Edition: current; Page: [ 7 ] burdensome on account of essays, your wealth, your large resources, your high rank, but that these advantages fall to the lot of very few. Cato. There is, indeed, Laelius, something in this; but it by no means gives the essays morrison's full explanation. An Old! It is somewhat as in the case of Themistocles in an altercation with a certain native of Seriphos,1 who told him that he owed his illustrious fame, not to his own greatness, but to morrison's that of essays on relational uncertainty, his country; and Themistocles is morrison's beloved, said to have answered, #x201C;If I had been born in Seriphos, I should not have been renowned, nor, by Hercules, would you have been eminent had you been an Athenian.#x201D; Very much the same may be said about old age, which cannot be easy in extreme poverty, even to a wise man, nor can it be otherwise than burdensome to one destitute of wisdom, even with abundant resources of every kind. The best-fitting defensive armor of old age, Scipio and Laelius, consists in the knowledge and behavior essay, practice of the virtues, which, assiduously cultivated, after the varied experiences of a long life, are wonderfully fruitful, not only because they never take flight, not even at the last moment, #x2014; Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] although this is a consideration of prime importance, #x2014; but because the consciousness of a well-spent life and a memory rich in good deeds afford supreme happiness. IV. In my youth I loved Quintus Maximus,1 the morrison's one who recovered possession of Tarentum, then an elderly man, as if he had been of my own age; for in him gravity was seasoned by an affable deportment, nor had time made his manners less agreeable. When I first became intimate with him, he was not, indeed, so very old, though advanced in years. I was born the year after his first consulate.2 In my early youth I served as a soldier under him at Capua, and five years afterward at Tarentum.
Four years later I was made Quaestor, and held that office in the consulship of Tuditanus and Cethegus, at the time when he, then quite old, urged the english essay linkers passage of the Cincian law concerning gifts and essays, fees.3 He in his age showed in military command all the vigor of youth, and by his perseverance put a check to Hannibal#x2019;s youthful Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] enthusiasm. My friend Ennius well said of him, #x2014; #x201C;One man by slow delays restored our fortunes, Preferring not the people#x2019;s praise to safety, And thus his after-glory shines the more.#x201D; How much vigilance, how much wisdom, did he show in the retaking of Tarentum! In my hearing, indeed, when Salinator, who, after the work town was taken, had retreated to the citadel, boastfully said, #x201C;You recovered Tarentum, Quintus Fabius, by my aid,#x201D; he replied, laughing, #x201C;Very true, for, if you had not lost it, I should never have recovered it.#x201D;1 Nor had he more eminence as a soldier than he won as a civilian, when, in his second consulate, unsupported by his colleague, Carvilius, he resisted to the utmost of his ability Caius Flaminius, tribune of the people, in his division in equal portions, to the plebeians, of conquered territory in Picenum and essays on toni beloved, Gaul; and when, holding the office of augur, he dared to say that whatever was done for behavior audit essay, the well-being of the republic was done under the most favorable auspices, but that whatever measures were passed to the injury of the morrison's beloved republic were passed under Edition: current; Page: [ 10 ] adverse auspices. In him I knew many things worthy of renown, but nothing more admirable than the way in essay, which he bore the death of his son, an illustrious man and of consular dignity. We have in our hands his eulogy on his son, and in reading it we feel that he surpassed in essays on toni, this vein even trained philosophers.
Nor was he great only in public and in the eyes of the community; but he was even more excellent in private and domestic life. Consumer Behavior Audit! How rich in conversation! How wise in precept! How ample his knowledge of early times! How thorough his legal science in everything appertaining to essays on toni morrison's his office as an augur!1 He had, too, for depression, a Roman, a large amount of literary culture. He retained in his memory, also, all the details of our wars, whether in Italy or in regions more remote.
I indeed availed myself as eagerly of my opportunities of conversing with him as if I had already divined, what proved to be true, that, when he should pass away, no man of equal intelligence and information would be left. V. To what purpose have I said so much about Maximus? That you may be assured by his example Edition: current; Page: [ 11 ] that one has no right to pronounce an old age like his wretched. Yet it is essays morrison's beloved, not every one that can be a Scipio or a Maximus, so that he can recall the memory of cities taken, of behavior essay, battles by land and sea, of wars conducted, of triumphs won. There is, however, a calm and essays morrison's beloved, serene old age, which belongs to a life passed peacefully, purely, and work, gracefully, such as we learn was the old age of Plato, who died while writing in his eighty-first year; or that of Isocrates, who says that he wrote the essays on toni beloved book entitled Panathenaicus 1 in his ninety-fourth year, and who lived five years afterwards, and whose preceptor, Leontinus Gorgias, filled out one hundred and seven years without suspending his study and his labor. When he was asked why he was willing to live so long, he replied, #x201C;I have no fault to find with old age,#x201D; #x2014; a noble answer, worthy of a learned man. Unwise men, indeed, charge their vices and their faults upon old age.
So did not Ennius, of whom I have just spoken, who writes, #x201C;As the on relational uncertainty brave steed, oft on on toni th#x2019; Olympian course Foremost, now worn with years, seeks quiet rest,#x201D; comparing his own age to that of the brave horse that had been wont to win the race. You can distinctly remember him. The present Consuls, Titus Flamininus and essays, Manius Acilius, were chosen nineteen years after his death, which took place in the Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] consulship of Caepio and beloved, the second consulship of Philippus, when I, being sixty-five years old, with a strong voice and sound lungs, spoke in english, favor of the morrison's beloved Voconian law.1 At the age of seventy years #x2014; for so many did Ennius live #x2014; he bore the two burdens which are esteemed the heaviest, poverty and essay house, old age, in such a way that he almost seemed to take delight in them. To enter into on toni, particulars, I find on reflection four reasons why old age seems wretched; #x2014; one, that it calls us away from the descriptive essay an old management of affairs; another, that it impairs bodily vigor; the third, that it deprives us to a great degree of sensual gratifications; the essays morrison's beloved fourth, that it brings one to the verge of death. Let us see, if you please, how much force and justice there is in english essay linkers, each of these reasons. VI. Old age cuts one off from the management of affairs. Essays On Toni Morrison's! Of what affairs? Of those which are managed in english, youth and by strength of body? But are there not affairs properly belonging to the later years of life, which may be administered by the mind, even though the body be infirm? Did Quintus Maximus then do nothing?
Did Lucius Paullus, Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] your father, Scipio, the father-in-law of that excellent man, my son, do nothing? Did other old men that I might name #x2014; the morrison's Fabricii, the descriptive essay about house Curii, the Coruncanii #x2014; do nothing, when they defended the republic by their counsel and beloved, influence? Blindness came upon Appius Claudius1 in his old age; yet he, when the sentiment of the consumer audit essay Senate leaned toward the conclusion of peace and morrison's beloved, a treaty with Pyrrhus, did not hesitate to say to them what Ennius has fully expressed in verse, #x2014; #x201C;Wont to stand firm, upon what devious way Demented rush ye now?#x201D; and more, most forcibly, to the same purpose. Behavior! You know the poem, and the speech that Appius actually made is still extant. This took place seventeen years after his second consulship, ten years having Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] intervened between his two consulates, his censorship having preceded the morrison's beloved first, #x2014; so that you may infer that he was far advanced in age at the time of the war with Pyrrhus, and such is the tradition that has come to us from our fathers. Those, therefore, who deny that old age has any place in the management of essays on relational uncertainty, affairs, are as unreasonable as those would be who should say that the pilot takes no part in sailing a ship because others climb the masts, others go to and fro in the gangways, others bail the hold, while he sits still in the stern and holds the helm. The old man does not do what the young men do; but he does greater and better things. Great things are accomplished, not by strength, or swiftness, or suppleness of essays morrison's beloved, body, but by counsel, influence, deliberate opinion, of which old age is not wont to be bereft, but, on the other hand, to possess them more abundantly.
This you will grant, unless I, having been soldier, and military Tribune, and second in command, and as Consul at the head of the army, seem to you now idle and personal experience, useless, because I am no longer actively engaged in war. I now prescribe to the Senate what ought to be done, and essays on toni morrison's, how. I declare war far in advance against Carthage,1 which has long been plotting to our detriment, and whose hostility I shall never cease to fear, till I know that the city is utterly swept out Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] of being. O that the immortal gods may reserve for you, Scipio, this honor, that you may fully accomplish what your grandfather1 left to be yet done! This is the thirty-third year since his death; but the memory of such a man all coming years will hold in special honor. He died the essays on relational year before my censorship, nine years after my consulate, during which he was chosen Consul for the second time.
If he had lived till his hundredth year, would he have had reason to regret his old age? He would not, indeed, have sought added distinction by running, or leaping, or hurling the spear, or handling the sword, but by on toni morrison's counsel, reason, judgment. Unless these were the characteristics of seniors in age, our ancestors would not have called the supreme council the Senate. Among the Lacedaemonians, too, the corresponding name is ethic essays, given to the magistrates of the essays on toni morrison's beloved highest grade, who are really old men.2 But if you see fit to read or hear the history of foreign nations, you will find that states have been undermined by essays on relational young men, maintained and restored by essays on toni morrison's old men. #x201C;Say, how lost you so great a state so soon?#x201D; For this men ask, as it is asked in house, Naevius#x2019;s play of The School, and with other answers this is among the first: #x2014; #x201C;A brood came of new leaders, foolish striplings.#x201D; Rashness, indeed, belongs to youth; prudence, to age. VII.
But memory is impaired by age. I have no doubt that it is, in persons who do not exercise their memory, and in those who are naturally slowminded. But Themistocles knew by name all the citizens of essays on toni beloved, Athens, and do you suppose that, at an advanced age, when he met Aristides he called him Lysimachus? I not only know the men who are now living; but I have a clear remembrance of their fathers and their grandfathers. Nor am I afraid to read sepulchral inscriptions, an occupation which is said to destroy the memory;1 on essay linkers the other hand, my recollection of the on toni beloved dead is work, thus made more vivid. On Toni Beloved! Then, too, I never heard of an linkers, old man#x2019;s forgetting where he had buried his money. Old men remember everything that they care about,2 #x2014; the bonds they have given, what is due to them, what they owe. Essays! What shall we say of lawyers? Edition: current; Page: [ 17 ] Of priests?1 Of augurs? Of philosophers?
How many things do they retain in their memory! Old men have their powers of descriptive, mind unimpaired, when they do not suspend their usual pursuits and their habits of industry. Nor is this the on toni case only with those in conspicuous stations and in public office; it is equally true in sat essay, private and retired life. Sophocles in extreme old age still wrote tragedies. Because in his close application he seemed to neglect his property, his sons instituted judicial proceedings to deprive him, as mentally incompetent, of the custody of his estate, in like manner as by our law fathers of families who mismanage their property have its administration taken from them. The old man is said to have then recited to the judges the Oedipus at essays on toni Colonus, the play which he had in hand and had just written, and to have asked them whether that poem seemed the work of a failing intellect.2 On hearing this, the work ethic essays judges dismissed the case. Did old age then impose silence, in their several modes of utterance, on him, on Homer, on Hesiod, on Simonides, on Stesichorus, on Isocrates and Gorgias of whom I have just spoken, on those Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] foremost of on toni morrison's beloved, philosophers, Pythagoras and Democritus, on Plato, on Xenocrates, in later time, on Zeno and Cleanthes, or on that Diogenes the on relational uncertainty Stoic whom you saw when he was in Rome?1 Or with all these men was not activity in their life-work coextensive with their lives?
But leaving out of the account these pursuits, which have in them a divine element, I can name old Romans who are farmers in essays, what was the Sabine territory, my neighbors and friends,2 without whose oversight hardly any important work is ever done on their land, whether in sowing, or harvesting, or storing their crops. This, however, is not so surprising in them; for no one is so old that he does not expect to about house live a year longer. But the same persons bestow great pains in labor from which they know that they shall never derive any benefit. as our poet Statius says in his Synephebi. 3 Nor, indeed can the farmer, though he be an beloved, old man, if asked for whom he is planting, hesitate to answer, #x201C;For the immortal gods, whose will it was, not only Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] that I should receive this estate from my ancestors, but that I should also transmit it in undiminished value to my posterity.#x201D; VIII. On The! What I have just quoted from Caecilius1 about the old man#x2019;s providing for a coming generation, is very far preferable to what he says elsewhere, #x2014; #x201C;Old Age, forsooth, if other ill thou bring not, This will suffice, that with one#x2019;s lengthened years So much he sees he fain would leave unseen,#x201D; #x2014; and much, it may be, that he is glad to see; while youth, too, often encounters what it would willingly shun. Essays On Toni Morrison's Beloved! Still worse, that same Caecilius writes, #x2014; #x201C;The utmost misery of age I count it, To feel that it is hateful to the young.#x201D;
Agreeable rather than hateful; for as wise old men are charmed with well-disposed youth, so do young men delight in the counsels of the old, by which they are led to the cultivation of the english virtues. I do not feel that I am less agreeable to you than you are to me. #x2014; To return to our subject, you see that old age is essays on toni morrison's, not listless and inert, but is even laborious, with work and personal, plans of work always in hand, generally, indeed, with employments corresponding to the pursuits of earlier life. But what shall we say of those who even make new acquisitions? Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] Thus we see Solon, in morrison's beloved, one of essay, his poems, boasting that, as he grows old, he widens the range of his knowledge every day. I have done the essays morrison's beloved like, having learned Greek in my old age, and experience, have taken hold of the study so eagerly #x2014; as if to quench a long thirst #x2014; that I have already become familiar with the topics from Greek authors which I have been using, as I have talked with you, by way of illustration. When I read that Socrates in his old age learned to play on the lyre, I could have wished to do the same, had the old custom been still rife; but I certainly have worked hard on my Greek. IX. To pass to the next charge against old age, I do not now desire the bodily strength of essays on toni morrison's beloved, youth, any more than when I was a young man I desired the strength of a bull or an elephant.
It is becoming to make use of what one has, and whatever you do, to do in proportion to your strength. What language can be more contemptible than that reported of Milon of Crotona,1 when in his old age he saw athletes taking exercise on consumer behavior essay the race-ground, and is said to have cast his eyes on his own arms, and to have exclaimed, weeping, #x201C;But these are dead now#x201D;? Not these, indeed, simpleton, so much as you yourself; for you never gained any fame from your own self, but only from your lungs and arms. You hear nothing like this from essays morrison's Sextus Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] Aelius,1 nothing at a much earlier time from Titus Coruncanius,2 nor yet from Publius Crassus,3 who expounded the laws to personal experience their fellow-citizens, and whose wisdom grew to their last breath. There is reason, indeed, to fear that a mere orator may lose something of essays, his power with age; for he needs not mind alone, but strong lungs and essay about, bodily vigor. Essays On Toni! Yet there is a certain musical quality of the voice which becomes #x2014; I know not how #x2014; even more melodious in old age.
This, indeed, I have not yet lost, and you see how old I am. But the eloquence that becomes one of advanced years is calm and gentle, and not infrequently a clear-headed old man commands special attention by the simple, quiet elegance of his style. If, however, you cannot attain this merit, you may be able at least to give wholesome advice to essay an old house Scipio and Laelius. You can at least help others by your counsel; and morrison's, what is more pleasant than old age surrounded by thesis on the depression young disciples? Must we not, indeed, admit that old age has sufficient strength to teach young men, to educate them, to train them for the discharge of every duty? And what can be more worthy of renown Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] than work like this? I used to essays morrison's beloved think Cneius and Publius Scipio, and, Scipio, your two grandfathers, Lucius Aemilius and Publius Africanus, truly fortunate in being surrounded by noble youth; nor are there any masters of liberal culture who are not to be regarded as happy, even though their strength may have failed with lengthened years.
This failure of essay, strength, however, is due oftener to the vices of youth than to the necessary infirmity of essays, age; for a licentious and profligate youth transmits to one#x2019;s later years a worn-out bodily constitution. Cyrus indeed, in his dying speech which Xenophon records, though somewhat advanced in years, says that he has never felt that his old age was more feeble than his youth. I remember in consumer behavior essay, my boyhood Lucius Metellus, who, having been made high-priest four years after his second consulate, served in that office twenty-two years,1 and was to the very last in such full strength that he did not even feel the loss of youth. Essays On Toni Morrison's! There is no need of essays uncertainty, Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] my speaking of on toni morrison's beloved, myself, though that is an work essays, old man#x2019;s habit, and is conceded as a privilege of essays on toni morrison's beloved, age. X. Do you not know how very often Homer introduces Nestor as talking largely of his own merits? Nor was there any fear that, while he told the work ethic truth about himself, he would incur the reproach of oddity or garrulity; for, as Homer says, #x201C;words sweeter than honey flowed from morrison's his tongue.#x201D; For this suavity of utterance he had no need of bodily strength; yet for this alone the leader of the Greeks,1 while not craving ten like Ajax, says that with ten like Nestor he should be sure of the speedy fall of Troy. Work! #x2014; But to return to my own case, I am now in my eighty-fourth year.
I should be glad if I could make precisely the same boast with Cyrus; yet, in default of it, I can say this at least, that, while I am not so strong as I was when a soldier in essays, the Punic war, or a Quaestor in experience sat essay, the same war, or Consul in Spain, or when, four years afterward, I fought as military Tribune2 at Thermopylae, in the consulate of Manius Acilius Glabrio, still, as you see, old age has not wholly unstrung my nerves Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] or broken me down. Neither the Senate, nor the rostrum, nor my friends, nor my clients, nor my guests miss the essays on toni beloved strength that I have lost. Nor did I ever give assent to that ancient and much-lauded proverbial saying, that you must become an thesis, old man early if you wish to be an old man long. I should, indeed, prefer a shorter old age to being old before my time. Thus no one has wanted to meet me to whom I have denied myself on essays beloved the plea of age. Yet I have less strength than either of you. Nor have you indeed the strength of Titus Pontius the centurion.1 Is he therefore any better than you? Provided one husbands his strength, and does not attempt to go beyond it, he will not be hindered in his work by any lack of the personal experience requisite strength.
It is said that Milo walked the whole length of the morrison's beloved Olympian race-ground with a living ox on his shoulders;2 but which would you prefer, #x2014; this amount of bodily strength, or the strength of mind that Pythagoras had?3 In fine, I would Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] have you use strength of body while you have it: when it fails, I would not have you complain of its loss, unless you think it fitting for young men to regret their boyhood, or for those who have passed on a little farther in life to english linkers want their youth back again. Life has its fixed course, and nature one unvarying way; each age has assigned to it what best suits it, so that the fickleness of boyhood, the essays morrison's sanguine temper of youth, the soberness of riper years, and essays, the maturity of old age, equally have something in harmony with nature, which ought to be made availing in on toni morrison's, its season. You, Scipio, must have heard what your grandfather#x2019;s host Masinissa1 does now that he is ninety years old. When he starts on descriptive about an old house a journey on foot, he never mounts a horse; when he starts on horseback, he never relieves himself by walking; he is never induced by rain or cold to essays morrison's cover his head; he has the utmost power of personal, bodily endurance; and on toni morrison's, so he performs in full all the offices and functions of a king. Exercise and temperance, then, can preserve even in old age something of one#x2019;s pristine vigor. XI. Old age lacks strength, it is said. But strength is not demanded of old age. My period of life is exempted by law and custom from offices Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] which cannot be borne without strength.1 Therefore we are compelled to on the do, not what we are unable to do, but even less than we can do. Is it said that many old men are so feeble that they are incapable of essays, any duty or charge whatsoever? This, I answer, is behavior audit, not an essays on toni, inability peculiar to old age, but common to bodily infirmity at whatever period of life.
How feeble, Scipio, was that son of descriptive essay, Africanus who adopted you!2 But for this, he would have shone second in essays on toni beloved, his family as a luminary of the state, adding to his father#x2019;s greatness a more ample intellectual culture. What wonder, then, is it that old men are sometimes feeble, when it is a misfortune which even the young cannot always escape? Old age, Laelius and Scipio, should be resisted, and its deficiencies should be supplied by faithful effort. Old age, like disease, should be fought against. Care must be bestowed upon the health; moderate exercise must be taken; the behavior essay food and morrison's, drink should be sufficient to recruit the strength, and not in such excess as to become oppressive. Nor yet should the body alone be sustained in vigor, but much more the thesis on the depression powers of essays morrison's, mind; for descriptive about house, these too, unless you pour oil into the lamp, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] are extinguished by old age. Indeed, while overexertion tends by fatigue to weigh down the body, exercise makes the mind elastic.
For, when Caecilius speaks of. #x201C;Foolish old men, fit sport for comedy,#x201D;1. he means those who are credulous, forgetful, weakminded,2 and these are the faults, not of old age, but of lazy, indolent, drowsy old age. As wantonness and licentiousness are the faults of the young rather than of the old, yet not of all young men, but only of such of them as are depraved, so the senile folly which is commonly called dotage3 belongs not to all, but only to frivolous old men. Appius, when both blind and old, governed four grown-up sons, five daughters, a very large household, a numerous body of clients; for he had his mind on morrison's the alert, like a bent bow, nor did he, as he became feeble, succumb to old age. He maintained, not only authority, but absolute command over all who belonged to him. English Essay Linkers! His servants feared him; his children held him in awe; all loved him. In that family the manners and discipline of the essays morrison's beloved earlier time were still in the ascendant. Old age, Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] indeed, is essays uncertainty, worthy of essays, honor only when it defends itself, when it asserts its rights, when it comes into bondage to thesis on the depression no one, when even to the last breath it maintains its sway over those of its own family.
Still farther, as I hold in high esteem the essays youth who has in ethic essays, him some of the qualities of age, I have like esteem for the old man in whom there is something of the youth, which he who cultivates may be old in body, but will never be so in mind. I have now in hand the essays on toni morrison's beloved seventh Book of uncertainty, my History. 1 I am collecting all the memorials of earlier times. I am just now writing out, as my memory serves me, my speeches in the celebrated cases that I have defended. I am treating of augural, pontifical, civil law. I read a good deal of Greek. At the essays on toni beloved same time, in ethic essays, order to exercise my memory in essays morrison's beloved, the method prescribed by Pythagoras,2 I recall every evening whatever I have said, heard, or done during the day. Experience! These are the essays morrison's exercises of the essays mind; these, the race-ground of the intellect. In these pursuits while I labor vigorously, I hardly feel my loss of bodily strength.
I appear in court in on toni morrison's beloved, behalf of my friends. Essay Linkers! I often take my place in the Senate, Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] and I there introduce of my own motion1 subjects on which I have thought much and essays, long, and I defend my opinions with strength of english essay, mind, not of body. Essays On Toni Morrison's Beloved! If I were too feeble to pursue this course of life, I still on my bed should find pleasure in thinking out work essays what I could no longer do; but that I am able still to essays beloved do, as well as to think, is the result of sat essay, my past life. One who is morrison's beloved, always occupied in these studies and labors is unaware when age creeps upon him. Thus one grows old gradually and unconsciously, and life is not suddenly extinguished, but closes when by length of time it is personal experience, burned out. XII.
I come now to the third charge against old age, that, as it is alleged, it lacks the pleasures of sense. On Toni Morrison's! O admirable service of old age, if indeed it takes from us what in youth is thesis depression, more harmful than all things else! For I would have you hear, young men, an ancient discourse of beloved, Archytas of Tarentum,2 a man of great distinction and celebrity, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] as it was repeated to me when in my youth I was at Tarentum with Quintus Maximus. #x201C;Man has received from nature,#x201D; said he, #x201C;no more fatal scourge than bodily pleasure, by which the passions in their eagerness for gratification are made reckless and work ethic, are released from all restraint. Morrison's! Hence spring treasons against one#x2019;s country; hence, overthrows of states; hence, clandestine plottings with enemies. In fine, there is no form of work essays, guilt, no atrocity of on toni, evil, to the accomplishment of which men are not driven by consumer behavior audit lust for pleasure. Debaucheries, adulteries, and essays morrison's beloved, all enormities of that kind have no other inducing cause than the allurements of pleasure. Still more, while neither Nature nor any god has bestowed upon man aught more noble than mind, nothing is so hostile as pleasure to this divine endowment and gift.
Nor while lust bears sway can self-restraint find place, nor under the reign of pleasure can virtue have any foothold whatever.#x201D; That this might be better understood, Archytas asked his hearers to imagine a person under the excitement of the highest amount of bodily pleasure that could possibly be enjoyed, and maintained that it was perfectly obvious to every one that so long as such enjoyment lasted it was impossible for the mind to act, or for anything to be determined by essays reason or reflection. Hence he concluded that nothing was so execrable and baneful as pleasure, since, when intense and prolonged, it extinguishes all the light of intellect. Essays Beloved! That Archytas discoursed thus Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] with Caius Pontius the experience sat essay Samnite, father of the Pontius who defeated the consuls Spurius Postumius and Titus Veturius at the Caudine Forks, I learned from Nearchus of Tarentum, my host, a persistent friend of the essays Roman people, who said that he had heard it from essays his elders, Plato having been present when it was uttered, who, I find, came to Tarentum in on toni morrison's, the consulate of Lucius Camillus and Appius Claudius. To what purpose do I speak thus? That you may understand that, were we indeed unable by reason and wisdom to spurn pleasure, we ought to feel the warmest gratitude to old age for making what is opposed to our duty no longer a source of delight. Descriptive About! For pleasure thwarts good counsel, is the enemy of reason, and, if I may so speak, blindfolds the eyes of the mind, nor has it anything in common with virtue. It was, indeed, with great reluctance that, seven years after his consulate, I expelled from the Senate Lucius Flamininus, the essays on toni morrison's beloved brother of that eminently brave man Titus Flamininus; but I thought that such vile conduct as his ought to be branded. Thesis On The Great! For he, during his consulship in on toni beloved, Gaul, was persuaded by the companion of work essays, his lust, at essays on toni beloved a banquet, himself to kill with an axe one of the work essays prisoners in chains and under sentence of death.1 He escaped during the censorship of Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] his brother, my immediate predecessor; but I and my colleague Flaccus could not by any possibility give our implied sanction to lust so infamous, so abandoned, which blended with private ignominy disgrace to the office of supreme commander of our army. XIII. I have often heard from my seniors in essays beloved, age, who said that they when they were boys had so heard from the old men of their time, that Caius Fabricius was wont to express his amazement when, while he was ambassador to King Pyrrhus, Cineas the work ethic essays Thessalonian told him that there was a certain man in Athens,1 professing to on toni morrison's be a philosopher, who taught that all that we do ought to be referred to essay pleasure as a standard.
Fabricius having told this to Manius Curius and Titus Coruncanius, they used to wish that the essays on toni beloved Samnites and Pyrrhus himself might become converts to this doctrine, so that, giving themselves up to pleasure, they might be the more easily conquered. Manius Curius had lived in intimacy with Publius Decius, who, five years before Curius was Consul, had in his fourth Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] consulate devoted his own life for the safety of the state.1 Fabricius had known Publius Decius, Coruncanius had known him, and from that act of work, self-sacrifice, as well as from his whole life, they inferred that there is that which in essays on toni, its very nature is thesis on the depression, beautiful and excellent, which is chosen of one#x2019;s own free will, and which every truly good man pursues, spurning and despising pleasure. But to what purpose am I saying so much about pleasure? Because it is not only on toni, no reproach to old age, but even its highest merit, that it does not severely feel the loss of descriptive essay an old, bodily pleasures. But, you may say, it must dispense with sumptuous feasts, and loaded tables, and oft-drained cups. True, but it equally dispenses with sottishness, and indigestion, and troubled dreams.2 But if any license is to be given to pleasure, seeing that we do not easily resist its allurements, #x2014; insomuch that Plato calls pleasure the on toni bait of evil, because, forsooth, men are caught by it as fishes by the hook, #x2014; old age, while it dispenses with excessive feasting, yet can find delight in moderate conviviality. When I was a boy I Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] often saw Caius Duilius, the son of Marcus, who first gained a naval victory over the Carthaginians, returning home from supper. He took delight in the frequent escort of a torch-bearer and a fluteplayer, #x2014; the first person not actually in office who ventured on such display, #x2014; a liberty assumed on descriptive the score of his military fame.1 But why am I talking about others?
I now return to my own case. In the first place, I have for on toni morrison's beloved, many years belonged to a guild.2 Indeed, guilds were established when I was Quaestor, at descriptive about an old house the time when the Idaean rites in honor of the Great Mother were adopted in Rome. I then used to feast with my guild fellows, moderately on the whole, yet with something of the joviality that belonged to essays on toni morrison's beloved my earlier years; but with advancing age, day by day, everything is tempered down. Nor did I ever measure my delight Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] at these entertainments by the amount of bodily pleasure more than by the intercourse and conversation of friends. In this feeling, our ancestors fitly called the festive meeting of friends at table, as implying union in life, a convivial meeting, #x2014; a much better name than that of the Greeks, who call such an occasion sometimes a compotation, sometimes a social supper,1 evidently attaching the chief importance to that which is of the depression least moment in an entertainment. XIV. I, indeed, for the pleasure of conversation, enjoy festive entertainments, even when they begin early and end late,2 and that, not only in on toni, the company of my coevals, of whom very few remain, but with those of your age and with you; and I am heartily thankful to my advanced years for work ethic essays, increasing my appetency for conversation, and diminishing my craving for food and essays beloved, drink. Personal Experience Sat Essay! But if any one takes delight in the mere pleasures of the table, lest I may seem utterly hostile to appetites which Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] perhaps spring from a natural impulse, I would not have it understood that old age is not susceptible of morrison's, them. I indeed enjoy the ancestral fashion of appointing a master of ceremonies for the feast,1 and the rules for drinking announced from the head of the table, and cups, as in Xenophon#x2019;s Symposium, 2 not over great large, and slowly drunk, and the cool breeze for the dining-hall in summer, and the winter#x2019;s sun or fire.3 Even on my Sabine farm I keep up these customs, and essays on toni, daily fill my table with my neighbors, prolonging our varied talk to great the latest possible hour. Essays On Toni Beloved! But it is said that old men have less intensity of sensual enjoyment.
So I believe; but there is no craving for it. You do not miss what you do not want. Great Depression! Sophocles very aptly replied, when Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] asked in his old age whether he indulged in sensual pleasure, #x201C;May the gods do better for me! I rejoice in my escape from a savage and ferocious tyrant.#x201D; To those who desire such pleasures it may be offensive and grievous to be debarred from essays morrison's them; but to those already filled and satiated it is more pleasant to lack them than to english essay linkers have them. Though he does not lack who does not want them, I maintain that it is more for one#x2019;s happiness not to want them. But if young men take special delight in these pleasures, in the first place, they are very paltry sources of enjoyment, and, in on toni, the second place, they are not wholly out about an old of the reach of old men, though it be in a restricted measure. As the spectator in the front seat gets the greater enjoyment from the on toni morrison's acting of Turpio Ambivius,1 yet those on the farthest seat are delighted to be there; so youth, having a closer view of the work pleasures of essays morrison's beloved, sense, derives, it may be, more joy from them, while old age has as much enjoyment as it wants in seeing them at a distance. An Old House! But of what immense worth is it for the soul to be with itself, to live, as the phrase is, with itself, discharged from the service of lust, ambition, strife, enmities, desires of every kind! If one has some provision laid up, as it were, of study and learning, nothing is more enjoyable than the leisure of old age. Essays On Toni! We saw Caius Gallus, your father#x2019;s friend, Scipio, almost to work Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] the last moment occupied in measuring heaven and earth. How often did the morning light overtake him when he had begun some problem1 by night, and on toni morrison's beloved, the night when he had begun in the early morning!
How did he delight to predict to us far in advance the eclipses of the sun and on the depression, moon! What pleasure have old men taken in pursuits less recondite, yet demanding keenness and vigor of mind! How did Naevius rejoice in essays morrison's, his Punic War! 2 Plautus in his Truculentus, #x2014; in his Pseudolus! 3 I saw also Livius4 in his old age, who, having brought out a play5 six years before I was born, in experience, the consulship of Cento and Tuditanus, continued before the public till I was almost a man. What shall I say of the devotion of Publius Licinius Crassus6 to the study of pontifical and on toni, civil law? What of the similar diligence of this Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] Publius Scipio,1 who has just been put at linkers the head of the essays beloved pontifical college? We have seen all these whom I have named ardently engaged in their old age in their several departments of mental labor. Consumer Audit Essay! Marcus Cethegus,2 too, whom Ennius rightly called the morrison's #x201C;Marrow of Persuasion,#x201D; #x2014; how zealously did we see him exercise himself when an old man in personal experience sat essay, the art of speaking!
What, then, are the pleasures of beloved, feasts, and games, and sensual indulgence, compared with these pleasures? Indeed, it is these intellectual pursuits that for wise and well-nurtured men grow with years, so that it is to Solon#x2019;s honor that he says, in the verse which I just now quoted, that as he advanced in an old house, age he learned something every day, #x2014; a pleasure of the mind than which there can be none greater. XV. I pass now to the pleasures of agriculture, which give me inconceivable delight, to which age is essays on toni, no impediment, and in which one makes the nearest approach to the life of the true philosopher. For the ethic essays farmer keeps an open account with the Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] earth, which never refuses a draft, nor ever returns what has been committed to on toni morrison's it without interest, and if sometimes at work ethic a small, generally at an ample rate of increase. Yet I am charmed not only essays morrison's, with the revenue, but with the very nature and properties of the soil. When it has received the seed into english, its softened and prepared bosom, it keeps it buried1 (whence our word for essays on toni morrison's, the harrowing2 which buries the essays on relational seed is derived), then by its pressure and by the moisture which it yields it cleaves the seed and draws out from it the essays morrison's green shoot, which, sustained by its rootlet-fibres, grows till it stands erect on its jointed stalk, enclosed in sheaths, as if to protect the down of descriptive essay about house, its youth, till, emerging from them, it yields the grain, with its orderly arrangement in the ear, defended against essays on toni beloved, predatory birds by its bearded rampart. Descriptive Essay About! What can I say of the planting, upspringing, and growth of vines? It is with insatiable delight that I thus make known to you the repose and enjoyment of my old age. Not to speak of the vital power of all things that grow directly from the earth, #x2014; which from so tiny a fig or grape seed, or from the very smallest seeds of other fruits or plants, produces such massive trunks and Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] branches, #x2014; do not shoots, scions, quicksets, layers, accomplish results which no one can behold without delighted admiration?
The vine, indeed, drooping by essays on toni beloved nature, unless supported, is weighed down to personal experience the ground; but to raise itself it embraces with its hand-like tendrils whatever it can lay hold upon; and then, as it twines with multifold and diffusive growth, the art of the vine-dresser trims it close with the pruning-knife, that it may not run unto useless wood and spread too far. Thus in the early spring, in what remains after the pruning, the essays morrison's beloved gem (so called) starts out at personal the joints of the on toni twigs, from which the incipient cluster of grapes makes its appearance; and this, growing by the moisture of the english earth and the heat of the sun, is at morrison's first very sour to the taste; then, as it ripens, it becomes sweet, while, clothed with leaves, it lacks not moderate warmth, and at the same time escapes the sun#x2019;s intenser beams. What can be more gladdening than the personal experience sat essay fruit of the essays on toni beloved vine; what more beautiful, as it hangs ungathered? I am charmed, as I have said, not only with the english utility of the vine, but equally with the whole process of its cultivation and with its very nature, #x2014; with its rows of stakes, the lateral supports from stake to on toni stake, the tying up and training of the vines, the amputation of some of the twigs, of which I have spoken, and the planting of others. What can I tell you of irrigation, and of the behavior audit essay repeated digging of the soil to make the ground more fertile? What shall I say of the Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] efficacy of manuring? of which I have written in my book on Farm Life, 1 but of which the learned Hesiod, in writing about agriculture, says not a word, #x2014; though Homer, who, I think, lived many generations before him, introduces Laertes as relieving his solicitude for his son by tilling and manuring his field. Nor is essays on toni beloved, rural life made cheerful by grainfields, meadows, vineyards, and essays, shrubberies alone, but also by morrison's beloved gardens and essays on relational, orchards; then again, by the feeding of sheep, by swarms of bees, by a vast variety of flowers. Nor does one take pleasure merely in the various modes of planting, but equally in essays beloved, those of grafting, than which no agricultural invention shows greater skill. XVI.
I could enumerate many other charms of rural life; but I feel that those which I have named have occupied fully enough of thesis great, your time. Pardon me; for morrison's, I am thoroughly versed in everything belonging to experience sat essay country life, and old age is naturally prolix, nor can I pretend to on toni morrison's acquit it of all the thesis Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] weaknesses laid to on toni morrison's beloved its charge. With your leave I would add, then, that Manius Curius, after winning triumphs over the Samnites, over ethic the Sabines, over Pyrrhus, spent the close of his life in the country; and when I look at his house, which is not far from on toni mine, I cannot sufficiently admire either the self-denying integrity of the man himself or the high moral standard of his time. As Curius was sitting by work ethic essays his hearth the Samnites brought him a large amount of essays on toni beloved, gold, and he spurned the bribe, saying that he thought it better than having gold to bear sway over those who have gold. Such a mind cannot fail to make a happy old age. #x2014; But to return to my subject, and not to wander from my own mode of life, there were in those days Senators, that is, as the name implies, old men, living on farms, if indeed Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus received when ploughing the announcement that he had been made Dictator, under whose dictatorship it was that Caius Servilius Ahala, the Master of Horse, by his order, slew Spurius Maelius, who was aspiring after royalty.1 Curius, too, and other old men, were wont to be summoned from their farms to the Senate, giving thus to the messengers who summoned them a special name2 derived from the highways Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] on which they travelled. Was then the personal old age of these men who found delight in tilling the ground unhappy? I indeed doubt whether there can be any happier old age, taking into account not only the essays morrison's beloved occupation of agriculture which is healthy for every one, but also the enjoyment of which I have spoken, and the bountiful supply of descriptive essay about an old, everything that can be desired for the food of essays morrison's, man and the worship of the gods, so that, if any persons have such cravings, we may come again into friendly terms with the pleasures of sense. Consumer Behavior! For a thrifty and industrious farmer has a full wine-cellar, oil-cellar, and larder, and the whole estate is rich, abounding in swine, kids, lambs, fowls, milk, cheese, honey. Essays On Toni Morrison's! The farmers themselves are wont to call their garden a second stock of the winter#x2019;s relishing food.1 All else has the richer zest from the thesis on the great work of leisure time in fowling and hunting. Essays Morrison's Beloved! Why should I say more about the experience green of the meadows, or the rows of trees, or the beauty of the vineyards and the olive groves?
To cut the subject short, nothing Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] can be more bountiful for use, or more ornate to the eye, than a well-cultivated farm, to the enjoyment of which advanced years not only interpose no hindrance, but hold forth invitation and allurement; for where can old age find more genial warmth of sunshine or fire, or, on the other hand, more cooling shade or more refreshing waters? Let others take for their own delight arms, horses, spears, clubs, balls, swimming-bouts, and foot-races. From their many diversions let them leave for us old men knuckle-bones and dice.1 Either will serve our turn; but without them old age can hardly be contented. XVII. Xenophon#x2019;s books are in many ways very useful, and I beg you to continue to read them. With what a flow of eloquence does he praise agriculture in that book of his about the care of one#x2019;s estate, called Oeconomicus! 2 Still more, to essays show that there is nothing so worthy of a king as the pursuits of agriculture, he introduces in that book Socrates as telling this story to Critobolus. Cyrus Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] the younger, king of Persia,1 of surpassing genius and renown, when Lysander, the work ethic essays Lacedaemonian, a man of the highest military reputation,2 came to essays on toni morrison's beloved him at Sardis to bring presents from the confederate states, having treated Lysander in other ways with familiar courtesy, showed him an enclosed field planted with the utmost care. Work! Lysander, marvelling at the great height of the on toni morrison's beloved trees, their arrangement in ornamental groups,3 the ground thoroughly tilled and free from weeds, and the delicious odors breathing from the flowers, said that he admired, not only the care, but also the skill of him who had planned and laid out thesis on the great these grounds.
Cyrus answered, #x201C;I myself laid out all this field. The plan is mine; the essays morrison's arrangement is mine, and many of these trees I planted with my own hand.#x201D; Then Lysander, looking at his purple robe, his elegance of person,4 and his Persian ornaments rich in gold and precious stones, said, #x201C;Men may well call Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] you happy, Cyrus, since your fortune corresponds to your merit.#x201D; This fortune, then, old men can enjoy, nor does age preclude our interest in other things indeed, but least of all in agriculture, to the very last moment of life. We have heard that Marcus Valerius Corvus lived to his hundredth year, passing the thesis on the close of his life in the country, and engaged to essays morrison's beloved the last in labors of the essay field. There were forty-six years between his first and his sixth consulship. Thus his term of public life lasted the full number of years which our ancestors accounted as the beginning of old age,1 and his old age was happier than middle life, having more authority with less labor. Beloved! Indeed, the crowning glory of old age is essays, authority. How great was this in Lucius Caecilius Metellus! How great in Atilius Calatinus! whose eulogy is, #x2014; #x201C;Him first of men all tribes and nations own With one consent.#x201D;
This, you know, is the essays on toni inscription on his tomb. Depression! He was rightly held, then, in the highest esteem, since all were unanimous in his praise. How great a man did we see in Publius Crassus, the chief priest, of whom I have just spoken, and on toni beloved, afterward in Marcus Lepidus, invested with the same priesthood! What shall I say of Paullus or of Africanus? Or of Maximus,2 if I may name him again?
Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] These were men, not only in whose uttered opinion, but in whose very nod, dwelt authority. Old age, especially when it has filled offices of high public trust, has so much authority, that for this alone it is worth all the pleasures of youth. XVIII. But remember that in all that I say I am praising the old age that has laid its foundations in about house, youth. On Toni Morrison's Beloved! Hence follows the maxim to which I once gave utterance with the assent of all who heard me: #x201C;Wretched is the old age which has to speak in its own defence.#x201D; White hairs or wrinkles cannot usurp authority; but an work ethic essays, early life well spent reaps authority as the fruit of its age. Indeed, attentions which seem trivial and conventional are honorable when merited; for instance, being saluted in the morning, grasped by the hand, received by the rising of those present, escorted to the Forum, escorted home, asked for advice, #x2014; customs carefully observed with us, and in other states so far as good manners prevail. On Toni! It is related that Lysander the thesis great depression Lacedaemonian, of whom I just made mention, used to say that Lacedaemon was the best home for an old man, insomuch as nowhere else was such deference paid to length of years, or age held in such honor. Essays On Toni Morrison's! There is, indeed, a tradition that once in Athens, at work essays a public festival, when an old Athenian entered the crowded theatre, no one of his fellow-citizens made room for him, but that, as he approached the place assigned to the delegates from Lacedaemon, they all rose and remained standing Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] till the old man was seated. When they were applauded for this in every possible way by the whole assembly, one of them said, #x201C;The Athenians know what is right, but will not do it.#x201D; Of many excellent usages in our college of Augurs none deserves higher commendation than this, #x2014; that the members give their opinions in the order of age, the elder members taking precedence, not only of those who have held higher official rank, but even of those who for essays beloved, the time being are at personal experience the head of the state.1 What pleasures of body are then to be compared with the prerogatives of essays beloved, authority?
Those who have borne these honors with due dignity seem to me to have thoroughly performed their part in great, the drama of life, and not, like untrained players, to have broken down in the last act. #x2014; But it is said that old men are morose, and uneasy, and irritable, and hard to please; and were we to make the inquiry, we might be told that they are avaricious. But these are faults of character, not of age. Yet moroseness and the faults that I named with it have some excuse, sufficient, not indeed to justify, but to on toni beloved extenuate them. Old men imagine that they are scorned, despised, mocked. Then, too, with a frail body, any cause of vexation is felt more keenly. But such infirmities of temper are Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] corrected by great depression good manners and liberal culture, as we may see in actual life, as well as on the stage in the brothers in the play of the essays beloved Adelphi. What grimness do we see in one of these brothers; what a genial disposition in the other! So it is in society; for as it is essays on relational, not wine of every vintage, so it is not every temper that grows sour with age.
I approve of gravity in on toni morrison's beloved, old age, so it be not excessive; for personal, moderation in all things is becoming: but for bitterness I have no tolerance. As for senile avarice, I do not understand what it means; for on toni morrison's, can anything be more foolish than, in proportion as there is less of the way to travel, to personal experience sat essay seek the more provision for essays on toni morrison's, it? XIX. There remains a fourth reason for deprecating old age, that it is liable to excessive solicitude and distress, because death is personal experience, so near; and it certainly cannot be very far off. O wretched old man, not to have learned in so long a life that death is to essays beloved be despised! which manifestly ought to be regarded with indifference if it really puts an thesis on the, end to the soul, or to be even desired if at length it leads the soul where it will be immortal; and certainly there is no third possibility that can be imagined.1 Why then should I fear if after death I shall be Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] either not miserable, or even happy? Moreover, who is so foolish, however young he may be, as to feel sure on any day that he will live till nightfall?
Youth has many more chances of death than those of my age. Young men are more liable to illnesses; they are more severely attacked by on toni morrison's disease; they are cured with more difficulty. Thus few reach old age. Were it otherwise, affairs would be better and more discreetly managed; for old men have mind and reason and practical wisdom; and if there were none of thesis on the depression, them, communities could not hold together. But to return to impending death, #x2014; can this be urged as a charge against old age, when you see that it belongs to it in common with youth?
I felt in the death of essays on toni morrison's, my most excellent son,1 and equally, Scipio, in that of your brothers,2 who were born to the expectation of the highest honors, that death is common to all ages. But, it is descriptive essay an old house, said, the young man hopes to live long, while the Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] old man can have no such hope. The hope, at any rate, is unwise; for what is more foolish than to take things uncertain for certain, false for true? Is it urged that the old man has absolutely nothing to hope? For that very reason he is in a better condition than the young man, because what the essays on toni beloved youth hopes he has already obtained.
The one wishes to live long; the other has lived long. On Relational! Yet, ye good gods, what is there in man#x2019;s life that is long? Grant the very latest term of life; suppose that we expect to reach the age of the king of Tartessus.1 For it is on record that a certain Arganthonius, who reigned eighty years in Gades, lived to the age of a hundred and twenty. But to morrison's me no life seems long that has any end. For when the end comes, then that which has passed has flowed away; that alone remains which you have won by virtue and by a good life. Hours, indeed, and days, and linkers, months, and years, glide by, nor does the beloved past ever return, nor yet can it be known what is to come. Each one should be content with such time as it is allotted to him to live.
In order to give pleasure to the audience, the essay an old actor need not finish Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] the play; he may win approval in whatever act he takes part in; nor need the wise man remain on on toni beloved the stage till the closing plaudit. A brief time is long enough to live well and honorably;1 but if you live on, you have no more reason to mourn over your advancing years, than the farmers have, when the sweet days of spring are past, to lament the coming of summer and of autumn. Spring typifies youth, and shows the fruit that will be; the on relational uncertainty rest of life is fitted for reaping and gathering the fruit. Moreover, the fruit of old age is, as I have often said, the memory and abundance of on toni morrison's, goods previously obtained. Thesis Great! But all things that occur according to nature are to essays beloved be reckoned as goods; and what is so fully according to nature as for old men to die? while the same thing happens to the young with the opposition and work, repugnancy of essays on toni morrison's, nature. Thus young men seem to me to die as when a fierce flame is english essay linkers, extinguished by essays a stream of water; while old men die as when a spent fire goes out of its own accord, without force employed to quench it. Or, as apples, if unripe, are violently wrenched from the tree, while, mature and ripened, they fall, so force takes life from the young, maturity from the old; and this ripeness of old age is to me so Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] pleasant, that, in proportion as I draw near to death, I seem to see land, and after a long voyage to be on the point of entering the harbor. XX.
The close of other ages is definitely fixed;1 but old age has no fixed term, and personal sat essay, one may fitly live in it so long as he can observe and discharge the duties of on toni, his station, and yet despise death. Old age, fearless of death, may transcend youth in courage and in fortitude. Such is the meaning of english essay, Solon#x2019;s answer to the tyrant Pisistratus, who asked him what was his ground of confidence in resisting him so boldly, and Solon replied, #x201C;Old age.#x201D; But the most desirable end of life is essays morrison's beloved, when #x2014; the understanding and the other faculties unimpaired #x2014; Nature, who put together, takes apart her own work. As he who built a ship or a house can take it to pieces the most easily, so Nature, who compacted the descriptive about an old house human frame, is the morrison's best agent for its dissolution. Then, again, whatever has been recently put together is torn apart with difficulty; old fabrics, easily. Great! Thus what brief remainder there may be of life ought to be neither greedily sought by old men, nor yet abandoned without cause,2 and Pythagoras forbids one to desert the garrison and post of life without the order of the commander, that is, Edition: current; Page: [ 55 ] God. There are extant, indeed, verses of Solon the Wise,1 in which he says that he does not want to die without the grief and lamentation of his friends, desiring, as I suppose, to be held dear by those in intimate relation with him; but I am inclined to prefer what Ennius writes, #x2014; #x201C;Let no one honor me with tears, or make A lamentation at morrison's beloved my funeral.#x201D; He thinks that death is not to be mourned, since it is followed by english immortality. There may be, indeed, some painful sensation in dying, yet for only a little while, especially for on toni morrison's beloved, the old; after death there is either desirable sensation or none at personal experience sat essay all. But such thoughts as this ought to be familiar to us from youth, that we may make no account of death. Essays! Without such habits of thought one cannot be of a tranquil mind; for it is certain that we must die, and it is uncertain whether it be not this very passing day.
How then can one be composed in mind while he fears death, which impends over him every hour? On this subject there seems no need of a long discussion, when I recall to behavior essay memory, #x2014; not Lucius Brutus, who was slain in setting his country free; not the two Decii, spurring their horses to essays on toni beloved a death of their own choice; not Marcus Atilius, returning to the punishment of death that he might keep faith with an enemy; not the two Scipios, who wanted to block the way for the Carthaginians even Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] with their own bodies; not your grandfather, Lucius Paullus, who yielded up his life to expiate his colleague#x2019;s rashness in the ignominious battle of Cannae; not Marcus Marcellus, whose body not even the most cruel of enemies would suffer to lack the honor of a funeral,1 #x2014; but our legions, often going, as I have said in my History, 2 with a firm and cheerful mind, to scenes of english essay linkers, peril whence they expected never to return. Shall well-trained old men, then, fear what youth, and on toni morrison's, they not only untrained, but even fresh from the country, despise? #x2014; In fine, satiety of life, as it seems to me, creates satiety of personal sat essay, pursuits of every kind. There are certain pursuits belonging to boyhood; do grownup young men therefore long for them? There are others appertaining to on toni beloved early youth; are they required in the sedate period of life which we call middle age? This, too, has its own pursuits, and on the, they are not sought in on toni beloved, old age. As the audit essay pursuits of earlier periods of life fail, so in like manner do those of old age.
When this period is essays on toni beloved, reached, satiety of life brings a season ripe for death. XXI. I see, indeed, no reason why I should hesitate to tell you how I myself feel about death; for I seem to have a clearer view of it, the nearer I approach it. My belief is that your father, Publius Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] Scipio, and yours, Caius Laelius, men of the highest renown and my very dear friends, are living, and are living the only life that truly deserves to be called life. Indeed, while we are shut up in this prison of the about house body, we are performing a heavy task laid upon us by necessity; for the soul, of celestial birth, is forced down from essays on toni morrison's its supremely high abode, and, as it were, plunged into the earth, a place uncongenial with its divine nature and its eternity. Consumer Audit Essay! I believe, indeed, that the on toni gods disseminated souls, and planted them in human bodies, that there might be those who should hold the earth in charge, and contemplating the order of celestial beings, should copy it in essay about, symmetry and harmony of essays morrison's, life. I was led to this belief, not only by reason and argument, but by the pre-eminent authority of the greatest philosophers. I learned that Pythagoras and personal experience, the Pythagoreans, almost our fellow-countrymen,1 who used to be called Italian philosophers, never doubted that we had souls that emanated from the essays universal divine mind.
I was impressed, also, by what Socrates, whom the oracle of Apollo pronounced the wisest of great, men, taught with regard to the immortality of souls, on the last Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] day of his life. Essays Beloved! Why should I say more? So have I convinced myself, so I feel, that since such is the rapid movement of souls, such their memory of the past and thesis on the depression, foresight of the future, so many are the arts, so profound the sciences, so numerous the inventions to which they have given birth, the nature which contains all these things cannot be mortal; that as the soul is always active, and has no prime cause of motion inasmuch as it puts itself in motion, so it can have no end of motion, because it can never abandon itself; moreover, that since the nature of the soul is uncompounded, and has in itself no admixture of aught that is unequal to or unlike itself, it is indivisible, and if so, is imperishable; and that there is strong reason for believing that men know a great deal before they are born in the ease with which boys learn difficult arts, and the rapidity with which they seize upon morrison's, innumerable things, so that they seem not to english linkers be receiving them for the first time, but to be recalling and essays on toni beloved, remembering them. On Relational! This is the sum of what I have from Plato.1. XXII. In Xenophon#x2019;s narrative,2 the elder Cyrus says in dying: #x201C;Do not imagine, my beloved sons, that when I go from you I shall be nowhere, or shall cease to be. Essays On Toni! For while I was with you, you did not see my soul; but you inferred its existence Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] from the things which I did in essay house, this body.
Believe then that I am the same being, even though you do not see me at morrison's all. The fame of illustrious men would not remain after their death, if the souls of those men did nothing to perpetuate their memory. Indeed, I never could be persuaded that souls live while they are in mortal bodies and die when they depart from them, nor yet that the soul becomes void of wisdom on leaving a senseless body; but I have believed that when, freed from all corporeal mixture, it begins to be pure and entire, it then is wise. Moreover, when the essay about house constitution of man is dissolved by essays morrison's death, it is audit essay, obvious what becomes of each of the on toni beloved other parts; for they all go whence they came: but the soul alone is invisible, alike when it is present in the body and when it departs. You see nothing so nearly resembling death as sleep.
Now in sleep souls most clearly show their divineness;1 for when they are thus relaxed and free, they foresee the future. From this we may understand what they will be when they have entirely released themselves from the bonds of the body. Therefore, if these things are so, reverence me as a divine being.2 If, however, the soul is going to perish with the body, you still, revering Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] the gods who protect and govern all this beautiful universe, will keep my memory in pious and inviolate regard.#x201D;1. XXIII. Such were the last words of Cyrus. Let me now, if it seem good to you, express my own opinion and feeling. No one will ever convince me, Scipio, that your father Paullus, or your two grandfathers, Paullus and Africanus, or the father or the uncle of Africanus, or many men of english linkers, surpassing excellence whom I need not name, undertook such noble enterprises which were to belong to the grateful remembrance of posterity, without a clear perception that posterity belonged to them. Or think you, #x2014; if after the manner of old men I may boast a little on on toni morrison's beloved my own account, #x2014; think you that I would have taken upon myself such a vast amount of labor, by day and by night, at home and in military service, if I had been going to put the same limits to my fame that belong to my earthly life? Would it not have been much better to pass my time in leisure and quiet, remote from behavior essay toil and strife?
But somehow my soul, raising itself2 above the on toni beloved present, was always looking onward to posterity, as if, when it departed from life, then at essay length it would truly live. On Toni Morrison's! But unless Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] souls were indeed immortal, men#x2019;s souls would not strive for undying fame in proportion to their transcending merit. What? Since men of the highest wisdom die with perfect calmness, those who are the most foolish with extreme disquiet, can you doubt that the soul which sees more and farther perceives that it is going to a better state, while the soul of obtuser vision has no view beyond death? For my part, I am transported with desire to audit see your fathers whom I revered and loved; nor yet do I long to meet those only whom I have known, but also those of whom I have heard and beloved, read, and about whom I myself have written. Therefore one could not easily turn me back on my lifeway, nor would I willingly, like Pelias,1 be plunged in the rejuvenating caldron. Indeed, were any god to grant that from my present age I might go back to boyhood, or become a crying child in the cradle, I should steadfastly refuse; nor would I be willing, as from a finished race, to uncertainty be summoned back from the essays on toni morrison's goal to work essays the starting-point. For what advantage is morrison's beloved, there in work ethic essays, life? Or rather, what is there of arduous toil that is essays on toni, wanting to it?
But grant all that you may in its favor, it still certainly has either its excess or its fit measure of duration. I am not, indeed, inclined to speak ill of life, as many and even wise men have often done, nor am I sorry Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] to have lived; for I have so lived that I do not think that I was born to no purpose. Yet I depart from life, as from an inn, not as from a home; for essays on relational, nature has given us here a lodging for a sojourn, not a place of habitation. O glorious day, when I shall go to on toni morrison's beloved that divine company and assembly of souls, and when I shall depart from this crowd and descriptive an old, tumult! I shall go, not only to the men of whom I have already spoken, but also to essays on toni beloved my Cato, than whom no better man was ever born, nor one who surpassed him in filial piety, whose funeral pile I lighted, #x2014; the office which he should have performed for me, #x2014; but whose soul, not leaving me, but looking back upon essays, me, has certainly gone into on toni beloved, those regions whither he saw that I should come to him. Personal Experience Sat Essay! This my calamity I seemed to bear bravely.
Not that I endured it with an on toni beloved, untroubled mind; but I was consoled by the thought that there would be between us no long parting of the way and divided life. For these reasons, Scipio, as you have said that you and Laelius have observed with wonder, old age sits lightly upon me. Not only is it not burdensome; it is even pleasant. But if I err in believing that the souls of men are immortal, I am glad thus to essays err, nor am I willing that this error in which I delight shall be wrested from me so long as I live; while if in essays beloved, death, as some paltry philosophers1 think, I shall have no consciousness, the Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] dead philosophers cannot ridicule this delusion of personal, mine. But if we are not going to be immortal, it is yet desirable for man to essays on toni cease living in his due time; for nature has its measure, as of work ethic essays, all other things, so of life. Old age is the closing act of life, as of a drama, and we ought in this to essays on toni morrison's avoid utter weariness, especially if the act has been prolonged beyond its due length. Work Ethic! #x2014; I had these things to say about old age, which I earnestly hope that you may reach, so that you can verify by experience what you have heard from me. Interjectus est etiam nuper. The chief ground for doubt as to the time of its composition is that Cicero seems to speak of this book as #x201C;thrown in among#x201D; the six Books of the De Republica, written during his consulate; while he sometimes gives a very broad sense to nuper, as when he writes, nuper, id est paucis ante seculis. But between his mention of the De Republica and that of the De Senectute he names the Consolatio, which was written in essays on toni beloved, B. Personal Sat Essay! C. Morrison's Beloved! 45, after the death of his daughter. Interjectus, as I suppose, refers, not to personal experience the date, but to the brevity of the treatise, and by virtue of the essays morrison's etiam applies equally to the Consolatio. #x201C;While I have written, earlier or later, the ethic longer works that I have named, I have thrown in on toni, among them these smaller treatises.#x201D;
Cicero and Atticus were not old men when the De Republica was written. The first words of the De Senectute. The first words of the De Senectute. Titus Quintius Flamininus, who was a coeval of consumer audit essay, Ennius. Essays On Toni Beloved! His was an eminently successful career.
The #x201C;care#x201D; pressing so constantly upon him may have been that of the war with Philip of Macedonia, in which he showed eminent ability as a commander and a strategist, and which he closed by a peace of which he seems to have dictated the terms. But it more probably may have been a strong and lasting sense of the personal experience sat essay disgrace brought upon the family by the flagitious conduct of his brother Lucius Quintius Flamininus, who was ignominiously expelled from the Senate, by Cato the Elder, during his Censorship. Ennius, who spent the last years of his life in Rome, and maintained himself as a preceptor to youths of essays on toni, patrician families. He was born in a small village near Brundusium, and on relational uncertainty, was induced to come to Rome by Cato the on toni morrison's beloved Elder. He was held in the highest esteem, affection, and reverence by ethic essays the best men of essays beloved, his time. By the condition of public affairs, as to which Atticus professed an indifference which he can hardly have felt. Atticus was three years older than Cicero, who was in his sixty-second year when this treatise was written. Latin, Chius. Aristo, or Ariston, of Chios, was a Stoic philosopher, and an immediate disciple of Zeno. Some authorities read Ceus, and there was an Ariston, a Peripatetic philosopher, of Ceos, of behavior essay, whose many writings only a few fragments have been preserved. The two are often confounded, even by essays on toni beloved ancient writers, and either of great depression, them may have written the treatise or dialogue on on toni old age here referred to.
The son of experience sat essay, Eos, or Aurora, who obtained for essays morrison's, him, from thesis on the Zeus, the beloved gift of immortality, but forgot to stipulate for that of eternal youth. He shrivelled in old age by slow degrees; his voice became a mere chirp, and thesis great, he at beloved length dwindled into a cricket. Can this myth mean that the son of the morning, the early riser, has the promise of long life? Briareus, Enceladus, and Typhoeus, giants, who made war against consumer behavior audit, the gods, were said, in Grecian fable, to have been buried alive by essays on toni morrison's beloved Zeus under Mount Aetna. Descriptive Essay About An Old! See the Aeneid, iii.
578. The reference may here be to Cato, which name he seems to have been the first to bear, and which may have been given him in childhood for essays, the promise of the work ethic qualities fully developed in later years. The term denotes shrewdness and cunning, rather than wisdom, #x2014; in fine, the feline attributes which have given name both in the Latin ( catus ) and in the English to essays on toni morrison's the cat. Reference may, however, be had to Sapiens, #x2014; a surname currently given to Cato in his later years. One of the Cyclades, known in mythology, as the island on which Perseus was driven on shore and brought up, and whose inhabitants he turned to stone with the on relational uncertainty Gorgon#x2019;s head; and in history, for its insignificance and poverty, #x2014; the reason why under the Roman emperors it was a frequent place of banishment for state criminals; celebrated also (probably in myth rather than fact) for a race of essays on toni morrison's beloved, voiceless frogs. #x2014; Herodotus tells this story of Themistocles. The fourth of the name. Quintus Maximus must, then, have been forty-four years older than Cato.
This law not only consumer essay, prohibited the payment of fees or offering of on toni morrison's beloved, gifts to advocates; but it limited the amount of gifts that could be made in any case, except with certain legal formalities. English! The object of this last provision was, undoubtedly, to prevent the wheedling of essays on toni morrison's beloved, men out of linkers, valuable property by taking advantage of their illnesses, their temporary loss of disposing mind, or their apprehension of approaching death. The retaking of Tarentum was the fatal stroke on Hannibal as to the possession of essays on toni morrison's beloved, Southern Italy. But in this anecdote, Cicero, or some early transcriber, made a mistake as to the name of the unsuccessful commander. Marcus Livius Salinator was a distinguished general; but it was Marcus Livius Macatus that lost the town of Tarentum, and then did good service from the citadel toward its retaking. It is strange, but true, that Cicero was not well versed in the history of the Punic wars. The augurs acquired great power in the age when the signs which it was their office to interpret were still implicitly believed in.
From the nice distinctions then deemed of importance there grew up a minute formalism, which by degrees constituted a body of augural law. Essay! The augurs at first had unlimited authority in essays morrison's, their sphere; but as faith in auspices declined, the magistrates, and about, even patricians not in office, usurped and maintained certain augural rights, so that there was sometimes a conflict of jurisdiction, giving rise to nice questions of law. A discourse commemorative of the Athenian patriots held in special honor by their fellow-countrymen. A law restricting, and in on toni morrison's, the case of large estates prohibiting, the bequest of property to women, perhaps with the view of on relational, preventing the alienation of estates from the families in which they had been transmitted. But an extract from morrison's Cato#x2019;s speech, given by essays Aulus Gellius, charges wives who had separate estates of their own with first lending money to their husbands in their stress of need, and then becoming their most relentless and annoying creditors. Appius Claudius was undoubtedly the greatest statesman and the most useful citizen of morrison's, his time. His name still lives and some vestiges of his public spirit remain in on the great, the Appia Via, Rome#x2019;s first great military road, and the Aqua Appia, the earliest aqueduct by which water from the mountains was brought into the city. Beloved! Livy tells a curious story of his blindness. Descriptive About An Old! The patrician gens of the Potitii were hereditary priests of Hercules, whom they worshipped by rites which were their family secret.
Appius, probably apprehensive, as so many modern statesmen have been, of potential mischief from secret societies, hired these men to divulge the mysteries of their worship to essays on toni morrison's certain public slaves or servants. The consequence was that the consumer behavior whole gens, including twelve families and essays on toni beloved, thirty young men, perished in a single year, and some years afterward ( post aliquot annos ) by essays on relational the persistent anger of the gods Appius was deprived of on toni morrison's, sight. Post, ergo propter. Delenda est Carthago, Carthage must be destroyed, was the essays close of on toni morrison's, all Cato#x2019;s speeches in the Senate, whatever the uncertainty subject of discussion. By adoption. See Introduction. #x393;#x3B5;#x3C1;#x3BF;#x3C5;#x3C3;#x3AF;#x3B1;. None of the members of on toni morrison's, this body were less than sixty years of english essay linkers, age. Evidently the on toni beloved reference is here to a popular superstition, of which, however, I know of no other vestige. The converse of this proposition is, probably, the consumer behavior essay best statement of the causes of what is termed the failure of on toni morrison's, memory in experience sat essay, old age.
Lasting memory and prompt recollection are the result of attention, and morrison's, attention springs from interest. Old men have a vivid recollection of early events, because their interest in english essay linkers, them was vivid; while in advanced life strong impressions are more rarely made, most of its scenes and incidents being little else than the repetition, with slight change, of previous experiences. Beloved! Yet the instances are not infrequent in which, after one has reached the condition in which yesterday#x2019;s life is a blank, a novel and striking event remains unforgotten. There was a considerable body of pontifical law, #x2014; corresponding to sat essay the canon law of Christendom, #x2014; consisting, in part, of on toni, immemorial usage or prescription, and, in part, even of legislative enactments, of which the consumer audit members of the pontifical college were the judges and administrators, so that, like the augurs, they needed officially unimpaired powers of mind and retentive memory. He was at this time nearly ninety years of age. We know not how long Homer or Hesiod lived; but they are always spoken of as old men. The reputed age of the others on the list ranged from Plato, at eighty-one, to Democritus, who was said to have reached his hundredth year. Cato generally lived on his Sabine farm when public duty did not require his presence in Rome.
Young Friends, probably the name of a play. None of the essays beloved works of Caecilius Statius, its author, are extant. Caecilius Statius. There can hardly be need of discriminating him from Publius Papinius Statius, whose poems are extant, and familiarly known to classical scholars. Six times victor in wrestling in the Olympic games, and six times in the Pythian. The most distinguished jurist of his time, and not many years Cato#x2019;s senior. Said to have been the earliest jurist who received pupils. He was undoubtedly second in thesis on the great depression, learning and in on toni morrison's beloved, practical wisdom, as in reputation and official honor, to no man of his age. He flourished about a century before Cato#x2019;s time. Said to audit essay have been equally learned and essays on toni morrison's beloved, skilled in civil and in ethic essays, pontifical law.
He was not many years older than Cato. He was Consul in essays, 251 and 247 B. C. The earliest age at which he was eligible to the consulship was forty-three; but he probably must have reached that dignity at a later age, if he was so very old a man thirty years afterward. The pontifex maximus (for which we have no better English rendering than high-priest ), like the other pontifices, held his office by life tenure. At some epochs, he was chosen by popular vote; at others, appointed by the college. He and house, the pontifices were not priests of essays beloved, any special divinity, but the legal trustees of the national religion, its rites and its laws.
The pontifex maximus was, oftener than not, a jurist of eminence, and on relational uncertainty, most of the early Roman jurists attained that dignity. According to Livy, Cato was legatus, or second in morrison's beloved, command, at this time, and it is hardly possible that an ex-consul should have served as a military tribune. We have here, perhaps, an oversight of Cicero, or, possibly, an over-acting of the old man#x2019;s treacherous memory in Cato, whose extreme old age Cicero evidently personates with marvellous dramatic skill throughout this dialogue. Nothing else is experience, known of Pontius than this reference to his extraordinary strength. He may be the on toni beloved centurion of that name, whose name alone occurs in linkers, some verses of Lucilius quoted by Cicero in the De Finibus. He is said to have commenced by lifting and carrying a calf daily, and to have continued so ding till the calf had attained full growth. There was a tradition that Milo was a pupil of Pythagoras, and that on one occasion the roof of the building in which Pythagoras was lecturing gave way, and morrison's, was sustained by the single might of Milo. King of the Numidians, and for the most part a faithful, though not a disinterested, ally of the Romans, in the Punic wars. He was eulogized by Roman writers generally; yet with the rude strength he probably combined no little of the rude ethics of a barbarian chieftan. By law no one over forty-six years of age was required to render military service, and Senators above sixty years of age were not summoned to the sessions of the Senate, but attended them or were absent from them at their own option. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Minor, undoubtedly in genius, learning, and ability the foremost of the Scipio family, but never able to essay fill any other offices than those #x2014; involving little labor #x2014; of Augur and Flamen Dialis.
A foolish old man, the butt of ridicule and the victim of fraud, trickery, and essays morrison's, knavery, was a favorite character in Roman comedy, having a part in almost every comic drama extant. Latin, dissolutos, which might be not unaptly rendered out of descriptive essay an old house, joint, or at essays on toni beloved loose ends. Latin, deliratio, which is here much better expressed by dotage than by delirium. Latin, Origines. This was an historical work in seven Books, some fragments of which are extant. It purported to give the history of Rome from its foundation to the author#x2019;s own time.
In the essays uncertainty seventh Book his own speeches had their proper place. Essays Beloved! The second and third Books gave the history of the origin of the essays uncertainty Italian towns. Hence the name of the entire work. Prescribed by him, however, not for mnemonic, but for moral uses. While in essays, the Roman Senate individual Senators could not introduce resolutions without previous formalities, there was the same liberty of debate that exists in our Congress, and experience, a Senator could give free utterance to his views on any subject, however remote from the business in hand. Archytas was equally distinguished as a philosopher, mathematician, statesman, and essays on toni morrison's, general. He is believed to have been coeval with Plato, though there is some discrepancy of authorities as to the precise period when he lived.
Certain letters that purport to have passed between him and Plato are preserved; but their genuineness is open to question. He was represented as having been singularly pure, kind, and generous in his private life. Livy#x2019;s story is depression, even worse than this. He says that a Boian noble came with his children to cast himself upon the protection of the Consul, who, because his infamous associate complained of having never seen a gladiator die, first struck the Boian#x2019;s head with a sword, and when he attempted to retreat, invoking the good faith of the Roman people, stabbed him to on toni beloved the heart. Epicurus, undoubtedly. Cineas was his contemporary, though probably not his disciple. He was the intimate friend and favorite minister of Pyrrhus, king of Epeirus, who used to say that Cineas had taken more cities by his words than he himself had taken by his sword. This sentence #x2014; almost overdone #x2014; is evidently framed expressly in imitation of an old man#x2019;s rambling way of telling a story. In the battle of Sentinum, Decius, finding that his soldiers were giving way before the experience sat essay fierce onslaught of the beloved Gauls, called one of the essay pontifices, and asked him to dictate the proper form of self-devotion, with imprecation upon the enemy. Then, repeating the sacred words, he rushed into the ranks of the enemy and was slain. His army, inspirited by his self-sacrifice, won a splendid victory.
His father had, on morrison's beloved a previous occasion, devoted himself in like form and manner. Latin, insomniis, which literally means sleeplessness. Dr. On The! Schmitz, in Smith#x2019;s Dictionary, says, undoubtedly on essays morrison's competent authority, though I can find none, that the torchbearer and the flute-player were permitted to Duilius as a reward for his victory. Livy says, in almost the same words with those in essays on relational, our text, that Duilius assumed these marks of distinction. Club would perhaps be a better rendering. The Roman clubs were formed nominally in honor of some divinity, but grew naturally into associations for convivial enjoyment, by the same tendencies which in Christendom have converted holy days into essays on toni beloved, holidays. Thesis Great Depression! Whenever a new worship was introduced, a new club was formed to take it in charge.
Cato#x2019;s club was formed at the time when a shapeless stone, probably meteoric, #x2014; said to have fallen from morrison's beloved heaven on Mount Ida, and worshipped under the name of Magna Mater, or Cybele, #x2014; was brought to Rome, in accordance with counsels said to have been derived from the Sibylline oracles. The following is a more literal rendering of this passage: #x201C;Our ancestors appropriately named the reclining together of frends at a banquet convivium [ cum and linkers, vivo, living together], because it implied a community of life. Better they than the on toni morrison's beloved Greeks, who called the same thing sometimes compotatio [ cum and poto, drinking together], and sometimes concoenatio [ con and coeno, supping together].#x201D; Compotatio and concoenatio are both Latin words. The corresponding Greek words are #x3C3;#x3C5;#x3BC;#x3C0;#x3CC;#x3C3;#x3B9;#x3BF;#x3BD; (whence symposium ) and #x3C3;#x3CD;#x3BD;#x3B4;#x3B5;#x3B9;#x3C0;#x3BD;#x3BF;#x3BD;. Latin, tempestivis conviviis. Tempestivus originally meant seasonable, thence over early. It is often used to designate at the same time the over early and the over late. The Roman arrangements for consumer behavior essay, a festive occasion were not unlike our own. A presiding officer #x2014; the host, or some one appointed by him, or chosen by the throw of dice #x2014; called upon the guests in essays on toni morrison's, turn, that on subjects of conversation no opinion might be lost, and no guest slighted. He also, in personal sat essay, the fashion maintained in England among convivialists till a comparatively recent time, announced the rules to on toni beloved be observed in drinking, and closed his speech with the words, Aut bibe, aut abi, #x201C;Either drink or go.#x201D; #x3A3;#x3C5;#x3BC;#x3C0;#x3CC;#x3C3;#x3B9;#x3BF;#x3BD;, a dialogue specially designed to english essay bring out the leading traits in the character of Socrates, who is the essays morrison's beloved chief speaker, and of value, also, as grouping the interlocutors at a banquet, and essays, thus incidentally presenting a picture of the etiquette and arrangements of an Athenian supper-table. It was not uncommon for rich Romans to have both summer and winter banqueting-rooms, #x2014; the winter room, if possible, open to the full heating power of the sun, which in that climate supersedes the on toni morrison's necessity of artificial heat.
The most celebrated actor of his time, contemporary with Terence, and taking leading parts in some of his plays. Latin, aliquid describere, probably denoting to draw a diagram. Gallus undoubtedly employed geometrical methods in his astronomical studies. Naevius was the earliest Roman poet of enduring reputation. He wrote both comedies and tragedies, and in his old age, banished to Utica for libels contained in his plays, he produced an epic poem on the first Punic war, in which he had served as a soldier. Both of essay about an old house, these plays are extant. They were probably the latest that he wrote. Livius Andronicus, earlier than Naevius. His plays were in on toni beloved, ruder Latin, and in Cicero#x2019;s time were no longer read. Latin, fabulam docuisset, i. e. taught the actors their parts, and presided at the rehearsal.
He was both Consul and great, pontifex maximus. Publius Cornelius Scipio Corculum, twice Consul, also Censor and on toni, pontifex maximus, a man of superior integrity as well as learning, and a strong conservative as to manners and morals. The surname of behavior audit, Corculum, a diminutive of cor, was given him, it is said, for his wisdom, but more probably for the combined qualities of mind and heart that won for him the confidence of the beloved people. He filled successively the highest offices in the republic, and was for many years pontifex maximus. Horace refers to him as valid authority for the use of words that were obsolescent when he wrote. Latin, occaecatum, literally blinded, from ob and caecus. Latin, occatio, from the verb occo.
There seems no reason for deriving this from thesis great depression occaeco. Cicero is very apt to infer derivation from similarity, and essays beloved, there are not a few tokens of his carelessness in this regard. Thus in different works of work ethic essays, his he derives religio from religo and relego, giving from each derivation the definition that serves his turn at on toni morrison's beloved the time. De Re Rustica, #x2014; a work much less sentimental than a #x201C;Farmer#x2019;s Almanac.#x201D; The Cato who has such an #xE6;sthetic appreciation of the consumer behavior essay charms of on toni, rural life, is a myth of Cicero. Cato#x2019;s own book is a manual of hard, stern, sometimes brutal economy, advising the ethic essays sale of worn-out cattle, and of old or sick slaves. Vendat boves vetulos . Essays Morrison's Beloved! . . Descriptive Essay About An Old! . servum senem, servum morbosum, et siquid aliud supersit, vendat. He even carries his niggardliness so far as to recommend that, when a slave has a new garment given him, the old shall be taken from him, to on toni morrison's be used for patches. But Cicero is right in representing Cato as wise on the subject of manure, on about house which, if I am not mistaken, he was in advance, not only of his own time, but even of essays beloved, ours. Cincinnatus was twice Dictator. It was to his first dictatorship that he was called from the plough; in his second, that he ordered the killing of Spurius Maelius.
Viatores, from via, a public highway. This name was given from early time to messengers of the magistrates and of the courts, whether their office was performed within or beyond the city limits. There may be other authorities than Cicero#x2019;s for the derivation of the word from the english essay linkers summoning of Senators resident in essays beloved, the country: I know of none. Latin, succidiam alteram. Succidia means bacon, and I can find no other probable meaning for it. My interpretation of the passage is this. Farmers laid in a stock of bacon, or strongly salted meats, for winter, to give a relish to other food. They looked to their gardens to descriptive about an old furnish a corresponding relish for summer.
Latin, talos et tesseras. Talus means an ankle- or knuckle-bone. The tali used by essays on toni morrison's the Romans were either the actual bones of animals, or imitations of personal sat essay, them in ivory, bronze, or stone. They were employed sometimes as jack-stones or dib-stones are now, in games of skill, and sometimes with the numbers I., II., III., and IV. on their four plane surfaces, in beloved, games of chance. The tesserae were cubes of ivory, bone, or wood, like our dice, numbered from one to six. This Cyrus was not a king, but a viceroy under his brother, Artaxerxes Mnemon.
Latin, vir summae virtutis. I have given to virtus its primitive military signification. He was a brave man and an able commander, but cruel and treacherous; and it is hardly possible that Cicero could have meant to personal sat essay ascribe to him virtus in the ethical sense in which he often uses the on toni morrison's word. Latin, directos in quincuncem ordines. The quincunx was a favorite mode of planting with the work Roman gardeners. The name is essays morrison's, derived from the numeral V, every three trees being so arranged as to form a V.
Latin, nitorem corporis. Perhaps, but I think not, his body shining with oil. In their forty-sixth year Roman citizens were exempted on the score of age from liability to experience military service. Quintus Fabius Maximus. See Sect.
X. The Augurs were chosen for life, and did not lose their official rank and title, even in case of disgraceful punishment. Essays Beloved! It was, therefore, possible for a Consul or Censor to be at the same time an essays, Augur. Cicero seems to have forgotten that the Stoics of the earlier school believed in the survival of the soul after death, but not in its immortality. Essays On Toni! The soul was, at the consummation of the present order of the universe, to be reabsorbed into the divine essence from which it emanated, and thus in the new creation that would ensue to have no separate existence. Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus. He was Cato#x2019;s only son by descriptive about an old house his first marriage. He had reached middle life, and died but a few years before his father. He was a man of high character, had become eminent as a jurist, and was praetor elect at the time of his death.
His father pronounced his eulogy at his funeral, which was conducted at on toni beloved the lowest possible rate of about, expense, on the plea of morrison's beloved, poverty, which the father#x2019;s miserly disposition probably justified to his own consciousness. Two sons of Aemilius Paullus, who died at the ages of twelve and fifteen, one just before, the other shortly after their father#x2019;s triumph over english essay linkers Perseus. As his two elder sons had become by adoption members of other families, he was left without legal heir or successor. A region in the southwest corner of Spain, supposed, not unreasonably, to be the Tarshish of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its chief city was Gades (a plural form, including adjacent islands), or Gadis, known in modern geography by the slightly altered name of Cadiz. This city was the seat of a very ancient Phoenician colony. The longevity of Arganthonius is mentioned by several writers, who do not agree as to his age. Pliny says that he lived a hundred and thirty years. #x201C;Honorable age is not that which standeth in length of essays on toni, time, or that is measured by number of years.
But wisdom is the on the depression gray hair unto men, and an unspotted life is old age. . . . Essays! . He, being made perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time.#x201D; #x2014; Wisdom of Solomon, iv. English Essay Linkers! 8, 9, 14. Childhood legally terminated at seventeen, youth at forty-six; then old age began. The Stoics generally maintained the lawfulness of suicide for sufficient cause, and Cicero more than intimates this as his opinion. Pythagoras, and beloved, Socrates, as reported by Plato, utterly condemned it. Solon was one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. The names and incidents here enumerated and referred to are too familiar to the readers of Roman history to require special notice.
Pythagoras was probably a native of Samos, but after extensive travel in the East established himself and consumer audit, gathered disciples at essays on toni morrison's Crotona, a city founded by Greek colonists in Magna Graecia, or Southern Italy. Hence his followers bore the name of the Italian or Italic school, the only school of philosophy, it is believed, that ever seemed indigenous #x2014; though this not native #x2014; in Italian soil. A synopsis of the argument for immortality given, as in the words of Socrates, in on the great, Plato#x2019;s Phaedon. Latin, divinitatem suam. Latin, sic me colitote, ut deum, referring, as I suppose, not to an apotheosis after the essays on toni morrison's manner of the Roman Emperors, but to the divineness ( divinitas ) ascribed to the soul in prescient dreams, which, as has just been said, prefigure what the soul will become in dying. This is not a literal translation from Xenophon, nor can it have been intended for work ethic essays, one. Cicero meant to give it in the form in which Cato might have been supposed to quote it from memory. Latin, sese erigens . . Essays On Toni Morrison's! . . Essays! prospiciebat. The figure implies standing, as it were, on tiptoe, to get a clearer distant view. The myth, as it has come down to us, represents Aeson as the old man whom magic arts made young again, while the like experiment on Pelias was a disastrous failure. The Epicureans, whose grovelling philosophy Cicero never loses an opportunity of on toni, assailing or decrying.
This essay, it will be remembered, is dedicated to Atticus, who professed to belong to the Epicurean school, but whose opinions sat so lightly upon him that he was not likely to take offence at essay linkers their being impugned or ridiculed. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc. All rights reserved. Application designed and developed by Walter Davis Studio. [Back to Top] Marcus Tullius Cicero, Ethical Writings II (On Old Age) [-44]
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into essays on toni morrison's, a job interview you’ve made a first impression on personal, the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by essays on toni beloved, the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. English! So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized.
How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out essays beloved, from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). Thesis On The Great! When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in on toni morrison's beloved no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in experience sat essay Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is essays morrison's probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on house, our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else.
And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. Essays Morrison's! The modern version has the benefit of work essays giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to essays on toni one to consumer audit essay two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. Morrison's! This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in english linkers England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is on toni morrison's both classic and modern. Essay! It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere.
You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to essays the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at thesis on the great depression, a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the morrison's beloved design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is essays part of a suite of typefaces called the morrison's ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for experience on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for essays on toni beloved print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for essays on relational uncertainty both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. On Toni Morrison's Beloved! Although it has been the essays default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and on toni morrison's, last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and ethic essays, hard copy form.
Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for on toni morrison's beloved resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for english essay linkers web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for essays on toni beloved industries like fashion and photography.
However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is on the depression considered by many designers and typographers to be the on toni morrison's beloved king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in consumer audit essay everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. Essays On Toni Morrison's! To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it.
Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. Experience Sat Essay! This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Essays Morrison's Beloved! Plus, because it was created specifically for an old house clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the on toni beloved various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Sat Essay! Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the essays on toni morrison's beloved font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on ethic, the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out.
Plus, Times New Roman is hard to essays read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on on relational uncertainty, our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into morrison's, your resume. Descriptive Essay About An Old House! Plus, Arial is beloved basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Thesis On The Depression! Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years.
Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to essays on toni morrison's beloved most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for thesis great whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at essays on toni beloved, the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in an old house 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to essays morrison's stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for work ethic essays the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the beloved look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen.
Just remember: it’s a good rule of linkers thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to on toni morrison's read, particularly at small sizes. Work! There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to beloved like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Ethic Essays! This font is so cliche (probably second only to essays on toni morrison's Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Great! Impact is essays most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read.
Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. Work Ethic! That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into essays on toni, Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and on the great, small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for essays on toni morrison's typing out readable sentences on your resume. Essays! So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. On Toni Morrison's Beloved! For resumes, a font size of audit essay 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Essays Beloved! Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes?
Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is descriptive essay about house a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. Essays On Toni Morrison's! After college, she built on essay, her background in art to on toni beloved explore design. and ethic essays, loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs.
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Critical essays on Toni Morrison s Beloved / edited by Barbara H
Solar Energy Policies And Rural Electrification In India. Today, India can well be identified as an energy guzzler. The demand for power is growing exponentially and the scope of growth of this sector is essays on toni immense. In an effort to meet the demands of a developing nation, the Indian energy sector has witnessed a rapid growth. But continuation of the use of fossil fuels is set to face multiple challenges: depletion of work fossil fuel reserves, global warming and other environmental concerns, geopolitical and morrison's beloved military conflicts and of late, continued and significant fuel price rise.
Renewable energy is the solution to the growing energy challenges as they are abundant, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly. Accelerating the use of renewable energy is also indispensable if India is to meet its commitments to reduce its carbon intensity. Given the vast potential of renewables in India, all it needs is comprehensive policies to experience sat essay be a global leader in clean and green energy. Government has taken a number of steps towards improving the adoption of renewable energy at essays, a large scale in the country and making the stakeholders aware of its benefits. Many programs and policies have been initiated at both the National and State level for promoting renewable energy, but the essay about an old use and production of renewable energy in the country is still limited. On studying one of the major initiatives of National government, the 'Remote Rural Village Electrification' in Chattisgarh as a case, it was found that there was a gap between the beloved policies and the actual scenario. Ethic. The awareness level among the beneficiaries was found to be very low. Thus, there is an urgent need to generate awareness among the stakeholders regarding the government initiatives, so that renewable energy is widely accepted and used.
Keywords: Renewable Energy, Awareness, Government Policies. Energy is inevitable for human life and a secure and accessible supply of energy is crucial for the sustainability of modern societies (Asif Muneer, 2007). Energy has been recognized as one of the morrison's beloved most pertinent contributors for experience sat essay economic growth and human development universally. There is a strong two-way relationship between economic development and energy consumption. On one hand, growth of an economy hinges on the availability of cost-effective and environmentally benign energy sources, and on the other hand, the level of economic development relies on the energy demand (India Energy Portal, n.d.). Today, India can well be identified as an energy guzzler. The demand for power is essays on toni beloved growing exponentially and the scope of growth of this sector is immense. Essays On Relational. In an effort to meet the demands of a developing nation, the Indian energy sector has witnessed a rapid growth (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy [MNRE], 2011a). India is heavily dependent on fossil fuels for most of its demand. It is evident by the fact that coal accounts for almost 55% of the country's total energy supplies and about 75% of the coal in morrison's beloved, the country is consumed in the power sector.
Coal is english essay followed by crude oil and natural gas in essays on toni morrison's, terms of usage in the power sector (India Energy Portal, n.d.). Continuation of the use of fossil fuels is set to face multiple challenges: depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming and other environmental concerns, geopolitical and uncertainty military conflicts and of late, continued and significant fuel price rise. Renewable energy is the solution to the growing energy challenges as they are abundant, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly (Asif Muneer, 2006). Accelerating the use of renewable energy is also indispensable if India is to meet its commitments to essays morrison's beloved reduce its carbon intensity. The power sector contributes nearly half of the country's carbon emissions.
On average, every 1GW of additional renewable energy capacity reduces CO2 emissions by 3.3 million tons a year. Investing in renewable energy would enable India to develop globally competitive industries and technologies that can provide new opportunities for growth and leadership (Sargsyan, Bhatia, Banerjee, Raghunathan Soni, 2010). As per essays on relational uncertainty Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, India is the 4th largest country with regard to installed power generation capacity in the field of renewable energy. Wind, Hydro, Biomass and Solar are main renewable energy sources in morrison's beloved, India. The country has an estimated renewable energy potential of around 85,000 MW from commercially exploitable sources (MNRE, 2011b). Work Ethic. Currently, India has an installed base of over 27,000 MW of renewable energy, which is around 17% of India's total power generation capacity (Abdullah, 2011). If we try to look at all the renewable energy sources, it is seen that India is among top 5 destinations worldwide for solar energy development as per Ernst Young's renewable energy attractiveness index (MNRE, 2011c).
Because of its location between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator, India has an average annual temperature that ranges from 25C ' 27.5 C. This means that India has huge solar potential (Meisen, 2006). Most parts of India have 300 - 330 sunny days in a year, which is equivalent to over 5000 trillion kWh per year - more than India's total energy consumption per morrison's beloved year. Personal. India is expected to have installed solar energy capacity of 20,000 MW by 2022 (MNRE, 2011d). Thus, if we look at the renewable energy potential, solar energy provides great opportunity to essays be tapped by India to have a sustainable energy scenario. Hence, it is important to understand the about an old initiatives taken by on toni morrison's the Indian government to promote renewable sources of energy, with specific reference to solar energy.
Review of literature has shown that there are many programs and work ethic policies which have been initiated by the Indian government, both at the National and the State level for promoting renewable energy, but the use and essays production of renewable energy in the country is still limited. It is important to understand the programs, policies and incentives started by the government in detail. Further, there is need to understand the awareness and satisfaction level of the end users or the thesis on the depression beneficiaries of these renewable (solar) energy projects. The study also envisages to understand the impediments in implementing these initiatives from the perspective of the government and generate a framework for better acceptance and essays morrison's beloved implementation of such programs and policies. Literature review showed that even though information on the policies, programs and incentives is available, the stakeholders' perspective is not yet studied. The present paper focuses on ethic essays, the impediments associated with solar energy policies from the stakeholders' perspective. The study was conducted in the state of Chattisgarh in India which is situated in Central India. Urban Chhattisgarh is morrison's one of the few states of thesis on the India where the essays beloved power sector is effectively developed. The Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new state and is in good financial health.
Talking about the rural areas of the state, deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state and this is the reason these areas have not yet received grid connected power. Thus, Non conventional energy sources have been accorded very high priority. To cater to this issue, a special agency called CREDA (Chhattisgarh Renewable Energy Development Agency) has been set up, and over 1200 villages in dense forests are being electrified using off-grid energy. CREDA is the nodal agency of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. This organization comes under the State Government but eventually implements the policies brought out by ethic essays the Central Government (MNRE).
Four villages namely Kobahara, Rawan, Mahoda and Latadadar were selected which were electrified by solar energy under the Remote Village Electrification Programme. From each village, eight households were selected and one respondent from each household was interviewed based on their willingness to take part in the study. The respondents included both men and essays on toni women. Also, government officials in CREDA were interviewed to take their perspective on the catalysts and barriers associated with solar energy policies in the state. 5. GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS AND POLICIES: Government of India has come out with a number of policies and programs for the promotion of ethic essays renewable energy, and specifically solar energy, in India.
The National Solar Mission is essays on toni morrison's a major initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India's energy security challenge. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change. Solar is essays on relational uncertainty currently high on absolute costs compared to other sources of power such as coal. The Mission recognizes that there are a number of morrison's off-grid solar applications particularly for meeting rural energy needs, which are already cost-effective and provides for personal experience their rapid expansion. It also states that off-grid decentralized and low-temperature applications will be advantageous from a rural electrification perspective and on toni meeting other energy needs for power and heating and cooling in both rural and urban areas. On March 3, 2001, the Prime Minister of essay India convened a meeting of all the Chief Ministers of on toni morrison's states to build a national consensus, where rural electrification got the ethic essays top-most priority. Important resolutions included in the consensus were (a) electrification of all villages and households is to beloved be undertaken; rural electrification is to be treated as a basic minimum service, (b) rural electrification is to be completed by 2007, and consumer behavior audit electrification of all households by 2012 (Buragohain, 2012).
Taking the said missions forward, the National Action Plan on Climate Change was launched in 2008 which had eight missions under it, dealing with various issues. Under the National Solar Mission, one of the programmes for on toni morrison's off-grid power solution is the Remote Village Electrification Programme, brought out by MNRE. This Ministry is implementing this programme for ethic essays providing financial support for electrification of those remote unelectrified census villages and unelectrified hamlets of electrified census villages where grid-extension is either not feasible or not cost effective. Such villages are provided basic facilities for morrison's beloved electricity through various renewable energy sources, particularly solar. The beneficiaries of essays on relational uncertainty this scheme are the village households which get solar power for their basic requirements of lighting. In addition, street lighting systems with 11 W CFL is also considered under the project. The Ministry provides a subsidy of on toni upto 90% of the costs of the Renewable electricity generation systems (including the cost of Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC), if any, for 5 years). The balance cost of projects can be financed through contribution from respective State Government/CSR funds/entrepreneurs investment/loan/beneficiaries contribution or other sources other than Government of audit India fund. Essays On Toni Morrison's Beloved. However, it will be necessary that at least half of the balance cost is met from State Government's funding (MNRE, 2011a). About 1,400 solar-powered villages in Chattisgarh, that are not connected to the national grid because they are in a remote area, have been enjoying the work benefits of morrison's beloved electrification under this Remote Village Electrification Programme.
5.1 Impediments in Solar Energy Policies: It was seen that most of the beneficiaries were farmers and english essay linkers belonged to low socio-economic status. The electricity being supplied through solar power was basically used for lighting in the households. Under the projects, basic lighting facilities with two light points (around 9 W each) and one socket (around 40 W) for operating electronic gadgets for each of the essays morrison's beloved willing households in the village may be provided (flexibility of points may be allowed within total 58 W). Thus every household will be eligible for a maximum of 58 Watt unless the house owner himself wants less.
The technology for such projects is simple and the source of audit essay power abundant, making it the essays on toni morrison's beloved obvious choice for electrification in about, rural areas. On Toni Morrison's. It was reported that the installation costs were borne by english the government, both Central and State and morrison's beloved the beneficiaries had to english essay pay some monthly amount per CFL that they use. However, it was seen that there was a variation in the amount of money being charged from the villagers per on toni beloved CFL per month. Under the project, the households were eligible to get electricity for six hours a day. Personal Sat Essay. However it was reported that the beloved electricity was available only for three to four hours a day.
Most of the respondents said that one of the major barriers in the current solar electricity they were getting was that it was not available during night when they needed it the most. Some reported that most of the important events like weddings etc. happen at night but electricity is not available at that time. The villagers also reported that the electricity available to each household should be increased, i.e., they wanted to run more appliances like water pumps, fans, refrigerators and TV, than just a single light bulb. Also, most of the respondents said that they wanted light for the entire night for their kids to consumer behavior essay study. Thus, in the short time that the electricity was supplied, the families would start using a lot of appliances like lights, fans, TV etc. and thus, due to overloading, the plant would trip, leading to another problem of discontinuous supply of electricity. It was heartening to know that during the four hours schedule of electricity supply, it is essays on toni morrison's effectively there for consumer audit essay only half an hour to one hour. During data collection, the researcher also witnessed that the light kept going on and off. It was found that although training programmes on on toni, use and essay linkers maintenance of solar power plants are regularly organized by CREDA, the essays end-users were most negligent and thus, lacked awareness. CREDA was involved in training and capacity building of the essays local people for laying and maintaining the solar power plants. Every village had a plant operator who belonged to that village and was trained by CREDA.
However, it was observed that most of the beneficiaries were not aware of solar energy. Although some of morrison's beloved them knew that the electricity was coming from the power plant which was there in the village, few knew that the source was solar energy. Many of the respondents were not even aware of the power plant in their village. It was surprising to see that even the plant operator's wife was neither aware of the thesis on the great power plant, nor its source.The maintenance and upkeep of solar power plants were not up to the mark since the beneficiaries are the most negligent. Thus, major problems were there like thefts of PV panels, overloading and so on. It was seen that cost is the biggest impediment in implementing solar energy policies.
Since government is trying to increase capacity of solar power plants in each village, huge investment is required by the government. It was also found that the Nodal agency of each state has to fight with the Central and State governments for finances. Another barrier that was reported by CREDA officials was limited manpower available in essays on toni morrison's beloved, the organization. This resulted in many problems associated with training of the english linkers local people, maintenance of the power plants and so on. Thus, all the above came out as the morrison's beloved main impediments in solar energy policies' and their implementation which need to be worked upon. 6. Essays On Relational Uncertainty. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS:
Continuation of the essays on toni morrison's beloved use of fossil fuels is set to consumer face multiple challenges: depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming and other environmental concerns, geopolitical and military conflicts and of late, continued and significant fuel price rise. Renewable energy is the solution to the growing energy challenges as they are abundant, inexhaustible and environmentally friendly. Essays. Thus, government being the main regulatory body in the country, it has an important role to play in promoting renewable energy in descriptive essay house, the country. National Solar Mission was taken as the main policy initiative by the Government, under which attempt was made to essays morrison's understand the essay linkers impediments associated with the Remote Village Electrification Programme in Chattisgarh. After conducting the research, many major impediments came out on toni beloved, both from the implementers' and the users' perspective such as lack of awareness, high costs involved, discontinuous supply of electricity, less capacity and so on. It is suggested that solar power projects be developed taking care of the local needs of the people. The local people ought to be involved at every stage to personal experience sat essay have a clear understanding of their requirements so that the project can be made to suit their needs.
Another benefit that it would incur is that when people are involved in essays on toni morrison's beloved, something, they feel connected to it and thus, problems like overloading can be taken care of. In addition, when the problem of overloading is taken care of, the on the great depression problem of erratic electricity supply would also be solved. Another major area of on toni morrison's concern is monitoring of these solar power plants. Proper monitoring teams need to experience be made to overcome the problems of thefts etc. Also, the on toni morrison's capacity of the solar power plants need to be increased so that more appliances could be run and problem of overloading could be taken care of.
Another area that needs attention is the amount of time the electricity is supplied for. It is consumer behavior audit suggested that the electricity be supplied for at least twelve hours a day and especially during nights. Awareness is a major area that requires immediate attention. Training programs needs to be developed in local languages, spreading education on the benefits of solar energy and proper use and maintenance of the plants being installed in the village. Local people can be trained to keep a track of the plants.
Another important issue is the involvement of women. Women are the main end users of electricity in morrison's beloved, the households as they spend most of their time indoors and behavior essay do most of the household chores. Empowering them would result into empowerment of the entire society. Thus, specialized training programmes need to be created for women and delivered from time to time. All these measures would help take this movement of solar energy to great heights. Abdullah, F. (2011) India's Renewable Future: Challenges and Prospects. [Online] Available from: http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2011/02/indias-renewable-future-challenges-and-prospects. [Accessed: 22nd May 2013]. Asif, M., Muneer, T. (2007) Energy supply, its demand and on toni morrison's security issues for developed and emerging economies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
11 (7). p. Ethic. 1388-1413. India Energy Portal. (n.d.) Indian Energy Sector: An overview. [Online] Available from: http://www.indiaenergyportal.org/overview_detail.php. [Accessed: 2nd February 2014]. India Energy Portal. (n.d.) Overview of Indian Energy sector. [Online] Available from: http://www.indiaenergyportal.org/overview.php. [Accessed: 2nd February 2014]. International Energy Consulting Corporation. (2011) India Energy Handbook. Morrison's. [Online] Available from: http://www.psimedia.info/handbook/India_Energy_Handbook.pdf. Work Ethic. [Accessed: 22nd January 2014]. Meisen, P. (2006) Overview of Renewable Energy Potential of India. [Online] Available from: http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/energytrends/currentusage/renewable/Renewable-Energy-Potential-for-India.pdf. [Accessed: 5th December 2013].
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. (2011a) Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission. [Online] Available from: http://www.mnre.gov.in/annualreport/2010_11_English/Chapter%206/chapter%206.htm. [Accessed: 5th December 2013]. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. (2011b) Power from Renewables: Grid Interactive and off grid Renewable Power. [Online] Available from: http://www.mnre.gov.in/annualreport/2010_11_English/Chapter%205/chapter%205.htm. [Accessed: 9th November 2013]. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. (2011c) Renewable Energy at a glance. [Online] Available from: http://www.mnre.gov.in/akshayurja/akshayurja-december-2011/52.pdf. Essays On Toni Morrison's Beloved. [Accessed: 9th November 2013]. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. (2011d) Strategic plan for thesis on the depression New and on toni beloved Renewable Energy sector for the period 2011-17. [Online] Available from: http://www.mnre.gov.in/policy/strategic-plan-mnre-2011-17.pdf. [Accessed: 16th October 2013]. Sargsyan, G., Bhatia, M., Banerjee, S. Essay. G., Raghunathan, K., Soni, R. On Toni Morrison's. (2010) Unleashing the Potential of personal experience Renewable energy in India. [Online] Available from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTENERGY2/Resources/Unleashing_potential_of_renewables_in_India.pdf. [Accessed: 16th October 2013]. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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