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bodies exhibit essay The Research Paper Factory. The Bodies Exhibition at the South Street Seaport in it's New York City is one of several exhibitions of its kind around the world that was first displayed on August 20, 2005 in Tampa, Florida. Similar exhibitions are showing in Vienna, Madrid, Buenos Aires, Barcelona, Cincinnati, Santiago, Prague, Branson, Pittsburgh, San Diego, Las Vegas, Fort Lauderdale, Hartford, and leave application, Washington D.C. The exhibit is unique, consisting of real human bodies in various forms of essay on why disembowelment. Each body system was. Words: 1043 - Pages: 5. inventory at very low levels. So less capital is spent in poetry mla inventory and on why it's, storage. WIP and Finished goods percent to total inventory was 10-20 while IBM e.g. 50-70.

See Exhibit 2 DSI is constantly reducing and therefore storage cost as well which affects finally reducing CoGS The company markets its computers directly to its customers and builds computers after receiving a customer order. This build-to-order model enables Dell to have much smaller investment in working capital than its competitors. Words: 489 - Pages: 2. Section A 1. Summary of “Bad stress, good stress” “Bad stress, good stress” is an pitbull research paper article, in The Times 2005, by Sacha Bonsor. The article deals with how to essay on why it's, handle stress.

Sacha Bonsor writes that stress has become common in modern parlance. In 2004, stress had cost the UK economy ?13.5 billion. Dr. Critical Assessment Practice! Ray also says that, the number of essay organizations contacting his charity to seek advice, has increased significant. Stress is, by definition, the way people react when they have a lot of pressure. Words: 956 - Pages: 4. The most well known regulatory body would be the IRS, or the Internal Revenue Service. This service main focus is to manage and critical thinking test, impose the internal revenue law. This group is responsible for the collection of taxes. The FAF (Financial Accounting Foundation) is responsible for essay, the administration and finances of the leave letter financial accounting standards board, the essay on why financial accounting standards advisory council, the governmental accounting standards advisory council, and research, the governmental accounting. Words: 270 - Pages: 2. It's! Question 1 The purpose of Body Glove budgeting system is to minimize the expenses based on essay, the estimated sales to maximize profit. The budgeting system help to essay on why, draw a better picture on past present, the how much to spend on the materials especially on neoprene usage by estimating cost on essay on why, monthly basis.

In this case the company production cost are different in two seasons as the cost of full fall suit averaged about $100 as for the spring line it was about $60. The $40 different will affect the cost. Words: 257 - Pages: 2. clean image and thinking assessment, respective attitude towards the body. The three muses (beauty, mirth, and abundance) are in on why a dancing pose, bodies shifted slightly though one is turned in the opposite direction of the other two (Sculpture, 2012). Mla! The woman of the Standing Nude is wrapped slightly with vines of flowers, body shifted slightly as well. These sculptures are simple and elegant, sexual values from then and now are not the same. Modern sculpture and essay it's, pictures tend to medical application letter, make women more a sexual object with. On Why! Words: 722 - Pages: 3. necessary skills to perform related repairs and custom refinishing according to the vehicle manufacturer’s specifications. Assessment Practice! Collision technicians fix damaged bodies and body parts of automotive vehicles such as cars, vans, trucks, buses, campers, and on why it's, trailers. An automotive body technician with proper training, in medical leave letter a controlled environment, and the proper tools will return wrecked or damaged vehicles to the original condition. Essay It's! “Automobile collision repairers repair the damage vehicles sustain in. Words: 1288 - Pages: 6. Fats are essential for poetry in essays mla, our body as human beings because it gives us energy.

Everyone should know that out it's body needs fats in order to be healthy but some people mistake bad fats for thesis, good fats so it is important that you understand the difference. Bad fats would be fats such as Trans fats and saturated fats. Trans fats and essay on why, saturated fats are bad fats because they raise you blood cholesterol concentrations, contributing to clogged arteries that block in flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart and. Words: 424 - Pages: 2. Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and leave application, teachers#x27; opinions about the use and importance of essay it's body language in education are surveyed.

Eight open-ended questions are asked to write leave application letter, 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers realize the importance of it's body language in education, and present, that they feel the lack of not having body language training in the university, especially in essay on why the. Words: 2800 - Pages: 12. Walt Disney Concert hall Body analysis - Anna Batebe Body analysis The body in architecture, like the human body, contains complex cells of present and future essay information that work together to essay on why it's, create a unified whole. As a cultural center of downtown Los Angeles, the Walt Disney concert hall functions as a vessel that connects the visitors of the test hall to the wealth of music and information that it houses. The concert hall does this through its inclusive approach of embedding the viewer into its fragmented. Words: 1385 - Pages: 6. interpretations of lace design. Essay On Why! At first sight the exhibit would attract all sorts of designers, but in fact it reaches out to write leave application, a greater audience to better understand and admire the beauty of essay on why lace. There were a few standout designs, and each of them will be critically analyzed below. Pitbull Paper! The overall layout of the exhibit was very well thought-out; it was structured in circular horseshoe allowing the audience to see the on why it's entire exhibit without missing anything. The lighting of the exhibit set a very.

Words: 913 - Pages: 4. movements Body language is not just about how we hold and move our bodies. Body language potentially (although not always, depending on the definition you choose to apply) encompasses: * how we position our bodies * our closeness to and the space between us and other people (proxemics), and how this changes * our facial expressions * our eyes especially and how our eyes move and focus, etc * how we touch ourselves and others * how our bodies connect with other non-bodily. Critical Test! Words: 23412 - Pages: 94. We are all born with unique differences that deserve to be accepted and loved. Essay It's! However, love and acceptance must first come from within. Unfortunately in pitbull paper today’s society physical and emotional health has been compromised for the sake of being socially accepted instead. Fulvio’s article “Food and Feelings” embodies the concept that healing begins with self-love and emphasizes the message that nobody’s opinion about your body should be more powerful than your own. Self-worth is not determined by. Words: 624 - Pages: 3. ) | (21,345,066) | (21,345,239) | Common Equity | 94,543,167 | 93,360,171 | 93,422,457 | 93,419,176 | 93,419,349 | To prepare a forecast with Excel spreadsheets, you must input the data and formulas from exhibit 2, then press the [F9] a few times until the essay numbers stop changing.

This can then be duplicated for the next two years. Once completed, you can see that interest is exactly 10% of long term liabilities and the balance sheet balances. PROJECTING FARTHER | | | | INPUT DATA | (in. Words: 1393 - Pages: 6. Contribution 3-nestle’s spokesman Hello every one, I am the Nestle’s spokesman, in response to the parents and baby milk action spokesman, I still argue about your statement as ‘multi-national corporations who like Nestle, are actively unethical in research their business intentions and practice, displaying little or no corporate social responsibility.’ Admittedly, the promotion of infant formula in third world country has brought health problem to children in that country, however, we have made. Words: 2187 - Pages: 9. Topic Outline and Thesis Statement Guide What is your thesis statement? While that it depends on how you were brought up and peer pressure, body piercing is a decision that each person makes on their own based on on why it's, their beliefs and feelings as well as cultural differences. 1. First main point: Body Art Basics for Beginners Supporting details: Deciding if body piercing is right for you? Subdetails: Body piercings gone wrong Subdetails: The different types of piercing methods.

Words: 410 - Pages: 2. If you are looking for ways to poetry in essays mla, transform your body, then congratulations you have come to the right place! Bodybuilding is the only sport that can get your body tuned up by responding to progressive weight resistance training which leads to hypertrophy. Today however, bodybuilding has become an essay on why industry and sadly the beauty of it has transformed into poetry mla, the supplements that you take rather than the physical and mental preparation. If you google bodybuilding workout, you will get more than 25. Words: 935 - Pages: 4. Body Art: Tattoo Tattooing is a form of essay on why it's body art that allows people to express various forms of meanings and messages. Of Love! Body art, in general, is a “visual language” that can demonstrate accomplishments, display desires and on why, memories, and serve as an identity to exhibit a person’s status in society (Schildkrout 107). However, tattooing can often be misinterpreted and misunderstood, leaving either negative or positive perspectives upon the person that is tattooed. According to pitbull paper, Enid. Words: 1003 - Pages: 5. Although we may not realize it, when we talk with others we make ourselves understood not only by words.

We send messages to the people around us also by facial expressions and body movements.we call it body language , which is also a way of communication. For example, A smile and handshake show welcome ,Waving one#x27;s hand is to essay on why, saygoodbye, nodding the head means agreement,while shaking it means disgreement .Putting up a hand meansMay I ask a question?. These gestures are very common and. Words: 641 - Pages: 3. Dietary Supplements Report Dietary supplements, do people need them? What are the poetry in essays benefits and/or risks of taking them? Does the government regulate them like they do prescription medications? Do dietary supplements help with diseases or ailments and do they have risks attached to them? Dietary supplements are vithgfdsaamins, minerals, herbs and other substances intended to improve the on why it's diet. They come in several different forms; pills, capsules, powders and liquids. Words: 281 - Pages: 2. parlor, but I left victorious! Throughout history, people have decorated and modified the thinking test appearance of their bodies in essay it's many different ways.

Nostril piercings are thought to critical assessment practice, have been adopted into the noble castes in the Middle East almost 4000 years ago. Nowadays, nostril piercings have been adopted by Christina Aguilera. In South America, Aztec and Mayan priests pierced their tongues as part of essay it's a ritual to communicate with their gods. In several African tribes, the beauty of women was. Words: 728 - Pages: 3. BMI (body mass index) is to paper, help measure your body fat based on height and weight. I am a woman who stands at 5#x27;9 and it's, weighs 145 pounds.

To find my BMI, I used the of love essay formula and this indicates that my bmi is 21.4. It's! After finding my BMI, I figured out that I am in between the normal category which have a range of 18.5-24.9. Understanding what is considered underweight, overweight and obesity will help many people live a healthy lifestyle. According to the BMI calculator, the range of. Words: 326 - Pages: 2. The Body Shop The Body Shop, one of the 21st Century#x27;s most iconic brands, started its first store in 1976. Today, it welcomes over 275 million shoppers to research paper, its stores every year, and has over 2,700 stores in 63 countries worldwide. Since its inception the essence of The Body Shop has been selling products made from natural ingredients. The customers found these products unique and were attracted towards the concept. On Why! But a major push for the brand came when the.

Words: 412 - Pages: 2. in these black bodies exchanged energy. Thus the concept of female thesis entropy was derived. Entropy is measured by the amount of it's heat that can be transformed into energy, and critical assessment test, varies inversely with the temperature of the body. The equation that represents entropy can be seen below. Fig. 3 Where k is the Boltzman constant and essay on why, omega is the paper volume of the macrostate. Planck was responsible for the derivation of the above equation. Entropy is the measure of the on why probability of a given macrostate. The second law of thermodynamics describes how the entropy of past present and future a system changes with time. Words: 482 - Pages: 2. Body Systems Preparation 2 We learned human eyes are spherical organs.

Six small muscles attach the eye to the socket. According to Chiras(2013) “The wall of the human eye consists of three layers. The outermost is a durable, fibrous layer, which consists of the white off the eye(sclera). Essay On Why! In front, this layer is clear and poetry mla, forms the cornea. The cornea lets light into the interior of the eye. The middle layer consists of cells containing a large amount of a dark pigment, known as melanin. Words: 546 - Pages: 3. armrest of a chair is essay it's perceived as a position of power and conveys a strong, upright image. Humble, defeated individuals let their arms drop inside the arms of the chair and they keep their elbows close to their bodies to protect themselves. Application! They are perceived as fearful or negative, so avoid sitting like this. ? Keep Your Distance Respect the person’s personal space, which will be greatest in the opening minutes of a new meeting. If you move in too close, the person may respond by essay on why, sitting.

Words: 311 - Pages: 2. Medical Application Letter! As human beings we are never truly satisfied with our appearance and it's, find ourselves driven by the need to change what the mutilation master has created, very often to our own detriment. My oral will focus on the negative effects of body enhancements. The term body enhancement suggests an improvement to the body by on why, changing its current limitations, however today I will speak specifically about the harmful effects that steroids, tattoos and plastic surgery have on the body. In the process of wanting to. Write Leave Letter! Words: 559 - Pages: 3. Body mass index (BMI), also called the Quetelet Index, and is a calculation used to determine and the amount of essay on why amount of body fat we have. Not everyone who is a little bit over weight will benefit from weight loss. However BMI is not a diagnostic tool. A person may have a high BMI. But to determine if excess weight is a health risk, a doctor would recommend they be further tested.

These assessments might include skin fold thickness measurements, evaluations of of love essay diet, physical activity, family. Words: 317 - Pages: 2. Body Language Every day we need to essay on why, communicate with each other. What do we use to communicate ? Do you know how many ways of communicating are used? Spoken language/written language/body language Now, I am going to essay, pose some gestures and it's, you tell me what they mean. Thumb up (good or get a lift in present and future US ) 1.the thumb and the forefinger putting together to form a circle with the other fingers open. On Why It's! (OK. Japan: money, France: zero) 2. The left palm putting on the forefinger of the right hand. Words: 310 - Pages: 2. binges on food or has regular episodes of overeating and feels a loss of control. The person then uses different methods -- such as vomiting or abusing laxatives -- to prevent weight gain. The media has huge effect on poetry in essays, a woman’s body image because images of female bodies are everywhere showing off their body parts trying to sell different products.

Most actresses are starting to become much taller, thinner and essay it's, quite unrealistic. Women’s magazines are full of pictures and female genital mutilation thesis, articles urging people to. Words: 823 - Pages: 4. Essay On Why! Exhibit 7: Analysis and Major Findings. Exhibit 7: Analysis and Major Findings Analysis: This exhibit shows where a typical bottler in the US delivers its CSD products to retail outlets. In Essays Mla! This is based on year 2000 annual data.

Graphically, this is shown in essay the following chart: The exhibit also shows the my definition of love market share of the major players: Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and Other Brands (taken as one) on their product deliveries to retail outlets. It can be seen from Exhibit 7 that the two major players: Coca-Cola and Pepsi combined. Words: 509 - Pages: 3. On Why! , we must act on the will we wish to become a universal law. Society cannot allow universal judgment in a country of 316 million people based on of love essay, select criteria. Essay On Why It's! Fourth, it is important to have a representation of all different types of bodies in the media, presenting a universalism ideal.

Last, genetics play a large role in all body types, and it is inaccurate to blame anyone’s figure solely on self-control, excluding factors left up to discretion. As Islam’s Divine Commands state, “Justice, human dignity and truth are unconditional duties.” It is crucial to present truthful facts in regards to health. Thinking Assessment! Words: 846 - Pages: 4. The current state of essay my body image for the most part is critical practice test pretty positive. Essay On Why It's! In the past I’ve struggled a lot with body image and it has been something that I have had to work through. I would say at this point in my life I’m probably the most at peace with my body image than I have ever been. It has taken me a very long time to get to the point of having a positive body image and female genital, even though I still have insecurities, for essay, the most part I feel pretty good about myself. One of the biggest things. Words: 305 - Pages: 2. Poetry In Essays Mla! Body language is just one element of nonverbal communication while other elements include voice tone, the environment, touch, and appearance.”(Thompson, 2012) Introduction Definition of “Body Language”: “Non-verbal communication cues that send powerful messages though gestures, vocal qualities, manner of dress, grooming, and many other cues.” The importance of body language is in it's part because we as humans need each other. We are social beings. In other words “We need people”.

Body language. Female Mutilation! Words: 306 - Pages: 2. 1. The forecast of the financial statements for Body Shop in the period 2002-2004 is developed based on the the historical data in Body Shop financial report in the last three years (1999-2001). From 2002 to 2004, the income statement and balance sheet is conducted using the percentage-of-sales method which initially forecasts firm’s sales then estimates all other accounts based on its relationship with sales. There are many assumptions which are used for conducting the it's firm’s income. Words: 1039 - Pages: 5. SCI/241 January 31, 2013 Eva Hall It is my definition essay many of on why ways to measure the body composition.

It should be done at the doctor or at the gym, and the current flow throughout the body called the bioelectric impedance analysis. Female Genital Mutilation Thesis! When people have excessive “fat it can cause fat under the skin (subcutaneous fat) it carries less risk than fat is deposited around the organs in the abdomen. The visceral fat is associated with a higher rate of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, and breast. Words: 531 - Pages: 3. well documented; research has shown that females who are repeatedly exposed to and internalize the thin ideal are at greater risk to develop body image disturbance and eating pathology. Although it is on why clear that the media influences the way women view themselves, it is unclear how this process takes place.

Examining media can be used to study how media images of women come to affect the way women feel about their bodies and physical appearance. Write Medical Application Letter! These perspectives also give some explanation for why. On Why It's! Words: 2619 - Pages: 11. Thesis! USE OF BODY LANGUAGE IN COMMUNICATION Did you know that while in on why it's India or America a fantastic or an ok sign is demonstrated by forming a circle with your thumb and forefinger, in Tunisia the same symbol means I will kill you and in Japan it means money? Kinesics or study of body language must be understood by all. Whether it is an interview or a presentation, one must be aware of how to use body language effectively. Read on to understand more about various non verbal components of. Words: 409 - Pages: 2. Centro de Ensenanza Tecnica Y Superior Escuela de Ingenieria Advanced English Communication Maestro: Gaddi Avila Body language essay Presentan: Oscar Lira 8664 Ensenada, B.C., September 18 del 2015. Body language is a form of non-verbal communication, consisting of body pose, gestures, and eye movements. Humans send and interpret such signals subconsciously.

To better understand others, control our own body language to help us improve our communication skills. Words are. Words: 546 - Pages: 3. What is Body Language? Body language is the way in write letter which we ‘express’ ourselves through the different parts of our body. It can be compared to the ordinary language we speak, known as ‘verbal language’, where we express our ideas and needs through words. Body language is communication without words; it is ‘non-verbal’ and expresses itself through the movements and essay on why, gestures of letter our head, face, eyes, hands, legs, and so on. Essay On Why It's! It is ‘language’ in the sense that just as verbal language is guided by.

Words: 762 - Pages: 4. Alison Robinson Art 11 Prof. Justin Campoy Controversial art exhibit What makes a painting controversial? Maybe something that attacks our religious concepts can be controversial; maybe anything that contains nude matter is controversial, or maybe causes a great debate. Well, none of my definition this is wrong because people have general norms related to such matters. Paintings often become controversial when it goes against commonly. Words: 1789 - Pages: 8. Charles Allen Mrs.

Hawthorne English 1010 28 September 2010 Full Body Scanners are Safe Ever since 9/11 all airports have upped their security in order to prevent terrorist attacks from happening again, and some have proposed to on why, use full-body scanners which will give a more thorough search of which some commend, and some criticize. The people who are for it say that it will give airports a more thorough search of passengers. Critics claim that this is an attack on privacy. Words: 710 - Pages: 3. Poetry In Essays Mla! The digestive system consists of essay on why it's a series of connected organs that together, allow the body to break down and absorb food, and pitbull paper, remove waste. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and it's, pancreas also play a role in the digestive system because they produce digestive juices. The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete hormones into the blood. These hormones, in turn, travel to my definition of love essay, different tissues and regulate.

Words: 311 - Pages: 2. Introduction The Body Shop was established in 1976, selling scented soaps and lotions, made only from natural ingredients. Within 14 years, the company expanded into 39 countries, with over essay on why it's, 1200 lines of products today. The founder, Anita Roddick, was known as an avid social activist and she largely promotes and supports causes such as ending animal testing In 2006, The Body Shop was bought by L’Oreal SA for ?652m. The Body Shop- Managing Public Relations Anita Roddick was quick to. Past And Future! Words: 1569 - Pages: 7. Clairessa K. Wilson Dennis Harried ENG 112 30 November 2015 Body Cameras Providing Accountability Thesis Statement: Yes, body cameras should be worn by essay it's, police officers because they provide accurate accounts of what happens at crime scenes, help civilians trust police officers, and give Americans an genital mutilation thesis idea of essay on why what it is like to be behind the gun to more appreciate officers. I. Introduction II. Body cameras provide accurate account III. Essay! Body cameras help civilians trust officers. Essay On Why! Words: 1225 - Pages: 5. artwork. According to write, German scientists the,” Oldest known piece of sculpture depicts a female with enormous breasts and a large stomach.

The figurine was carved from on why, a mammoth tusk and found in a cave in Germany (Elliott 3).” It is present essay known as the fertility sculpture. In artwork breasts were an on why important part of understanding what was socially acceptable and important. The beauty in art displayed women with very large breast and wide wastes and thicker bodies. These features attracted men because. Words: 2668 - Pages: 11. SOC 202 February 5, 2014 Body Image In today’s society there are many different ways to exemplify one’s sexiness and even ways to hide it. Research! Much of the time, the essay on why it's media portrays a woman as being sexy by wearing tight clothing or even no clothes and having an in-shape body with tan skin.

The media, and most of my definition society, also judge a woman’s attractiveness based on how skinny she is. When I began thinking about what society considers sexy in a woman, I realized how much “sexy” has changed over. Words: 671 - Pages: 3. system is it's responsible for the production of genital thesis children and reproductive hormones cause our bodies to develop into sexual maturity. Relationship between the nervous and essay on why, musculoskeletal system Muscle is a contractile tissue that can be histologically divided into three types. These are: striated or skeletal muscle, which are under direct nervous control; cardiac muscle, which is also striated but is a specialist form that is confined specifically to the heart; and poetry in essays mla, smooth or visceral muscle. Words: 1099 - Pages: 5. Name Class Date 3.4 Cycles of Matter Lesson Objectives Describe how matter cycles among the living and on why, nonliving parts of an ecosystem. Describe how water cycles through the biosphere. Female Mutilation Thesis! Explain why nutrients are important in living systems.

Describe how the on why availability of female genital thesis nutrients affects the productivity of ecosystems. Lesson Summary Recycling in the Biosphere Matter, unlike energy, is recycled within and between ecosystems. Elements pass from one organism to another. Words: 991 - Pages: 4. Body Language It is a widely held belief that humans are social animals that are naturally oriented towards each other.

Along with other needs humans holds, one of the most important one is the essay on why need to communicate and socialize. It is impossible for people to live without each other and be able communicate effectively. This need of communication is satisfied almost immediately we come into contact with others. Our actions, words, gestures sends subtle messages to female genital mutilation thesis, the other party about on why it's our.

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the essay set of C functions available to the host program to critical assessment practice test communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is it's, always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the mutilation Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Essay? However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for and future essay, the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to essay pass values to and from critical, C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to it's be returned to write leave application letter the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an it's offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the pitbull paper stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the essay last element (that is, the element at the top) and critical thinking assessment practice index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and it's the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the present stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at it's least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.

LUA_MINSTACK is of love essay, defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to essay on why it's worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto leave, the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and essay it's the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the pitbull research paper running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and essay on why it's change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at and future essay specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at on why position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and mutilation so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the on why it's number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.

Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Pitbull Paper? Any C library can store data into essay on why, this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from past, those used by it's other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Research Paper? A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in on why it's the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and essay types from the C API in alphabetical order.

Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. On Why It's? (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on critical practice, the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the essay on why function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on female thesis, what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the on why it's function may throw other kinds of poetry errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the essay memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. In Essays? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is on why it's, not zero, it should free the my definition of love block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.

When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the essay on why old one. If an write medical leave error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and essay then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at female the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in on why it's direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.

Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Of Love? All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the essay on why it's function is called. The function results are pushed onto medical application, the stack when the on why function returns. The number of results is of love, adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the essay function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the genital call the last result is on the top of the it's stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the poetry in essays stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions.

In order to on why it's communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the my definition way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in essay on why it's its stack in pitbull direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and essay it's its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by female genital thesis Lua can also return many results. As an essay it's example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and of love essay returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in on why it's the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in of love essay the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.

On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and essay on why it's leaves the result at the top. Critical Assessment Practice? If n is 1, the result is the single value on essay on why it's, the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in pitbull paper protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded.

Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Essay? Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the research paper stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the it's chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the pitbull research paper stack. Returns 1 if the two values in essay on why acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Of Love? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the it's indices is non valid.

Generates a Lua error. Of Love Essay? The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. Essay? This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector.

LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the application letter current amount of essay on why it's bytes of memory in use by write application letter Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to essay on why control the female genital mutilation thesis step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the essay step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Leave? The function returns the previous value of the essay on why it's pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the pitbull new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the it's value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at present essay the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the it's value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the my definition essay value at the given acceptable index. If the index is essay on why it's, not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the mutilation thesis stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the essay it's resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for critical practice test, the index event (see §2.8). Returns the essay it's index of the write medical letter top element in the stack. Because indices start at essay 1, this result is in essays, equal to the number of on why it's elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an research actual stack position.

The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at essay on why it's the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the poetry value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is on why, not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and pitbull paper 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the essay current stack) or if the value at this index is assessment practice, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at essay the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the of love value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is on why, smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the medical application semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the on why it's indices is of love, non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.

Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to essay on why read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is assessment test, used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).

The argument f is the essay it's allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the past essay original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the essay on why it's given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is in essays mla, being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). It's? If there are no more elements in research paper the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the on why key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of mutilation numbers in Lua.

By default, it is double, but that can be changed in essay on why luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at pitbull research paper the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the essay it's block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.

If errfunc is essay, 0, then the error message returned on essay on why, the stack is exactly the original error message. Past Essay? Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Essay On Why It's? (In the thinking test current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the it's stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. Past Present And Future Essay? For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.

When a C function is on why it's, created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to genital mutilation the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and essay on why it's push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto application, the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto it's, the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to pitbull research be registered in essay on why Lua must follow the essay correct protocol to receive its parameters and essay on why it's return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro:

Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). Medical Leave Application? The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only essay be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and assessment test ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto on why, the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.

A light userdata represents a pointer. Pitbull Research? It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). Essay On Why It's? A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the female mutilation same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto it's, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the genital mutilation thesis function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto essay, the stack.

Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the thinking practice memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the essay on why function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to mutilation end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Essay? Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at pitbull paper the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of essay on why it's a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the essay two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).

Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to essay lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at assessment practice test the given valid index and v is the value at essay the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by past lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. On Why It's? The reader must return a pointer to a block of write medical leave letter memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of on why any size greater than zero.

Sets the C function f as the genital new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the on why it's element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to write leave application fill the essay on why gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into past and future, the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in on why a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.

When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an application letter error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). Essay It's? In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the poetry debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to on why it's be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of my definition of love essay a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. Essay It's? If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Poetry? Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. On Why It's? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of medical application global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the it's stack and sets it as the write leave letter new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the essay it's equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in research Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is it's, larger than the old one, then the female mutilation new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.

Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the essay it's thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the leave letter Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for on why it's, any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only past present and future actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to essay it's test the value's type.) Converts a value at leave application letter the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the essay it's Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string.

If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the female mutilation value is essay on why it's, a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the in essays mla actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to essay on why it's a string inside the Lua state. In Essays Mla? This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in it's C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the poetry Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. Essay On Why? There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the my definition value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to on why an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the female thesis writer function used by lua_dump . Essay On Why It's? Every time it produces another piece of mla chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and on why the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an critical error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from it's, calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the write medical leave letter stack from on why it's, , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the past and future essay return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the on why running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the write application letter number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of on why it's functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. Thinking? To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Essay On Why It's? short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Past Present And Future? what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the on why it's main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the of love essay function. currentline : the current line where the essay on why it's given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Pitbull Paper? Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.

If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . Essay On Why? namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. Medical Leave? (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the on why stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in past essay the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in essay the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto past present and future essay, the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in essay it's what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to present a hook (see lua_Hook ). Essay? The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).

Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the essay index is greater than the number of essay active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the pitbull research function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the essay on why function uses, and my definition essay that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the it's upvalue's value onto mutilation, the stack, and returns its name. On Why? funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to present the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and on why it's LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is female mutilation thesis, also set. To get the value of essay any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from genital thesis, a function that did a tail call; in essay on why it's this case, it is write application letter, useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is essay it's, running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Thinking? For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the on why it's interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.

The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is research paper, called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by on why it's the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is medical application, about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in essay it's the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is pitbull, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the essay on why it's interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only in essays mla happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by on why setting mask to my definition essay zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.

Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). On Why? lua_setlocal assigns the value at critical assessment practice test the top of the stack to essay the variable and returns its name. It also pops the mla value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to it's the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Past Present And Future? Parameters funcindex and n are as in it's the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the pitbull research index is greater than the number of upvalues.

The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and essay it's have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to present essay check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is on why it's, formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the write application auxiliary library in on why it's alphabetical order. Adds the poetry mla character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.

Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to essay on why it's by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to research the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the it's following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the write following message, where func is on why it's, retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an thinking practice test idiom to essay use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for write leave application letter, a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . It's? Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the genital mutilation thesis luaL_add* functions. You finish by on why calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.

During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the research paper top of the essay stack is. You can use the critical thinking test stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to essay on why this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is pitbull, back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.

If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is it's, a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and female genital thesis caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the essay function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an female genital thesis error if the argument is on why, not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)

Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to research that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and essay on why it's returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to write letter get its result, so all conversions and caveats of essay on why it's that function apply here. Checks whether the poetry in essays mla function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and essay it's runs the research paper given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. It's? The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and past present essay the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . On Why? If the object does not have a metatable, or if the past metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and essay on why it's pushes nothing. Pushes onto research, the stack the metatable associated with name tname in essay it's the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of present string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the essay on why string r . Of Love? Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in on why the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the critical thinking practice same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for essay it's, debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . Essay? If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. Essay? The first line in the file is paper, ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.

As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to essay load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto critical thinking practice test, the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on essay it's, the standard C realloc function and write medical leave application then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is on why, a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . Research? If this argument is essay it's, absent or is nil , returns d . Female Genital? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is essay on why it's, absent or is past present and future, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the on why it's function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the medical leave application results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is essay on why it's, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into genital, this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to essay it's actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the paper stack (and pops the object). A reference is it's, a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is past and future essay, nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . Essay On Why? The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of critical thinking assessment functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in essay it's which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.

When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into mutilation thesis, the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is on why it's, a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the of love essay stack. Returns the name of the essay type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the mutilation thesis name of the current function, and essay it's rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. Assessment? The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the essay it's current position of the control at level lvl in write medical application letter the call stack. Typically this string has the essay following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.

The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of assessment test these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. On Why It's? Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and poetry in essays package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to essay on why these libraries, the C host program should call the pitbull luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the on why it's package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the past present and future essay mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the essay on why it's I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and and future luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for essay it's, some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.

It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by application letter Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for on why it's, pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the research paper new value for on why it's, the step multiplier of the thinking assessment test collector (see §2.10). Essay? Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message.

If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Research? Otherwise, if the essay on why it's object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the of love table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the on why compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.

The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is past present and future, used as the essay on why it's chunk name for error messages and critical assessment practice debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the it's chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the research paper given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is on why, a table and my definition essay its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is essay on why, empty. The order in which the thinking assessment indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of next is on why it's, undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to past and future a non-existent field in the table. Essay On Why It's? You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over pitbull paper all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.

Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is on why it's, true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of poetry any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . It's? Otherwise, index must be the present string # , and select returns the on why total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by poetry in essays mla the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the essay on why function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function.

As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the my definition environment of the essay it's running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the poetry in essays mla metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the essay on why metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the paper base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and on why so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1).

In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of medical application letter e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the on why result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the paper length of the essay it's list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to my definition essay pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in on why it's protected mode, using err as the error handler. Essay? Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the essay original error object, and returns a status code. Poetry? Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Essay On Why It's? In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the pitbull basic library and essay come inside the table coroutine . Poetry In Essays Mla? See §2.11 for a general description of on why coroutines.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to poetry mla yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by on why the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread.

Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is write medical leave application letter, active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is on why, called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the essay same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the essay on why error. Suspends the execution of the critical thinking test calling coroutine.

The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. On Why It's? It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Medical Leave Application? Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the essay it's package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).

Finally, module sets t as the medical leave application new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is essay on why, a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.

By changing this array, we can change how require looks for research, a module. Essay It's? The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in thinking package.cpath . Essay On Why? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the medical loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the essay on why module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an critical error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded.

When you require a module modname and on why package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . My Definition? When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in essay the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the write leave searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by on why it's a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the poetry in essays mla resulting file name.

So, for essay, instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in my definition of love that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Essay On Why It's? For instance, if the C path is the research paper string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader.

The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for essay, the root name of the poetry in essays mla given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for essay, a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into assessment practice, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. On Why It's? (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used).

This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Write Medical Leave Application? Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and on why it's pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at write medical leave letter position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on.

The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the essay on why it's __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in critical thinking a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and it's x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and write medical leave application letter s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to essay it's the q option.

As an example, the following loop. will iterate over critical test all the words from essay it's, string s , printing one per line. Poetry In Essays? The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the essay it's form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.

The sequence %% stands for critical thinking assessment practice, a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for essay it's, every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the assessment test key. If repl is a function, then this function is essay, called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by female genital mutilation thesis the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is on why it's, false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Medical? The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the it's magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. Past Present And Future? . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Essay On Why It's? %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. Poetry In Essays? %s : represents all space characters. On Why? %u : represents all uppercase letters. Past And Future Essay? %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the on why it's character x . This is the practice standard way to escape the on why magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the pitbull research paper non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. On Why? [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in thinking test set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the essay on why end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . Genital Mutilation? All other characters in essay on why set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the mutilation octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the essay on why complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.

The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in female mutilation thesis the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in on why the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and past and future essay 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. On Why? A ' ^ ' at poetry in essays mla the beginning of a pattern anchors the essay match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.

A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to my definition their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. It's? Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the assessment test table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of essay on why it's a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.

The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at poetry the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the essay it's length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the paper last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by essay on why it's the sort. This library is an pitbull interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the essay on why it's absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the present essay case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in on why it's degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the thinking practice remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and essay on why e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of thinking practice test x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Essay On Why It's? (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in and future essay degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by essay on why it's ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to my definition essay be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)

Returns the tangent of on why it's x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the and future essay hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and essay on why it's all input/output operations are over these default files. Practice? The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and on why it's io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files.

Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an mutilation thesis error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from on why, nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the in essays mla default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the essay on why current default input file.

In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over write medical leave application letter all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the essay on why end of critical assessment practice test file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the essay it's file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over critical assessment practice the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in it's case of errors, nil plus an error message.

The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Assessment Practice? This string is essay it's, exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over assessment the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and on why it's returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms.

Equivalent to critical thinking test io.input():read . Returns a handle for essay on why, a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over female genital thesis all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the essay on why it's characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the my definition specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below).

The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the essay it's end of line), returning nil on essay, end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on essay, end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and essay gets the it's file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is present and future essay, position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. It's? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the pitbull paper error.

The default value for whence is on why, cur , and for offset is medical application letter, 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from essay on why it's, some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the thesis size of the essay it's buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size.

Writes the value of each of its arguments to medical leave application the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is on why, implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the past present essay date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the it's following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on research, the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to on why os.date(%c) ). Returns the pitbull research paper number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to essay it's be executed by write letter an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise.

Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the on why it's success code. Returns the mutilation thesis value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale.

If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only essay it's returns the leave application letter name of the on why it's current locale for the given category. Returns the leave current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and essay may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on of love essay, your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the essay on why it's number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for present and future essay, a temporary file.

The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the essay on why name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the critical thinking test file when the program ends. This library provides the on why it's functionality of the present essay debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and essay on why it's similar tasks, such as profiling.

Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Past? Moreover, several of essay on why it's these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from poetry in essays, outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and it's therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and essay so on. A line containing only the essay on why it's word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the present essay thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and essay on why the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])

Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the my definition expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for on why, the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and write leave letter the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the on why stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is thinking assessment practice test, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of essay range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.)

Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])

Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the critical thinking assessment practice hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from on why, a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the research paper hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . On Why It's? For line events, the critical assessment practice hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the it's running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and present and future level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. On Why It's? The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and poetry in essays mla raises an error when called with a level out of essay it's range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the past present and future name of the local variable.

Sets the metatable for essay, the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the critical thinking function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the essay on why it's name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the mla traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for essay it's, Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the past essay given script , passing to it the on why it's given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and female genital thesis as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is essay on why, @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in write application letter order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the it's value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the assessment file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in essay it's the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is research, stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call.

the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Essay On Why? The script is past present, called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the essay interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).

Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on female genital thesis, the command line or in on why it's any Lua programs by mla assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of it's quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to critical test enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of on why it's Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the critical thinking assessment first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the essay on why Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1.

You can avoid most of the thinking incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Essay? However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of write letter Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the it's implicit variables of the for statement and for past and future, the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in it's luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is write medical leave letter, called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated.

Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in essay on why luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in female mutilation thesis luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the essay on why new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.

The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the of love standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and on why it's luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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An Extensive Glossary Of Big Data Terminology. Big data comes with a lot of essay on why, new terminology that is sometimes hard to understand. Therefore we have created an extensive Big Data glossary that should give some insights. Some of the definitions refer to a corresponding blog post. Of course this big data glossary is not 100% complete, so please let us know if there are missing terminology that you would like to see included. Aggregation – a process of searching, gathering and past present essay, presenting data. Algorithms – a mathematical formula that can perform certain analyses on data. Analytics – the discovery of essay on why, insights in of love essay data. Anomaly detection – the search for data items in a dataset that do not match a projected pattern or expected behaviour. Anomalies are also called outliers, exceptions, surprises or contaminants and they often provide critical and it's, actionable information.

Anonymization – making data anonymous; removing all data points that could lead to identify a person. Application – computer software that enables a computer to female genital mutilation perform a certain task. Artificial Intelligence – developing intelligence machines and essay on why it's, software that are capable of perceiving the environment and take corresponding action when required and even learn from those actions. Behavioural Analytics – analytics that informs about the how, why and what instead of just the who and when. It looks at humanized patterns in the data. Big Data Scientist – someone who is able to develop the algorithms to write make sense out of on why, big data.

Big data startup – a young company that has developed new big data technology. Biometrics – the identification of humans by their characteristics. Brontobytes – approximately 1000 Yottabytes and the size of the digital universe tomorrow. A Brontobyte contains 27 zeros. Business Intelligence – the theories, methodologies and processes to make data understandable. Classification analysis - a systematic process for obtaining important and relevant information about data, also meta data called; data about data. Cloud computing – a distributed computing system over a network used for storing data off-premises. Clustering analysis – the female genital mutilation thesis process of identifying objects that are similar to each other and cluster them in on why it's order to understand the differences as well as the similarities within the data. Cold data storage – storing old data that is hardly used on low-power servers.

Retrieving the pitbull paper data will take longer. Comparative analysis – it ensures a step-by-step procedure of comparisons and calculations to essay on why it's detect patterns within very large data sets. Complex structured data – data that are composed of two or more complex, complicated, and interrelated parts that cannot be easily interpreted by essay, structured query languages and tools. Computer generated data – data generated by computers such as log files. Essay It's. Concurrency – performing and executing multiple tasks and processes at the same time. Correlation analysis – the analysis of data to in essays mla determine a relationship between variables and on why it's, whether that relationship is negative (- 1.00) or positive (+1.00). Customer Relationship Management – managing the sales and business processes, big data will affect CRM strategies. Dashboard – a graphical representation of the pitbull analyses performed by essay on why it's, the algorithms. Data aggregation tools - the process of transforming scattered data from numerous sources into a single new one. Female Genital. Data analyst – someone analysing, modelling, cleaning or processing data. Database – a digital collection of data stored via a certain technique.

Database-as-a-Service – a database hosted in the cloud on a pay per use basis, for essay on why it's, example Amazon Web Services. Database Management System – collecting, storing and providing access of data. Data centre – a physical location that houses the servers for storing data. Data cleansing – the process of reviewing and revising data in order to delete duplicates, correct errors and provide consistency. Data custodian – someone who is responsible for pitbull paper, the technical environment necessary for data storage. Data ethical guidelines – guidelines that help organizations being transparent with their data, ensuring simplicity, security and privacy. It's. Data feed – a stream of data such as a Twitter feed or RSS. Medical Leave Application. Data marketplace – an online environment to buy and sell data sets. Data mining – the process of essay, finding certain patterns or information from data sets.

Data modelling – the leave application analysis of data objects using data modelling techniques to on why create insights from the data. Data virtualization – a data integration process in order to gain more insights. Pitbull. Usually it involves databases, applications, file systems, websites, big data techniques, etc.) De-identification – same as anonymization; ensuring a person cannot be identified through the data. Discriminant analysis - cataloguing of the data; distributing data into groups, classes or categories.

A statistical analysis used where certain groups or clusters in data are known upfront and essay, that uses that information to derive the classification rule. Of Love. Distributed File System – systems that offer simplified, highly available access to storing, analysing and processing data. Document Store Databases – a document-oriented database that is essay on why especially designed to store, manage and retrieve documents, also known as semi structured data. Exploratory analysis – finding patterns within data without standard procedures or methods. It is a means of discovering the present essay data and to find the essay on why data sets main characteristics.

Exabytes – approximately 1000 petabytes or 1 billion gigabytes. Today we create one Exabyte of new information globally on past present and future essay a daily basis. Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) – a process in a database and data warehousing meaning extracting the data from various sources, transforming it to fit operational needs and loading it into the database. Failover – switching automatically to a different server or node should one fail. Fault-tolerant design – a system designed to on why it's continue working even if certain parts fail. Of Love Essay. Gamification – using game elements in a non game context; very useful to create data therefore coined as the friendly scout of big data. On Why. Graph Databases – they use graph structures (a finite set of ordered pairs or certain entities), with edges, properties and nodes for data storage. It provides index-free adjacency, meaning that every element is directly linked to critical assessment test its neighbour element.

Grid computing – connecting different computer systems from various location, often via the cloud, to on why it's reach a common goal. Hadoop – an genital, open-source framework that is built to enable the process and storage of big data across a distributed file system. HBase – an open source, non-relational, distributed database running in conjunction with Hadoop. HDFS – Hadoop Distributed File System; a distributed file system designed to run on commodity hardware. High-Performance-Computing (HPC) – using supercomputers to solve highly complex and advanced computing problems. In-memory – a database management system stores data on the main memory instead of the essay disk, resulting is very fast processing, storing and loading of the data. Female. Internet of Things – ordinary devices that are connected to the internet at any time any where via sensors.

Juridical data compliance – relevant when you use cloud solutions and where the data is stored in a different country or continent. Be aware that data stored in a different country has to essay on why oblige to the law in that country. KeyValue Databases – they store data with a primary key, a uniquely identifiable record, which makes easy and fast to look up. The data stored in a KeyValue is normally some kind of primitive of the programming language. Latency – a measure of time delayed in a system. Female Genital Mutilation Thesis. Legacy system – an on why, old system, technology or computer system that is not supported any more. Load balancing – distributing workload across multiple computers or servers in order to achieve optimal results and utilization of the my definition of love system. Location data – GPS data describing a geographical location. Log file – a file automatically created by a computer to record events that occur while operational.

Machine2Machine data – two or more machines that are communicating with each other. Machine data – data created by machines via sensors or algorithms. Machine learning – part of artificial intelligence where machines learn from what they are doing and on why, become better over time. MapReduce – a software framework for processing vast amounts of data. Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) – using many different processors (or computers) to perform certain computational tasks at the same time. Metadata – data about data; gives information about what the data is about. Multi-Dimensional Databases – a database optimized for data online analytical processing (OLAP) applications and for data warehousing. MultiValue Databases – they are a type of NoSQL and multidimensional databases that understand 3 dimensional data directly. They are primarily giant strings that are perfect for manipulating HTML and write medical application letter, XML strings directly.

Natural Language Processing – a field of computer science involved with interactions between computers and human languages. Network analysis – viewing relationships among the it's nodes in my definition of love essay terms of the network or graph theory, meaning analysing connections between nodes in a network and the strength of the on why it's ties. NewSQL – an past present, elegant, well-defined database system that is easier to learn and better than SQL. It is essay on why it's even newer than NoSQL. NoSQL – sometimes referred to as ‘Not only past and future, SQL’ as it is a database that doesn’t adhere to traditional relational database structures.

It is more consistent and can achieve higher availability and horizontal scaling. Object Databases – they store data in essay on why the form of objects, as used by object-oriented programming. They are different from thinking assessment test relational or graph databases and most of them offer a query language that allows object to be found with a declarative programming approach. Object-based Image Analysis – analysing digital images can be performed with data from essay individual pixels, whereas object-based image analysis uses data from pitbull research a selection of related pixels, called objects or image objects. Operational Databases – they carry out regular operations of an organisation and are generally very important to a business. They generally use online transaction processing that allows them to enter, collect and retrieve specific information about the company. Essay It's. Optimization analysis - the process of assessment test, optimization during the design cycle of products done by algorithms. It allows companies to essay on why it's virtually design many different variations of a product and to write medical letter test that product against pre-set variables. Ontology – ontology represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts.

Outlier detection – an outlier is an it's, object that deviates significantly from the general average within a dataset or a combination of data. It is numerically distant from the rest of the data and therefore, the outlier indicates that something is going on and generally therefore requires additional analysis. Pattern Recognition – identifying patterns in in essays mla data via algorithms to make predictions of new data coming from the same source. Essay It's. Petabytes - approximately 1000 terabytes or 1 million gigabytes. Genital Thesis. The CERN Large Hydron Collider generates approximately 1 petabyte per second. Platform-as-a-Service – a services providing all the necessary infrastructure for cloud computing solutions. It's. Predictive analysis – the most valuable analysis within big data as they help predict what someone is likely to buy, visit, do or how someone will behave in the (near) future. It uses a variety of different data sets such as historical, transactional, social or customer profile data to poetry identify risks and opportunities.

Privacy – to seclude certain data / information about oneself that is deemed personal. Public data – public information or data sets that were created with public funding. Quantified Self – a movement to on why use application to poetry in essays track ones every move during the day in order to gain a better understanding about essay it's, ones behaviour. Query – asking for information to answer a certain question. Re-identification – combining several data sets to find a certain person within anonymized data. Regression analysis – to define the dependency between variables.

It assumes a one-way causal effect from one variable to the response of present essay, another variable. RFID – Radio Frequency Identification; a type of sensor using wireless non-contact radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to it's transfer data. Real-time data – data that is created, processed, stored, analysed and visualized within milliseconds. Recommendation engine – an algorithm that suggests certain products based on previous buying behaviour or buying behaviour of others. Routing analysis – finding the optimized routing using many different variables for a certain means of transport in letter order to decrease fuel costs and increase efficiency. Semi-structured data - a form a structured data that does not have a formal structure like structured data. It does however have tags or other markers to enforce hierarchy of records.

Sentiment Analysis – using algorithms to find out how people feel about certain topics. Signal analysis – it refers to the analysis of measurement of time varying or spatially varying physical quantities to analyse the performance of a product. Especially used with sensor data. Similarity searches – finding the closest object to a query in essay on why it's a database, where the data object can be of any type of data. Simulation analysis – a simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.

A simulation analysis helps to ensure optimal product performance taking into account many different variables. Smart grid – refers to present using sensors within an energy grid to monitor what is going on in real-time helping to essay it's increase efficiency. Software-as-a-Service – a software tool that is used of the web via a browser. Spatial analysis – refers to analysing spatial data such geographic data or topological data to identify and understand patterns and regularities within data distributed in of love geographic space. SQL – a programming language for retrieving data from a relational database. Structured data – data that is identifiable as it is organized in structure like rows and columns. Essay. The data resides in application letter fixed fields within a record or file or the data is tagged correctly and can be accurately identified. Terabytes – approximately 1000 gigabytes. A terabyte can store up to 300 hours of high-definition video. Time series analysis - analysing well-defined data obtained through repeated measurements of time. On Why. The data has to female be well defined and measured at successive points in time spaced at identical time intervals.

Topological Data Analysis – focusing on the shape of complex data and identifying clusters and any statistical significance that is present within that data. Transactional data – dynamic data that changes over time. Transparency – consumers want to essay it's know what happens with their data and organizations have to be transparent about that. Thinking Test. Un-structured data - unstructured data is on why regarded as data that is in essay general text heavy, but may also contain dates, numbers and facts. Essay It's. Value – all that available data will create a lot of value for organizations, societies and consumers. Poetry In Essays Mla. Big data means big business and every industry will reap the essay it's benefits from big data. Variability – it means that the meaning of the data can change (rapidly). In (almost) the poetry same tweets for example a word can have a totally different meaning. Variety – data today comes in many different formats: structured data, semi-structured data, unstructured data and on why, even complex structured data. Velocity – the speed at which the data is created, stored, analysed and visualized. Veracity – organizations need to ensure that the data is correct as well as the analyses performed on the data are correct.

Veracity refers to the correctness of the data. Visualization – with the research right visualizations, raw data can be put to use. Essay It's. Visualizations of course do not mean ordinary graphs or pie-charts. They mean complex graphs that can include many variables of data while still remaining understandable and critical, readable. Volume – the essay it's amount of data, ranging from megabytes to brontobytes. Weather data – an important open public data source that can provide organisations with a lot of insights if combined with other sources.

XML Databases – XML Databases allow data to be stored in XML format. Critical. XML databases are often linked to essay on why it's document-oriented databases. The data stored in an XML database can be queried, exported and serialized into any format needed. And Future Essay. Yottabytes – approximately 1000 Zettabytes, or 250 trillion DVD’s. The entire digital universe today is 1 Yottabyte and this will double every 18 months. Zettabytes – approximately 1000 Exabytes or 1 billion terabytes. Expected is that in 2016 over essay on why it's, 1 zettabyte will cross our networks globally on a daily basis. Datafloq is the one-stop source for genital mutilation, big data, offering information, insights, knowledge and opportunities to essay on why it's drive innovation with data. Are you a data hoarder? If your data looks a bit . A patient has arrived at his primary care physician’.

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cma essay wizard WWI Draft Registration Cards and Essays. Jelly Roll Morton · Relatives · Associates · Musicians. Ragtime Composers · Bandleaders · Authors · Broadcasters. 12th September 1918. Louis Armstrong believed all his life that he was an All-American jazz boy, born on the Fourth of July, 1900. Louis was almost universally loved, and few Americans, black or white, would ever dispute his claim. As Duke Ellington pointed out, he never consciously hurt anyone along the way in a life crammed full of on why, achievement. It was not until over a decade after his death that Tad Jones (1952-2007), a music historian and writer on jazz and rhythm and thinking practice blues in it's, New Orleans, and organiser of the Satchmo SummerFest, obtained a baptismal certificate from the Archives of the Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, which disclosed that Louis was born on 4th August 1901. He was taken to the Sacred Heart of poetry in essays, Jesus Church at 139 South Lopez Street, New Orleans on 25th August 1901 and, described as “niger illegitimus,” baptised by the Reverend J. M. On Why It's! Toohey. © November 2007 Peter Hanley.

Paul Adolph Barbarin. 12th September 1918. Paul Adolph Barbarin, one of New Orleans’ greatest drummers, was born in that city on 5th May 1899. Previously, his birth year has been listed as 1901 by some sources (including this writer) but the draft card, above, sets the record straight. © May 2007 Hal Smith. Bennie B. Borders. Bennie “Rhythm Ben” Borders played drums on the first commercially issued jazz recording by female genital mutilation thesis an African-American band, “Spikes’ Seven Pods of Pepper/Ory’s Sunshine Orchestra”.

Most sources give spring or summer 1922 as the essay it's time the recordings took place. However, the essay late Floyd Levin stated that they were made in essay on why it's, June 1921 and that 1921 was the year given in paper, the record company’s files. © February 2007 Hal Smith. Note: See also the article titled: Kid Ory’s Legendary Nordskog/Sunshine Recordings by Floyd Levin, which was published in the Jazz Journal International magazine, dated July 1993, Vol. Essay It's! 46, No. 7, pages 6—10. Emile J. Christian.

Very few jazz musicians had such a varied career as Emile Christian. He is best known as the trombonist who replaced Eddie Edwards in the Original Dixieland Jazz Band when Edwards was drafted, and who was therefore on their 1919-20 visit to England and their English Columbia records. He returned with the band to practice test the U.S.A. on 8th July 1920 giving the same birth date as the draft card and it's his address as 2538 Rampart Street, New Orleans. © March 2007 Howard Rye. 12th September 1918. My first experience of mutilation thesis, J. Lawrence Cook’s work came when I acquired my first player piano many years ago. Included in the purchase were two “Fats” Waller QRS rolls, which greatly impressed me — so much so that they were very quickly reduced to shreds with constant playing. What I did not know at the time was that Cook had edited all of Waller’s QRS output. Having collected all the essay on why available Waller rolls, I am now firmly of the opinion that Cook’s contribution to them went much further than a simple editing job — there is at least one documented instance of “Fats” starting a roll but failing to turn up to finish it, so Cook had to complete the research job. [FW] © March 2002 John Farrell.

Joseph Crawford was the real name of it's, Buddie Petit, the renowned second generation New Orleans cornet player. Crawford was the natural son of Alfred Crawford and Rose Batiste (Baptiste), and was born in the infant town of White Castle, Iberville Parish, Louisiana, located on of love, part of White Castle Plantation, about essay on why it's, seventy miles upriver from New Orleans on the western side of the Mississippi. Critical Thinking Practice Test! According to his World War I Draft Card, Buddie was born on 23rd December 1896, but there is on why, considerable conjecture about the assessment test actual date of his birth. Karl Koenig, a prolific researcher of early New Orleans music, opted for it's, a birth date of 4th August 1896 in his book “Under the Influence: The Four Hornsmen of New Orleans Jazz, 1994”. Write Application! The 1900 U.S. Essay On Why! Census recorded a date of write leave letter, August 1895 (as Joseph Petit); the 1910 U.S. Census recorded an age of 12 (born 1897) on essay it's, 15th April 1910 (as Joseph Crawford); Buddie married Lizzie Braxton on present, 24th December 1912 and gave his age as twenty-two (born 1890); the age of on why, twenty-four (born 1895) was recorded as at present and future essay, 1st January 1920 in it's, the 1920 U.S. Census (as Joseph Crawford); he was listed as Joseph Crawford in the 1930 U.S. Research Paper! Census as thirty-three years of age on 1st April 1930 (born 1896); and his death certificate is consistent with a birth year of 1897. “But, man, those guys could really play.

Petit was second only to Keppard on essay on why it's, the cornet, had tremendous power in poetry, all registers and great ideas. He was a slow reader, but if the tune was played off first, he would pick up his part so fast no one knew he couldn’t read. And, as for Dusen (Duson), he was the best there was at on why it's, that time on trombone. So we had a very hot five-piece band and made plenty money — $75 a night and tips doubled the salaries. An offer from Bill Johnson in 1918 to play at the Lincoln Gardens in Chicago was refused by Petit.

For the rest of his life, he confined his playing to his home state, Louisiana, and pitbull research paper the other Gulf of Mexico states of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. © January 2009 Peter Hanley. Special thanks to Daniel Vernhettes who sent me his well-researched article on Buddie Petit, published in the April and June 2002 issues of Jazz Classique magazine (France), and to the late Sir Georges Souyave, formerly Chief Justice of Seychelles and a judge of the UK High Court of Justice in Hong Kong, for translating the article into English for it's, me. Charles Edward Davenport. In the early years of the 20th century men like Charlie Spand, Charlie Avery, Leroy Garnett, Will Ezell, Montana Taylor, Doug Suggs and Pinetop Smith were evolving the blues based piano style which was to become known as “fast western” or “boogie woogie”. Cow Cow Davenport was another such pioneer, but one whose experience in the entertainment business was greater than most. © December 2006 Derek Coller. The elusive Sammy Davis, or Sam Davis as he preferred to be called, registered for essay, the draft in Chicago on 5th June 1917, after his Storyville days were well behind him. As his draft card shows, he was born in New Orleans on on why, 8th October 1889, the paper date and place also shown on his birth certificate issued in Orleans Parish. © January 2007 Peter Hanley.

Hurley William Diemer. 12th September 1918. Drummer Hurley William Diemer was the essay on why it's youngest of the three sons of Rev. Thomas J. Write Leave Application! Diemer, born in Mississippi in August 1854, and his wife Harriett, born in Texas in it's, January 1863, to medical leave letter appear in it's, jazz discography. In fact Hurley William appears twice because it has not been realized that Hurley Diemer and William Diemer are the of love same musician, though this was reported many years ago by researcher John Heinz, who met him in Albany, NY, towards the end of his life. In the 1900 U.S. Census, taken before Hurley William’s birth on 2nd August, the on why it's family was living at 1034 Olive Street, Campbell Township, Springfield, Missouri. All seven survivors of the couple’s nine children were still at home. Though this information is not on the draft card, Hurley William was himself born in write application, Springfield, according to what he told the purser of the “S.S. DeGrasse” in 1938. © November 2007 Howard Rye.

John Dodds was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on 12th April 1892, as noted on his WWI draft card. His 1900, 1920 and 1930 U.S. Census entries, and his marriage record from 26th May 1915 support this date. Essay On Why! (New Orleans, Louisiana Marriage Records Index, 1831-1925, Volume 37, page 620) While the in essays mla location of his birth is all but certain, he gave Alabama (where his parents originated from) as his place of birth in essay, the 1920 U.S. Census and California in the 1930 U.S. Census, while John Chilton gives Waverley, Louisiana. [WWJ 95] In addition, it has also been suggested that he was born in Waggaman, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, which is over the river from New Orleans, and now part of the Greater New Orleans Metropolitan District. His younger brother Warren Dodds Jr. (1894-1959), who was invariably known as “Baby” Dodds, was the famous jazz drummer. © October 2008 Brian Goggin. The Draft Registration Card for pitbull research, New Orleans-born Warren Dodds confirms the date of birth of December 24, 1894 he gave to biographer Larry Gara in 1953. [BDS 4] Lacking his birth certificate, most writers cite 1898 — yet U.S. Essay! Census information (held by thesis Peter Hanley) supports an earlier date. Warren, the fifth of six children, was named after his father, but his mother called him “Baby”.

The name stuck. It's! It was a musical family and brother Johnny (born 12th April 1892) was an accomplished clarinettist when Warren took basic drum lessons from Dave Perkins and studied theory with Walter Brundy. His first music job was with Willie Hightower c. 1912. He worked with bands led by Manuel Manetta, Frankie Duson and Oscar Celestin, and in of love, parades with Bunk Johnson. From autumn 1918 until August 1921 Baby played in Fate Marable’s star-studded orchestra on it's, the Mississippi riverboats. © February 2007 Bill Haesler. Anatie Dominique registered for of love, the World War I draft in Benton Harbor, Berrien County, Michigan on 5th June 1917. The draft card gives his occupation as a cigar maker and his date of birth as 2nd August 1893. The 1900 U.S.

Census places his birth a year later, in August 1894, while the 1910 census is consistent with the draft card and essay on why it's gives his occupation as a stock boy in a cigar factory. Leave! The later birth date is it's, also given in poetry, his Social Security Death Index entry. On Why! Anatie’s older brother Ferdinand, who was born in August 1877, was also a cigar maker. Ferdinand’s son, Albert Dominique, was the well-known bandleader who worked under the name “Don Albert”. The Dominique brothers were cousins of clarinettist Barney Bigard. © April 2008 Brian Goggin. Henry J. Duncan registered for the World War I draft in his home town of Bowling Green, Kentucky, on 5th June 1918. Present! His draft card states that he was born on essay it's, 26th October 1896, but the 1900 U.S.

Census gives his birth date as October 1897. The 1910 and 1920 U.S. Census data support the birth date on critical thinking assessment practice test, the draft card, but his age as per the 1930 U.S. Census concurs with that for the 1900 enumeration. John Chilton gives a birth date of 26th October 1894 in on why, “Who’s Who of my definition of love essay, Jazz”; while Duncan himself told Johnny Simmen that he was either born in “the same year as James P. Johnson” (1894) or 1893. [JJHD] Henry Duncan registered for the World War II draft on 27th April 1942 and his WWII draft card notes “James” as his middle name. This card and his Social Security Death Index entry also give the 26th October 1896 birth date, which it would seem from the evidence, is correct.

© April 2009 Brian Goggin. 12th September 1918. The legend of Frankie Duson was immortalised by Jelly Roll Morton when he sang the essay last verse of essay, Buddy Bolden’s Blues for General Records in New York on 16th December 1939: Thought I heard Frankie Duson shout, Gal gim-me that money, I’m gonna beat it out. I mean gim-me that money, like I explain ya, I’m gonna beat it out, ‘Cause I thought I heard Frankie Duson say . Behind the legend, however, there was a real person who played a part in the evolution of jazz music in New Orleans. Previously relying on the recollections of old musicians, census and other public records are now available to essay on why replace much of the legend with fact. © February 2007 Peter Hanley.

Horace Eubanks worked with Jelly Roll Morton in 1920-21 in medical application, the Pacific North-West, including Vancouver, and essay again in letter, Chicago around 1923, when he recorded with him for OKeh and was a member of the shadowy Morton-Handy Band recalled in the 1946 Esquire’s Jazz Book . [EJB 21] © March 2007 Howard Rye. Walter S. Farrington. Walter S. Farrington was born 16th November 1892, as indicated on his World War I draft card. Essay On Why! He registered on 5th June 1917 in his home city of St. Louis, Missouri. His parents were Walter S. Farrington (Sr.) and Mary Farrington (ne Payne). The 1900 U.S.

Census is in agreement with the year of his birth on the draft card, but gives the month of past present and future essay, birth as October. Essay On Why! The 1910 U.S. Census lists his occupation as a porter in a barbershop, and the 1920 U.S. Census records him as a musician. Both of these Census entries note his age to be approximately one year younger. His death record supports either of the 1892 birth dates, while his Social Security Death Index Entry states that he was born on 23rd October 1893. (California Social Security Death Index, Walter Farrington, SSN 496-18-9892, issued in Missouri before 1951) Marcellus Sherrod and medical leave application Walter Farrington, WIL Radio Artists, will augment the program of dance music offered by Harvey Lankford and essay on why his Synco High Hatters at the People’s Finance Ballroom Saturday Night, April 4. ‘The Royal Beau Brummels’, a popular social club, is sponsoring the affair. [SLA]

Walter S. Farrington moved from Missouri, and lived in California in his later years. Genital Mutilation! His draft card had noted that he was suffering from gonorrhea when he registered on 5th June 1917. He must have recovered from this disease, as he died forty-eight years later in Los Angeles, on 6th July 1965. The pianist’s California Death Record notes that he was 72 years of age when he died. Essay On Why It's! [CDR] [BG 7] © July 2009 Brian Goggin. 12th September 1918. One of the critical test many fascinating stories Jelly Roll Morton narrated on the Library of Congress recordings was about his travels with a would-be tough man from on why Jackson, the write medical leave application letter capital of Mississippi, who went by the name of Jack the Bear. Jelly Roll said that he “first went to Memphis around nineteen eight, possibly the earliest part of the year.” [AFS 1664-B] However, it was probably, on the basis of the essay information presented below, the early part of 1911. Starting from Jackson, the unlikely pair moved on to the Mississippi towns of and future essay, Yazoo, then to Clarksdale where they tried peddling a consumption cure made of Coca Cola and salt, [AFS 1665-A] and on to Helena, Arkansas to essay it's board The Natchez for their ultimate destination upriver, Memphis, Tennessee. [AFS 1665-B] © March 2008 Peter Hanley. Minor Hall played a distinctive style on the drums. He was a key component of the “Ory rhythm” sound that characterized Kid Ory’s best bands.

© October 2008 Hal Smith. Special thanks to Sue Fischer for assistance with research concerning Minor Hall’s birthplace, and to Brian Goggin for assistance with research about the Hall family. Previously, the leave application author wrote about Minor Hall for the July-August 2001 JAZZ RAMBLER, published by essay it's America’s Finest City Dixieland Jazz Society, San Diego, California. Andrew Henry Hilaire. 12th September 1918. Andrew Hilaire only my definition of love played on a few recordings, but they easily support the view that he was one of the greatest drummers in the history of jazz. Essay! Unfortunately, his biographical information is just as scarce as the genital thesis recordings . . . © March 2008 Hal Smith. Dink Johnson was the youngest brother of essay on why, Anita Gonzales Ford (Bessie Johnson), the woman Jelly Roll Morton referred to as his wife, although there is no evidence they were ever married. Critical Thinking Assessment Practice Test! Dink registered for the draft on 5th June 1917 as “Dink Johnson”, not under his real name. His draft card contains some information in conflict with what has been previously accepted as factual.

© May 2007 Peter Hanley. William Manuel Johnson. 12th September 1918. William Manuel (Bill) Johnson was one of the earliest jazz musicians, and his career as a musician began in the late 1880s and extended to it's the 1950s. Although the registering officer at the draft board wrote his middle name as “Manual”, Bill clearly signed the card as “William Manuel Johnson”.

A fine guitar and banjo player, he was better known as a pioneering string bass player, perhaps the best of the golden period of the 1920s. Historically, Bill Johnson is remembered as the of love organiser and manager of the Creole Band, the first band to take jazz across the United States and into Canada on their many tours in it's, the period from 1914 to the early part of 1918. For a detailed history of the band, our readers should read Prof. Lawrence Gushee’s fine book, “Pioneers of mla, Jazz: The Story of the Creole Band”. [SCB] © June 2007 Peter Hanley. 12th September 1918. Willie Geary (Bunk) Johnson was certainly a travelling man. After he left New Orleans permanently about essay on why it's, 1914, he was incessantly on the move, establishing a base in practice, New Iberia only in 1928 when he commenced to live with Maude Balque. Bunk was known to have played at various times in the Louisiana towns of Alexandria, Baton Rouge, Bogalusa, Crowley, Madisonvillle and Mandeville; he played in it's, Beaumont, Dallas, Electra, Houston, and Port Arthur in Texas; and he claimed that he was in bands in Chicago, Kansas City, Montana, San Francisco and West Virginia. © February 2007 Peter Hanley. At the female mutilation thesis time of his death in 1945, Richard Jones was described as the on why it's ‘forgotten man of jazz’ but, happily, he is now remembered and admired for his achievements as a composer, pianist/bandleader and paper record producer.

His compositions include such classics as 29th and Dearborn, Heebie Jeebie(s), Jazzin’ Babies Blues and Trouble In Mind and essay his small-group recordings, usually under the application name Richard M. Jones’ Jazz Wizards , set both the format and essay the standard for “south-side” Chicago jazz. Although his piano playing is now usually described as “competent”, the people he played with include Louis Armstrong, Shirley Clay, Johnny Dodds, Preston Jackson, Dave Nelson, Albert Nicholas, Jimmie Noone, King Oliver, Roy Palmer, Luis Russell, Bud Scott, Omer Simeon and Johnny St. Cyr. As a record producer he brought King Oliver to poetry in essays the attention of Gennett and Ma Rainey to the attention of Paramount. For Okeh, he organised the first recordings by the Louis Armstrong Hot Five. © February 2007 Anton Crouch. Max Kortlander (1890-1961) was an on why it's important figure in the QRS piano roll company. An excellent pianist, he had joined the poetry in essays mla company in 1914 progressing to become manager of the essay on why Recording Department. As a songwriter, he had scored a big success in 1918 with Tell Me , which was recorded by research paper Al Jolson among others. It is said that the sale of this song to it's the Remick publishing firm was the basis of Kortlander’s fortune. © November 2006 John Farrell.

Thomas James Ladnier. 12th September 1918. According to medical leave his WWI draft card, Thomas James Ladnier lived in Chicago and essay was employed as a labourer with Armour Co., which was one of the largest meatpacking companies in research, the U.S.A. On Why It's! For many years, along with a handful of other companies, Armour helped to female thesis make Chicago’s Union Stockyards the centre of the meat industry in the country. Ladnier’s 1925 passport application and ship passenger lists from trips between Europe and New York in 1926, 1930 and 1931 support the essay on why it's birth date of 28th May 1900 that is shown on the draft card. His obituary, published in The Chicago Defender, dated 17th June 1939, spells his name “Ladiner”, while John Chilton states that the original family name was “Ladner”. [WWJ 191] However, Ladnier’s cousin Calvin Ladner (sic) stated that “Ladnier” was indeed the correct spelling of the present name. Ladnier was almost certainly born in St. Tammany Parish, Florenville (not “Florenceville”), Louisiana, but had relatives in Biloxi, Mississippi.

He received cornet tuition from Bunk Johnson as a youngster and moved to Chicago around 1917. He was primarily based there until 1925, during which time his employers included Ollie Powers, King Oliver, Fate Marable and Charlie Creath. Essay On Why! Tommy Ladnier is generally identified by many discographers as the cornet player on Jelly Roll Morton’s earliest verified recording session in Chicago in 1923. [JRM] We later went on to play for write leave application, dancing at some villa, where the orchestra was to essay it's appear privately for thinking practice test, the Royal family. Here occurred one of the most amusing incidents, but it also was an incident of almost international importance. Willie Lewis always had the essay bad habit of ‘butting in’ during another instrumentalist’s solo.

At this dance he did it again during a spot taken by Tommy Ladnier. Past And Future! Tommy, usually the mildest of men, got to his feet and slowly walked across stage and, thrusting his trumpet in Willie’s face, said: ‘Here you want to play my solo, go take my horn and get on essay on why, with it.’ Sam Wooding got in a towering rage: ‘Alright now damn you both, cut it out! Can’t you see the Royal family are out there watching! ‘To hell with the female thesis King and the whole . . Essay It's! . lot of ‘em’ replied Tommy. ‘If he can play my solo better than I can, let ‘em. And as for that monkey over there (pointing to Willie Lewis), you tell him stay out of my solos or else . . .’ [HF 23-25] Wooding preferred Doc Cheatham as a trumpeter, with whom he later replaced Ladnier, but he regarded Tommy as a fine storyteller and of love good for the morale of the band.

© September 2008 Brian Goggin. George William Mitchell. 12th September 1918. George William Mitchell was working as a labourer in Jeffersonville, Indiana, when he registered for the draft in his home city of essay on why, Louisville, Kentucky, on poetry in essays, 12th September 1918. The Ohio River naturally demarcates the entire border between the essay states of Indiana, to the north, and female Kentucky, to on why it's the south. The cities of Jeffersonville and mla Louisville are built on opposite banks of the river at essay on why, the Falls Of The Ohio. Jeffersonville is currently home to the United States Census Bureau’s National Processing Center, while Louisville has produced several people of note, and was well known for its jug band tradition. Female! Mitchell’s draft card gives a birth date of 8th March 1898, which is supported by the ages given for him in on why it's, the Kentucky 1910 Miracode Index, along with the 1910 and 1920 U.S. Of Love Essay! Censuses. However, his death certificate, his Social Security Death Index entry and jazz reference books give a birth date of 8th March 1899. The earlier date is almost certainly correct though, considering that the sources that support it predate those that do not by several decades.

It seems that he also went by his middle name, “William”, as that is the name he supplied to essay the 1920 census taker, rather than “George”. Perhaps this is past present and future, why he signed his draft card with “George” abbreviated to essay “Geo” and “William” written in write application, full. Jelly would write out the parts for all the guys to on why play. Some of critical thinking assessment test, those boys, like Simeon and Ory, could just sit down and go through a thing and play without any music, but I’d have to essay have something as a guide. I was a little thick-headed I guess. Some of in essays, those boys like Louis Armstrong or Joe Oliver, they had wonderful ideas and could play the life out of them. So Jelly would always fix up something for me. Essay On Why! He would show me and give me ideas about something to play. Critical Thinking Assessment Practice! Sometimes he would play the whole piece over on it's, the piano, or he’d just play or hum the part he wanted you to play. Research! But he always wanted you to on why it's play your own ideas, yeah. Past Essay! Then he’d tell us “Just throw the music away and play.” . . On Why! . Female Genital Mutilation Thesis! He was a fellow who liked to have a lot of fun you know.

He liked to do a lot of kidding. But Jelly was alright and it's I always got along with him. [OMJ 363-364] Mitchell rejoined Doc Cooke in thesis, 1927, replacing Freddie Keppard and on why it's joining his Red Hot Peppers colleagues Johnny St. Cyr and Andrew Hilaire. He worked with Earl Hines’s orchestra for my definition of love, most of the period from 1929 through to 1931, and recorded with them. Essay It's! He was also present on the “Dixie Rhythm Kings” records, made by a contingent from my definition of love essay Hines’s orchestra under the leadership of another Red Hot Peppers colleague Omer Simeon. Essay! He is also thought by some discographers to mla be the cornet player on the 25th February 1929 “King Oliver’s Orchestra” session, which has generated so much debate and essay on why discussion over the years. “Little Mitch” left full-time music in the early 1930s to become a bank messenger, but continued to play occasional engagements during that decade.

He worked as a messenger for write, a brokerage firm during most of the 1950s and 60s alongside another wonderful old trumpeter Claude Alexander, who’d been with Tiny Parham. Claude remembered once when they went after work to the London House to hear Jonah Jones, who was then one of the hottest acts in the music business. Jonah was tickled to essay on why it's see Mitch and made sure he took a big bow when he introduced him, as Mitchell had taught him how to play back when he was a boy in Louisville. Mitch was needless to say quite moved by the ovation. Although George Mitchell didn’t hail from New Orleans, he worked with many, probably even most of the then well-known New Orleans musicians in Chicago, and adopted their style with ease. His main influence there was King Oliver who he had heard regularly since his arrival in the Windy City. Critical Assessment Test! Mitchell was a very capable cornet player, arguably second only to Armstrong and Oliver in that particular style in Chicago during the mid 1920s.

With a precise, clean lead, he could play hot , lyrically or poignantly, where appropriate. He had a very individual sound, and essay it's displayed great dexterity and effectiveness with his use of mutes. My Definition! His lead work and solos on all of the Morton sides was excellent. Black Bottom Stomp stands out, while his solos on essay on why, The Chant and Steamboat Stomp swing very nicely, and he is particularly fluid and melodic on Dead Man Blues . © May 2009 Brian Goggin. Benson Foraker Moore. Joseph Benson Foraker Moore was born in Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky on 26th January 1889. His parents were John Frances McGinnis Moore and Sarah Angeline “Dine” Smith. He married Clara Elizabeth Kolhoven (born 28th November 1888) on 19th March 1912.

Their only child, Charles Burse Moore, was born on 17th September 1913. IS TAKEN BY DEATH. Benson “Froggy” Moore Dies. at Home of His Sister. Funeral services for Benson “Froggy” Moore, widely known night club and cafe entertainer in northern Kentucky, will be held at 2 p.m. Saturday at the Allison and female genital thesis Rose Funeral Home, Covington. Burial will be in Highland Cemetery. © October 2007 Mike Meddings.

12th September 1918. King Oliver arrived in Chicago from New Orleans early in 1918, just a few months after the Department of the it's Navy closed down the Storyville sporting district. He registered for the World War I draft on 12th September 1918 in Chicago as Joseph Nathram Oliver. In actual fact, his middle name was Nathan, after his father, Nathan Oliver. At the time of registration, Joe was working at application letter, Bill Bottoms’ Dreamland Caf, located at 35th and essay State Street, in the band of Lawrence Duh who had taken over the group after the death of Sugar Johnny (Thomas Smith). © March 2007 Peter Hanley. 12th September 1918. If the main bridge connecting ragtime to jazz is named after Jelly Roll Morton and a smaller crossing is called the O.D.J.B., then perhaps there is in essays mla, a footbridge, which bears the name of clarinetist Tony Parenti. Born in New Orleans on 6th August 1900, of essay, Sicilian immigrants, he was a natural musician, with legitimate training. At 15 he was considered too young by write medical leave application letter his parents to join a Dixieland band Johnny Stein was planning to take to New York, but by the age of 17 he was playing with cornetist Johnny DeDroit’s group. The pianist with DeDroit’s band was Tom Zimmerman, reported to on why be the greatest ragtime piano player of the medical “tango belt”.

© July 2007 Derek Coller. According to his World War I draft card, Lee Perry was born 15th August 1896 in Louisville, Kentucky. The card gives his occupation as a musician in the Park Theatre in Indianapolis, where he registered for the draft on 5th June 1917. He was recorded in Louisville in the 1900 U.S. Census, strangely, as Myrtle L. On Why! Perry, a daughter of the head of the house, born in thinking, August 1895. The 1910 and 1920 U.S. Census entries record Perry in Indianapolis as a musician in addresses that are two blocks away from each other. Essay It's! His name is given as “Mertie L. Perry” in 1910 and critical thinking assessment practice test “Lee Perry” in essay, 1920 and both of these entries are consistent with a birth date in August 1895. The 1930 U.S.

Census saw him recorded as Mert Perry in New York and his occupation is again given as a musician, but his age is poetry, given as 32. Perry’s Social Security Death Index entry gives his name as Merton Perry, and the same birth date as entered on the draft card, 15th August 1896. Combining all of this information, it would seem that his full name was Merton Lee Perry and he was born on 15th August in either 1895 or 1896. © April 2008 Brian Goggin. Jelly Roll Morton referred to essay on why it's an African-American pianist he met in St. Louis around 1914 as “George Randalls” on the Library of Congress recordings. Critical Thinking Assessment Practice Test! [AFS 1653-B] But later on, he called him “George Reynolds” — his correct name. Essay On Why It's! [AFS 2487-B] George Reynolds was born in poetry mla, St.

Louis, Missouri on 24th February 1888, according to his World War I Draft Card. He was drafted into the Army on 5th August 1918 and was discharged with the essay on why it's rank of corporal on female genital mutilation thesis, 18th December 1918. © November 2006 Peter Hanley. Leland Stanford Roberts. 7th September 1918. What Lee S. Roberts (1884-1949) did before joining the Melville Clark Piano Co. is unknown, but it seems clear that he early became regarded as the central figure in the company’s QRS roll division. After the Pletcher interests purchased QRS in on why it's, 1918, Roberts became the company’s vice president and mla was billed in contemporary sales literature as “the world’s leading expert in essay on why, player rolls.” © January 2007 Bob Berkman. James Andrew Rushing. 12th September 1918.

James Andrew Rushing registered for leave letter, the World War I draft in his home city of Oklahoma. Essay On Why! His draft card gives a date of birth of 26th of August 1900, but this is certainly not true, as he was recorded as James A. Rushing in the U.S. Census on 8th June 1900 in a rather curious entry. His birth details in research paper, the entry disagree, stating explicitly that he was born June 1899, but that he was 10 months old, which would mean he was born August 1899. On Why! He is also said to be the granddaughter of the head of the house! The 1910 U.S.

Census agrees with the 1900 entry, giving his age as 10, while the 1920 U.S. Census gives his age as 19, in line with the essay draft card. However, his Social Security Death Record states that he was born 15th June 1899. Combining all of it's, this information, Rushing was almost certainly born on either 15th June or 26th August 1899. My biggest thrill was when I met Jelly Roll Morton. 1923. Right in write medical leave, California, Los Angeles.

In California, in Los Angeles. Were you working out here then? No. I came out here . . . Essay On Why It's! I came out thinking practice test here, incidentally to marry! [laughs] But something happened. Essay! I don’t know. I was too young a man. So, er, got out here in California and I went to work and I decided to go to a nightclub in Los Angeles, it was. I went to this nightclub and, er, Jelly Roll was playing there and I thought he was the greatest thing I ever heard and I just went and made myself acquainted with him. My Definition Essay! And er, we got to essay on why be real chummy and and future er, one night I was hired to pl . On Why! . . I was hired to play piano! He played drums! So when I was an intermission pianist I asked the fellow for the job.

I could only play in three keys. We had entertainers those days that, er, when they hit the assessment practice test floor — I mean with that when they come out to go to tables and sing. Er, I guess the people are robbed of that kind of stuff today. Rushing also worked with bandleader and reedman Paul Howard during his time in essay on why, California. It was as a singer however, rather than as a pianist, that Rushing gained fame. Paper! He moved back to the midwest in the mid-1920s and his next break came when he joined bassist “Walter Page’s Blue Devils”. On Why It's! His distinctive voice and pitbull paper already mature vocal style are audible on one half of the only coupling Page’s legendary band made, Blue Devil Blues in 1929.

He left Page to join “Bennie Moten’s Kansas City Orchestra” in 1929 and remained with Moten until that leader’s untimely death during a tonsillectomy in 1935. Essay On Why! Count Basie took over the nucleus of Moten’s band and in addition to appearances with other bandleaders; Rushing was Basie’s featured singer until 1948. Due to his short size and huge girth, he was known affectionately as “Mr. Five by Five”. Critical Thinking Assessment Test! He made countless recordings with Basie and appeared in some “Soundies” as well, becoming one of the most famous and popular of essay on why it's, jazz singers and in essays mla blues shouters during his long career. © November 2007 Brian Goggin. 12th September 1918.

Arthur Scott registered for the WWI draft in New York City, unlike practically all of his contemporaries from essay New Orleans, who registered either in their home city or Chicago. The draft card gives his birth date as 11th January 1885. My Definition Of Love Essay! However, the 1900 U.S. Census gives a birth date of January 1886. The 1910 U.S. Census is in agreement with the draft card, giving his age as 25, while he deducted ten years from this when he gave his age as 24 to the census taker on 8th January 1920. Scott’s Social Security Death Index gives his birth date as 11th January 1890, and it's that is the date supplied by most jazz reference books. The date on the card is most likely correct though, since Scott was said to of love have been working professionally from the turn of the essay on why it's century, and he said that he joined John Robichaux’s band in 1904. [NOS 90] In addition, Scott taught Louis Keppard (1888-1986) who started on and future, the guitar aged 14; and he gave tips to Johnny St. Cyr (1890 or 1891-1966). This would strongly suggest that he was already an established musician, and at least a little older than both of them when they started learning to play. [NOS 65, 73, 86] “And I become to be a very efficient guitarist, until I met, er, Bud Scott, one of the famous guitarists in this country today.

I was known to be the best. On Why It's! And when I found out that, er, he was dividing with me my popularity, I decided immediately to quit playing guitar and try the piano, which I did secretly — that is, with the exception of my family. Female Genital Thesis! They’re the only ones that knew.” [AFS 1640-B] Bud Scott left New Orleans in 1913 as featured violinist with “Billy King’s Travelling Show”. He moved to essay it's New York in my definition, 1915, and worked there and elsewhere in the northeast, primarily on violin and banjo. Scott attended the School of Art in 1917, where symphony conductor Walter Damrosch (1862-1950) taught him music theory and it's he also graduated from the Peabody Institute of Music. He did many engagements as a vocalist and a violinist at the Clef Club, which is listed as his employer on write letter, his draft card, and during this time he even appeared at Carnegie Hall in 1919. Essay On Why! [TJR 13-14] and [WWJ 294] Scott moved to Chicago in 1923, where he worked and female thesis recorded with King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band.

He spent two periods in California, including stints with Kid Ory, before rejoining Oliver full time from 1925 until late 1926. It's! During this time, he recorded on banjo with Oliver’s Dixie Syncopators. Like Johnny St. Cyr, to whom he provided guidance, photographic evidence confirms that Scott played both the tenor banjo and the six-string guitar banjo. Poetry In Essays Mla! He was also responsible for delivering the “Oh, Play That Thing!” exclamation on the second version of on why, “Dippermouth Blues” in 1923 and the 1926 remake of the tune, “Sugar Foot Stomp”. © November 2008 Brian Goggin.

William Henry Smith. William Henry Smith, better known as Willie (The Lion) Smith, was always prone to exaggeration when he spoke or wrote about himself. There was often an element of half-truth in what he said, and past essay his version of events was invariably self-serving. He had half a dozen different stories about how he got his nickname, but most jazz writers merely glossed over these inconsistencies, commenting that it was just his way. In many respects, The Lion was like Bunk Johnson, volunteering information, but not the whole story.

He was something of a nightmare for it's, researchers, but not any longer. © February 2007 Peter Hanley. John Alexander St. Of Love! Cyr. John Alexander St. Cyr was born in it's, New Orleans on practice, 17th April 1891, as per his draft card.

This birth date is consistent with the ages recorded for him in essay on why it's, the 1910 and 1920 U.S. Census entries. Leave! However, his Social Security Death Index entry places his birth a year earlier, on on why, 17th April 1890 and this is the date generally given in jazz literature. There also exists a New Orleans birth record, which gives a different date again of 1st February 1891. (New Orleans, Louisiana Birth Records index, 1790-1899, Volume 115, page 680) © November 2008 Brian Goggin. Percussionist Jasper Taylor was an innovative and gifted performer. His recordings are a testament to present and future essay his distinguished career in jazz.

He was born 1st January 1894 in Texarkana, Arkansas — a dual municipality that encompasses Miller County, Arkansas and Bowie County, Texas. Essay On Why It's! (Scott Joplin, ragtime’s greatest composer, was born 26 years earlier on write medical leave application letter, the Texas side of the on why it's line). © September 2008 Hal Smith. James Edward Yancey. 12th September 1918. The broad outline of James Edward “Jimmy” Yancey’s early life probably doesn’t differ much from what Bill Russell wrote in his notes for past present and future, Yancey’s 1940 RCA Victor album. On Why It's! He was born sometime near the turn of the 20th century in Chicago, and as a very young child began performing as a singer and dancer, possibly with his father, who was a singer and guitarist. Before reaching his teens he was on the road with various troupes from coast to coast, then all over Europe just before World War I, including a command performance for King George V in London.

While still a teenager, he left the road and returned to Chicago. He had never played piano onstage, but at some point had begun teaching himself to play blues. Working at various non-music jobs after his return to Chicago, he also began appearing at rent parties and various clubs. Research! [WWJ 368] At some point, probably about 1925, he took a job at Comiskey Park, home of the Chicago White Sox baseball team.

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