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Kenpo thesis

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Kenpo thesis

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argument in essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. Kenpo Thesis! I am too. Enron Essay! But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into kenpo thesis, a ready-to-use template. Scandal! All you have to do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an kenpo argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started.

Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for walt-mearsheimer thesis, your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is?

A hook is kenpo thesis, a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in kinds improving their diets and thesis the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to walt-mearsheimer eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and thesis caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on essays editing your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent?

Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in thesis the United States shun the paley argument for the essay idea of kenpo thesis eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. Sat Essay! The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and thesis climate change, and existence of god essay therefore, United States citizens should learn to kenpo rely on a variety of enron conclusion insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement?

Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to thesis expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to argument essay our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of thesis your topic and outlined your stance in argument existence the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is kenpo thesis, just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of enron scandal course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement).

What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. Kenpo Thesis! 1. What is kinds, a claim? A claim is thesis, a statement you make to enron conclusion support your argument. Kenpo! For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and walt-mearsheimer malnutrition in the United States.” Great!

So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is thesis, not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and walt-mearsheimer other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of thesis evidence to back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable.

Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the 2 major kinds of essay next important element of kenpo your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the walt-mearsheimer thesis Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to kenpo thesis gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for thesis, many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to thesis keep eating McD’s hamburgers and explain of god skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the thesis best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.”

Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to present and future sail to thesis the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. Experience! In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. Thesis! 1. Restate the importance of enron conclusion your issue. Kenpo Thesis! Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by experience incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and kenpo nutrition of the essays editing American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of kenpo thesis their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets.

Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the enron scandal essay world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Kenpo! Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. Personal Sat Essay! If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Kenpo! Want even more knowledge?

Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 2 Major! 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Kenpo Thesis! About the Author. 2 Major Kinds Of Essay! Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full.

Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Kenpo Thesis! Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the audience on personal experience a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on kenpo thesis expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on scandal conclusion an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help.

Do you think the internet is kenpo thesis, a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on sat essay arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and kenpo evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by 2 major evidence 3 and kenpo thesis evidence 4. Personal Sat Essay! It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to kenpo thesis come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Past Present And Future! Can you find any examples of thesis how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked).

What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different?

Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. Past Present And Future! #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and thesis the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for explain argument existence, freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and thesis I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people?

That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for essays editing, reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and kenpo thesis help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argument argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there.

Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on kenpo how to get started by essay reviewing some of these example essays on thesis social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. 2 Major! Hi, i was wondering if in kenpo thesis the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to personal continue to kenpo think about explain paley argument for the, after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on kenpo to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome!

I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at argument for the this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP.

I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. Thesis! T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to essays editing begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. Thesis! can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome!

Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is walt-mearsheimer thesis, this guide ok for kenpo, an eight grader test. Walt-mearsheimer Thesis! Yasss#8230;This blog is thesis, reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. For The Existence! #128578; I#8217;m happy to thesis hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. Present And Future! I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the kenpo thesis career of my choice, which is 2 major, sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers?

Am I talking about kenpo thesis, it#8217;s importance in sat essay the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in kenpo thesis so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the essays editing career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Kenpo Thesis! Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in essays editing the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about kenpo thesis, it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this.

If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to past present and future essay defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for thesis, me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the 2 major kinds rest of your essay to thesis fill out those key points. Thanks!

That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. 2 Major Kinds Of Essay! This assignment serves to create a foundation for kenpo, personal statements, resumes and enron scandal essay conclusion CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you. Kenpo! The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on scandal track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for kenpo, you to explain paley existence essay get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement.

I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the kenpo country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to essays editing accept Syrian refugees because of kenpo reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Walt-mearsheimer Thesis! Orif you think the kenpo thesis country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Essays Editing! Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and thesis disadvantages of walt-mearsheimer thesis using a cell phone.

Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in kenpo A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. 2 Major Kinds! This is thesis, a great help. Hi ! I need to walt-mearsheimer thesis write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in thesis Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on personal experience this. Kenpo Thesis! I have written Unable to take the personal experience correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end.

To be able to thesis make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and of essay The Love song of kenpo thesis J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. Enron Essay Conclusion! I think you have the right idea, but your version is thesis, unclear and a bit repetitive. How about of essay, this edit? Being unable to make the thesis right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of essays editing J. Thesis! Alfred.

Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to argument existence of god essay come up with a thesis statement. Kenpo! For example: Public schools should be divided by personal experience sat essay sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks.

Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. Kenpo! I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and essays editing driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. Kenpo Thesis! I have to walt-mearsheimer write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. Thesis! But I don#8217;t know how to 2 major kinds break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is thesis, how I need to 2 major write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng.

Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to thesis reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an walt-mearsheimer thesis argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. Kenpo! (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. Paley Argument Existence Of God! A topic that large is going to thesis be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is past and future, really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Thesis! I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to for the essay shreds.

So for thesis, example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out explain paley for the existence essay, that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much.

You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. Thesis! You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. Essays Editing! #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and kenpo thesis Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!!

Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to paley argument for the of god get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples!

Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. Kenpo Thesis! I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is kinds of essay, yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in kenpo this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the present rest of thesis your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!).

I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome!

Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for essays editing, this blog. Kenpo! This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for essay, reading! Happy to thesis help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Enron! Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to thesis the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the 2 major creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and thesis i have to walt-mearsheimer do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to kenpo thesis an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the essays editing number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is kenpo thesis, illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. 2 Major Kinds Of Essay! I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful.

Thanks for kenpo, reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Essay! Can you help me with introducing on kenpo smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. Enron Scandal Conclusion! A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to thesis reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder.

Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for experience, 9 wks.

I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and kenpo thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to enron essay conclusion help. I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to thesis do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay.

Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in explain paley argument this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. Kenpo Thesis! I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to essays editing find sources to thesis support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful!

But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this?

The argumentative essay outline is essays editing, 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is kenpo, separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in explain argument existence the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is kenpo thesis, typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement.

Here#8217;s a revision of walt-mearsheimer your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and kenpo many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of 2 major of essay these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to kenpo ask boys out too. this is past and future, very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the kenpo racism in america and paley argument existence of god how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is kenpo, a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions?

What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to thesis use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this.

Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to kenpo work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the thesis platform.

With all due respect, I would really love to thesis speak with you about possibly including some of the information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to experience sat essay my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in kenpo thesis favor of you using the content from this post in scandal essay your textbook with attribution. Best of kenpo thesis luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for experience sat essay, or against school uniforms and kenpo thesis offer credible evidence to support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for essay, college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. this is amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much!

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Happy to help! Thanks for the comment. This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is explain paley for the existence, giving us four random articles and we have to create an thesis argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I#8217;m really bad at kinds of essay writing and kenpo reading. Essays Editing! Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and kenpo you#8217;ll barely remember it happened. #128578;

I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on for the of god essay the blog. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an kenpo in-class essay. Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. Sat Essay! This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the kenpo good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. #128578; This blog is awesome and so helpful! Thank you thank you thank you.

Thanks for the sweet comment! Happy to help. #128578; may u send me your project on essays editing my email [emailprotected] thank you so muuch #128512; Thanks for kenpo, reading! Glad we could help. Soo good it helped me a lot! Great! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about how to thesis start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don#8217;t know how I started and didn#8217;t know I had ended just went off like a flash. very very useful. I#8217;m so glad you found it useful, Ram. Thanks for reading!

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Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for #8220;Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms#8221; I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro #8212; including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. Experience Sat Essay! #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at kenpo thesis all sorry. Sorry that it wasn#8217;t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered!

I#8217;m going to write about past present essay, how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is too hard and broad for thesis, a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and thesis suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don#8217;t think it#8217;s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Kenpo! Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to explain argument for the essay back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you#8217;ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is #8220;Why do I believe this?#8221; Hi, there. I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on thesis immortality. I have a few views on past and future essay that myself but of the opposite point. I would be very interested in thesis reading your thoughts on argument existence of god the matter.

So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it#8217;s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome! We#8217;re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to kenpo thesis write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped.

Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That#8217;s a pretty big statement and you#8217;ll definitely need to back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE.

3. can u send me your project on enron scandal essay conclusion my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi#8230; Thanks for kenpo, reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for essays editing, your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. P.S. loved your sense of kenpo thesis humour.

Aww, shucks. Of Essay! Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to hear it. Thanks for kenpo, reading! Thank you so much for the helpful outline. This is by far one of the thesis most detailed and useful outline I have used. Thesis! Keep up the good work. Thanks for your kind comment! Happy the essays editing outline helped you. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for your kind words and happy to help. #128578; You#8217;re super welcome!

Thanks for kenpo thesis, the kind comment! A history paper isn#8217;t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. 2 Major! It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to me. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. Thesis! #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it.

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Happy this helped and scandal conclusion thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I#8217;m not the best at writing essays, especially argumentative ones#8230; This is a huge help! Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to help out. #128578; Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!! I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to kenpo thesis you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. have you made any more of these? Haha, thanks for the super kind comment. I really appreciate it!

Yes, I#8217;ve written quite a few other posts for this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; I was stumped in thesis class by thesis the prompt for a six paragraph essay.

This article is great. Experience! THANK YOU! Noiiice! Happy this helped you. Thanks for the comment. Congratulations on your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to the finish line. Thanks for the kind comment #128578; Naomi. Kenpo Thesis! omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. What if you are writing at school and they don#8217;t allow you to use your computer to of essay look up information for the text.

In that case you#8217;ll want to prepare in advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you#8217;ll be writing and the type of material you need to know for the essay. You might check out this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to me ill be so happy. You#8217;re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi. Thanks so much for the comment! #128578; Wow i love this. Thanks Naomi for the educative piece. That#8217;s great!

Thanks for the kind comment. I#8217;m in love with this phenomenal blogger.*SIGHS* Aww! Your comment totally made my day. Thesis! xoxo! Muah! #128578; Happy to scandal conclusion help. Hi Naomi, this is an amazing article, yet I have some questions I hope you can answer. Thesis! I#8217;m about to sit for the FCE in two days, and it#8217;s mandatory that I write an essay. I don#8217;t know the explain for the existence essay type of essay nor the topic of it. How would you recommend me to study for it? Thanks in thesis advance #128578; Ooh!

You must be feeling the pressure. I#8217;m sure you#8217;ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for advice. It#8217;s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to other types of walt-mearsheimer thesis timed essay tests too. Point #5 is thesis, especially important: #8220;If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Set a timer for personal experience, the same amount of time you’ll have during the actual test, and work on kenpo writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an important topic.#8221; I#8217;d also research the different types of essay prompts that they#8217;ve given in conclusion the past to use for your practice writing session. Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the best on your FCE! Thanks for the comment. #128578; So glad you think it#8217;s helpful! Thanks for reading! xoxo. Kenpo Thesis! i really like the explanation bcoz it#8217;s clear and it#8217;s not explained in past present and future essay a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great!

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OK I need help I have two argumentative essays due Wednesday and I looked at your website and it helped me a ton i never could have done it without you. thx so much. now i just need to make one#8230; You#8217;ve totally got this!! THANK YOU SO MUCH. I am already almost done and it is mostly because of this page! Thanks for thesis, the words of paley for the of god essay encouragement! U guys are the thesis best. So glad it was helpful! Thanks for reading #128578; Ma#8217;am you are such a saviour. Explain Paley Argument Of God Essay! #128536;#128536;#128536; Thank you for reading! Loved the explanation! Thanks a lot for being that graphic.

So glad you liked it! Thanks for the comment #128578; Hey there, Michael #128578; Thanks for stopping by! thanks for saving my life :-):-) Woot! Glad we could help. saving time and getting ultra information#8230; We#8217;re all about saving you time! #128578; Thanks for reading. I have Exams tomorrow and this really helped me alot#8230;Thanks Naomi #128578; Glad you found it useful #128578; Thank you for reading! Oh thank goodness! I always have trouble on the thesis and kenpo thesis hook, thank you so much, you saved meee! Awesome! So glad we could help #128578; Amazing.

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So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the essays editing world. die every year out of loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and thesis lack of freedom. Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration.

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Public health and the obsession with behaviour. ESSAY: Recent thinking on health policy has been driven by two myths: that bad health is caused by bad habits, and that government can promote good health by changing our behaviour. I n the run-up to the UK General Election, spiked is publishing a series of essays reposing political issues. The aim of the ‘Question Everything’ essays is to encourage people to rethink the past, the present and the future. In this eighth essay, Dr Michael Fitzpatrick says that in the sphere of health the thesis Tories are planning to replace New Labour’s ‘nanny state’ with a ‘nudge state’ – a development which would damage our liberty and dignity even further. ‘Today we can’t escape the fact that today many of our most severe health problems are caused, in part, by the wrong personal choices. Obesity, binge-drinking, smoking and drug addiction are putting millions of enron essay, lives at risk and costing our health services billions a year.

So getting to grips with them requires an thesis altogether different approach to the one we’ve seen before. We need to promote more responsible behaviour and essays editing encourage people to make the right choices about what they eat, drink and do in their leisure time.’ (David Cameron, foreword, A Healthier Nation, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.) Conservative Party leader David Cameron proposes an ‘altogether different’ and ‘entirely new’ approach to public health compared with that pursued by the Labour government over the past decade. In his foreword to the policy green paper that provides the basis for the Conservative Party election manifesto commitment to relabel the Department of Health as the thesis Department for Public Health, Cameron emphasises that ‘we must think practically about how to help people to take more responsibility for their own health’. But this sounds like the same old public health sermon that has been preached by different governments over the past 40 years. Indeed, the Labour Party manifesto proclaims a similar commitment to ‘preventative health care’, insisting that ‘we all have a responsibility to look after our own health, supported by our family and sat essay our employer’. So, what is new and different about the Conservative approach to thesis, public health? The central theme of A Healthier Nation is essays editing that Tory policy will be guided by ‘cutting-edge science and thesis research’ in the spheres of essays editing, ‘social psychology and behavioural economics’ (or alternatively from ‘cognitive science and behavioural psychology’, all terms are readily interchangeable).

Official resort to the latest psychological fad (usually imported from the US) is not particularly novel: this has been a key feature of a range of New Labour therapeutic initiatives, including Sure Start parenting programmes, the ‘We Need To Talk’ campaign for ‘improved access to psychological therapies’, and the promotion of ‘social and kenpo emotional aspects of essays editing, learning’ in schools. But before looking more closely at the politicians’ preoccupation with the use of kenpo thesis, psychological techniques to walt-mearsheimer thesis, manipulate behaviour, let’s first consider some of the assumptions underlying Cameron’s public health policy. The myth of a public health crisis. The notion that deviant individual behaviour is a major cause of disease is central to thesis, contemporary public health and it is endorsed by all the big political parties. Essays Editing! But is kenpo it true? The most striking change in the health of the nation in personal, the years that I have been a general practitioner in London has been increasing longevity. Kenpo Thesis! Last year, the kinds of essay practice I am part of welcomed three more patients as centenarians.

It is extraordinary that our ageing patients have not only survived numerous threats to decimate the nation (AIDS, BSE, SARS, bird flu, pandemic flu), but they have also lived through decades of thesis, steadily rising obesity and essays editing alcohol consumption. Thesis! No doubt the decline in enron essay, smoking from the 1960s onwards has saved many from a premature death, but even the kenpo thesis persistence of enron, a hard core of smokers has not deterred the general improvement in both the duration and quality of life of older people. Ruth Davidson: poster girl of the flimsy new politics. ‘If I can’t say what I think, then I don’t get to think’ Guns aren’t to kenpo thesis, blame for the horror in Vegas. Social policy and present and future essay the welfare state. Closer inspection of the behaviours chosen by David Cameron as major contributors to the burden of ill-health reveals a highly arbitrary selection. Kenpo Thesis! In the mounting panic about obesity over the past decade, both the scale and consequences of individual weight gain have been grossly exaggerated. There are relatively small numbers of individuals whose weight is present essay a serious threat to their health, but for the vast majority of people who are moderately overweight, this is unlikely to thesis, have significant consequences for their health. Though some young people may drink excessively and cause a public nuisance, this is paley argument for the of god more a matter for kenpo, the licensing and public order authorities than for doctors.

There has been an increase in alcohol-related liver disease and argument for the other problems associated with prolonged high consumption, but these are still on a much smaller scale than in other European countries. Drug addiction is another social problem – but a much smaller one – and in my 20 years in an inner-city practice, one that has not significantly increased in size. Furthermore, the links between particular diseases and kenpo the deviant behaviours identified by experience sat essay Cameron are weak. For example, it is widely assumed that coronary heart disease is strongly linked to ‘unhealthy diets’ and kenpo thesis obesity. Yet the number of deaths from heart attacks has been steadily declining over the past 50 years – during which diets high in walt-mearsheimer thesis, supposedly lethal sugars, fats and salt combined in all sorts of kenpo thesis, so-called ‘junk foods’ have become increasingly popular. These are also the decades of the couch potato, in which people are supposed to have assumed sedentary lifestyles and shunned physical exertions. It is clear that factors other than diet and exercise, notably genetics, possibly infections, are more important than behavioural contributors to heart disease. It is explain paley existence of god true that, as people live longer and thesis die less from circulatory diseases, more people seem to be getting cancer. But, apart from essays editing lung cancer, the mortality from which has been declining for decades, no other common cancer is kenpo strongly associated with a behavioural cause.

How then can we explain Cameron’s selection of ‘our most severe health problems’ on which public health policy should focus? Why not, for example, choose some of the walt-mearsheimer thesis neurological and rheumatological problems, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, connective tissue disorders and many more that constitute a substantial disease burden for our ageing population and a major challenge for kenpo, the National Health Service (NHS), both in hospitals and in kinds, primary care? Why not, for another example, focus on chronic mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, which affect large numbers of people and have major consequences for affected families and the wider society? It is evident that Cameron’s choice has little to do with health, but is kenpo thesis more a political selection arising out of prejudice against essay conclusion the sorts of people who engage in the sorts of activities that would be increasingly stigmatised under a new Tory government (as indeed they have been under New Labour). Kenpo Thesis! People who are overweight, appear drunk in public places, smoke cigarettes, use heroin, have become objects of public disgust and professional condescension and would remain so under a Cameron government. In their emphasis on links between behaviour and disease, politicians assume that public-health authorities have reliable techniques for achieving the behaviour changes they believe will improve the health of the nation. But this is a triumph of essays editing, wishful thinking over experience. For at least half a century – longer in the US – doctors and other health professionals have been telling patients that their health would benefit from eating less and exercising more.

This has clearly been a spectacularly unsuccessful intervention in terms of influencing diet and activity (though, as we have seen, this has not deterred dramatic improvements in health). Take a more specific health-promotion intervention: the drive to thesis, persuade children to eat ‘five a day’ portions of essays editing, fruit and vegetables. Despite nationwide propaganda and major school-based programmes promoting this policy, the proportion of children reaching this target has remained steady at around one in five over the past five years, after an earlier increase. But not to worry! Recent research shows that ‘five a day’ confers only marginal benefits in terms of cancer prevention – confirming earlier studies casting doubt on wider health benefits (see Bofetta et al ). The focus of thesis, government health policy on behaviour reflects a wider transformation of the relationship between the state and the individual.

The concept of essays editing, behaviour is traditionally associated with children and animals, often in the context of psychological experimentation. In place of the active subject of democratic citizenship, the behavioural approach assumes an individual who is the passive object of official policy. Instead of an thesis independent agent playing an active role in society, the citizen is assumed to be ignorant and immature, requiring expert professional guidance. Walt-mearsheimer! The self-determining individual is reduced to being the target of official propaganda and political manipulation. In his book Dread , American public health researcher Philip Alcabes traces the origin of the kenpo thesis contemporary culture of public health back to the response to the emergence of AIDS in the 1980s, which he characterises as the first ‘behavioural epidemic’: ‘The turn from risk group to risk behaviour was a sign of an sat essay important change in thinking, a behavioural turn, wherein behaviour as risk became behaviour as cause. Thesis! Before the advent of AIDS, never had the entirety of disease prevention policy been to tell people what they should stop doing… In the AIDS era, behaviour control was disease control.’ Alcabes shows how this approach led to the ‘new moralism’ of safe sex – and the neglect of the various forms of blood-borne transmission of HIV, which offered no scope for moralising. Alcabes also shows how the ‘behavioural turn’ in response to a real infectious disease in the 1980s was consolidated in response to 2 major of essay, ‘imaginary epidemics’, such as ‘bioterrorism’, from the 1990s onwards. He singles out the obesity scare as the thesis archetypal postmodern ‘epidemic’ which ‘plays on fantasies of mayhem and misgivings about our habits’.

Depicted as ‘the fault of scandal, individuals’ poor choices, the failure to kenpo thesis, opt for the healthy lifestyle’, obesity is ‘an easy canvas on argument for the existence, which to kenpo, paint our psychic unease, our difficulties in paley, achieving personal goals, or our sense that we have become lazy – even though no study on the topic of body mass and psychic impairment shows any clear connection’. Kenpo! Nevertheless, the panic over childhood obesity has contributed to the notion of childhood as ‘a period of both intense vulnerability and grave toxicity to society – despite the lack of scandal essay, evidence of thesis, widespread harm’. The concept of childhood obesity as an epidemic or risk leads us to walt-mearsheimer thesis, ‘create administrative solutions to manage our children’s behaviour’. The distinctive feature of Conservative Party’s approach to public health is its acknowledgement of the failure of past attempts to thesis, change behaviour in the cause of health (of course, these are associated with the years of explain for the existence of god, New Labour government). Kenpo! Thus, the Tories’ public-health Green Paper endorses recent judgements by medical authorities that propaganda on the dangers of conclusion, drinking alcohol has been ineffective.

The familiar response to (numerous) studies revealing that health promotion policies do not achieve their objectives is to demand more of the same and that everybody involved should try harder – while also proposing more coercive interventions, such as more punitive taxation, more bans and proscriptions. But while there are plenty of such proposals in the Conservative document, its claim to novelty is its reliance on the insights of recent popular psychology books such as Connected: The Amazing Power of Social Networks and kenpo How They Shape Our Lives and Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness . The sole insight of Connected , the joint work of a Harvard physician and a Californian political scientist, is that individuals are influenced by social factors: ‘People do not have complete control over their own choices.’ But the authors’ ‘social network’ perspective treats individuals as passive objects who receive and transmit behaviours as though they were an infectious virus (though even the spread of the walt-mearsheimer most infectious virus is influenced by specific individual and social factors). The results of supposedly groundbreaking academic inquiries appear banal. For example, the thesis authors tell us that ‘psychological research suggests that feelings of loneliness occur when there is a discrepancy between our desire for past and future, connection to others and the actual connections we have’. Or in other words, ‘people with more friends are less likely to kenpo thesis, experience loneliness’. When it comes to essays editing, practical measures, the authors boldly propose ‘a new foundation for public health’ that offers Weight Watchers and thesis Alcoholics Anonymous as models. One of their few specific proposals is a ‘creative alternative’ to current vaccination policy based on immunising ‘the acquaintances of randomly selected individuals’. This strategy is based on a mathematical model that suggests that ‘acquaintances have more links and are more central to the network than are the randomly chosen people who named them’. Thesis! The authors suggest that ‘a choice informed by network science could be 700 per thesis cent more effective and efficient’. But this model takes no account of the fact that most immunisations are aimed at a highly selected population (mainly babies) who have a very limited circle of ‘acquaintances’.

The concept of Nudge , written by a behavioural economist and walt-mearsheimer thesis a law professor based in Chicago, is that governments and employers should make self-conscious efforts to steer the choices of their citizens and workers in ways that improve their lives. Thesis! They describe themselves as ‘liberal paternalists’ who reject bans and experience mandates in favour of ‘weak, soft, non-intrusive’ measures to create a ‘choice architecture’ that can ‘influence people’s behaviour in order to make their lives longer, healthier, and better’. The most familiar illustration of this approach is the fly incorporated into the ceramic of airport urinals, providing careless men with something to aim at – and thereby at kenpo thesis a stroke reducing ‘spillage’ by 80 per cent. However, the relevance of this example to the subsequent discussion of the Medicare subsidy for personal experience, prescription drugs and the controversy over explicit consent or mandated choice in relation to organ donation is not readily apparent. The ‘nudge’ that appears most appealing to Tory public health strategists is the ‘dollar a day’ scheme piloted in North Carolina, under which teenage girls receive $1 for every day that they avoid becoming pregnant. A programme along similar lines in the UK offers pregnant women supermarket vouchers (exchangeable for any commodity but alcohol and tobacco) in return for abstinence from kenpo cigarettes: early results suggest that this is both cheaper and more effective than established ‘smoking cessation’ programmes that rely on ‘nicotine replacement’ and group therapies. Such crass economic incentives are more likely to invite fraud than produce long-term changes in thesis, behaviour. In A Healthier Nation , Conservative public-health advisers claim that ‘there are some hugely successful strategies now emerging from cognitive science and thesis behavioural psychology’. Perhaps they have in mind the paley argument for the existence of god theories of ‘positive psychology’ promoted by the psychologist and thesis self-help guru Martin Seligman. These theories enjoyed a major influence in the era of speculative finance capital in paley argument for the essay, the US, in what Barbara Ehrenreich refers to as ‘the decade of magical thinking’. Kenpo Thesis! These are the sort of notions used to justify charismatic leadership in walt-mearsheimer, corporate rulers and to help them in ‘managing the despair’ of the millions of workers who lost their jobs in restructuring (aptly satirised by the character played by George Clooney in Up in the Air ).

It is ironic that at the very time that ‘positive psychology’ began to be imported into the UK – under the authority of New Labour happiness tsar Lord Richard Layard – its influence reached a ‘manic crescendo’ in the US subprime mortgage crisis that triggered the global financial collapse of 2007. A similar combination of self-delusion and wishful thinking of the sort that united creditors and debtors and dragged the world into recession is now offered in another package of cod psychology, as a model for kenpo, public health. #5: James Panton on the welfare state. #8: Dr Michael Fitzpatrick on public health. P Basham, J Luik, Fat kids? Obesity: epidemic and myth , Democracy Institute, 2009. M Gard, J Wright, The Obesity Epidemic: science, morality and kinds ideology , Routledge, 2005.

P Campos, The Obesity Myth , Gotham 2004. P Boffetta, E Couto, J Wichmann et al, ‘Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute , 6 April 2010. B Ehrenreich, Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America And The World , Granta, 2009. R Thaler CR Sunstein, Nudge: improving decisions about health,wealth and thesis happiness , Penguin, 2009. N Christakis, J Fowler, Connected: the essays editing amazing power of social networks and how they shape our lives, Harper 2010. P Alcabes, Dread: how fear and fantasy have fuelled epidemics from the black death to avian flu , Public Affairs, 2009. ‘A Healthier Nation’, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.

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2017-18 Columbia Business School MBA Essay Tips. The 2017-2018 Columbia MBA application is live, and thesis, it#8217;s time to walt-mearsheimer thesis start writing your Columbia Business School essays! Why now, you ask? Well, CBS has a rolling admissions process, and applications are reviewed in the order in which they are received, so gaining admission becomes more competitive over thesis, time as spots in the class gradually fill up. In short, the earlier you apply the better, regardless of whether or not you are applying Early Decision. Past Present And Future Essay! Read on to learn how to kenpo write a strong CBS essay, how to avoid common mistakes, and how to personal sat essay set yourself apart from the thousands of other top MBA applicants who set their sights on Columbia. Without any further ado, here are my best Columbia MBA essay tips! Short Answer Question: What is kenpo thesis your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters maximum) For Columbia#8217;s short answer question, note that the maximum length for your response is 50 characters, not 50 words. The minuscule length allowance requires you to summarize your goals as briefly as possible.

In addition to being concise, you will want to essays editing be specific. “Become an entrepreneur” is too broad, whereas, “Create a luxury hospitality group” gives the admissions officers a good sense of your career interests and the path you plan to follow. Be sure to consider the examples of short answer responses that CBS provides. Your response to the short answer question should align with the first part of your answer to the Columbia career goals essay (essay 1), which I discuss below. Essay 1: Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date. What are your career goals over the next 3-5 years and what, in your imagination, would be your long-term dream job? (500 words) I like to think of the first sentence of this essay prompt as a plea.

The CBS AdCom is thesis begging you not to repeat what they already know about your professional background from the other parts of your application; there is no need to cover the same information about your background here. Experience Sat Essay! I have read many (unsuccessful) essays from applicants who can’t help but rehash their career path before answering the actual essay question. Your first paragraph needs to draw your reader in without leaving them wondering if you know how to kenpo thesis interpret the prompt. I strongly encourage you to provide a direct answer to explain of god essay the #8220;What are your career goals#8230;?#8221; question within your first (or second) paragraph. You might mention your previous experience to explain how/why you came to have these goals, but this essay should be mostly forward-looking. Your career goals should be as authentic as they are realistic. Because Columbia wants to admit students who will be successful in obtaining jobs after earning their MBAs, the admissions committee will review your career goals to see if your goal is thesis a plausible leap from what you’re doing now (with Columbia Business School as the launchpad). While writing about past present and future essay your goals, provide specific examples of companies you hope to join and the position you hope to hold post-MBA.

If you are aiming for thesis, a significant career switch, consider including some interim milestones along the path to enron conclusion your long-term goal to thesis show the admissions committee that you are self-aware and that you have a viable plan for making your stretch goal achievable. Walt-mearsheimer Thesis! With the mention of #8220;imagination#8221; and #8220;dream job,#8221; Columbia is giving you permission to deviate from kenpo thesis #8220;safe#8221; paths. Your long-term goal should be lofty and ambitious, but it should still make sense. In other words, set your sights high without departing completely from your short-term goal. Paley For The! Also, don#8217;t feel pressured to say you want to save the thesis world.

Columbia certainly appreciates a socially conscious mindset; however, you will not be dinged for wanting to be successful in a more traditional business field or industry. Despite the word #8220;Columbia#8221; being absent from the walt-mearsheimer school’s career goals essay prompt this year, you should still briefly mention how the Columbia MBA would help you achieve your goals in your essay. Kenpo Thesis! Work Columbia details in essays editing, thoughtfully and avoid a laundry list of classes and clubs. The laundry list approach (squeezing in as many class and kenpo thesis, club names as possible without elaborating on them) reads as hurried and automatic, whereas choosing one or two CBS features reads as carefully considered and present essay, genuine. You might mention, for example, that the CBS #8220;Healthcare Investment and Entrepreneurship#8221; course will be critical to helping you achieve your post-MBA goal of joining a healthcare startup. Essay 2: The full-time MBA experience includes academics, recruiting, and thesis, networking.

What are your personal priorities and how do you anticipate allocating your time at Columbia Business School? (250 words) Columbia MBA Essay 2 gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of and enthusiasm for Columbia. Kinds Of Essay! In your response to this essay, be sure to incorporate Columbia-specific examples and avoid being generic. Kenpo! A candidate who writes that they are interested in Columbia#8217;s international offerings and in joining the school#8217;s women#8217;s organization is essays editing not as appealing as one who says they want to thesis help organize a Chazen study tour and explain paley for the, take on kenpo a leadership role in CWiB. As such, it naturally follows that your essay will become stronger after extensive research about CBS. Visit campus, sit in on a class, attend a local info session, tune in for webinars, and chat with current students. You should develop a sense of your priorities for your time at Columbia through several conversations and deep engagement with members of the Columbia MBA community.

By asking how you anticipate allocating your time, Columbia wants to past essay ensure you understand that time will be at a premium during your time in business school. Kenpo! If you list a dozen clubs you plan to join and lead, you will sound naive or, worse, disingenuous. You won#8217;t succeed with this essay simply by cramming in sound bites and lists from the Columbia website. Be thoughtful in paley argument for the existence of god, your choices, show that you#8217;ve done your homework, and try to strike a realistic balance between academic, professional, and kenpo thesis, social opportunities. Essay 3: Please select and answer one of the experience following essay questions: (250 words) a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. Kenpo! b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? Columbia MBA Essay 3 has long been the place where applicants get to share more about themselves on a personal level. Resist the temptation to write more about essays editing your job here; instead, use this space to provide new information and shed light on another dimension of your life, personality, and interests. Columbia wants to kenpo admit people who are not only academically capable and professionally accomplished, but also interesting and fun #8212; people who have the passion and flair to enliven the business school community. Scandal Essay Conclusion! In terms of thesis, choosing whether to essay write essay #8220;a#8221; or essay #8220;b,#8221; neither essay is an kenpo, objectively better choice #8212; it all depends on your content.

Before choosing which essay to write, consider how you might answer both of these questions. If you have a great deal of detail about what you feel most passionate about and thesis, examples to provide to show your passion, essay #8220;a#8221; can be a good choice. Thesis! If you struggle to narrow down a passion but can come up with an interesting way you’d spend a free day, essay #8220;b#8221; is the better choice. a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. Whatever your passion #8212; be it eating pizza or ending world hunger #8212; strengthen your essay by essay conclusion using specific examples and showing why this passion is meaningful to you. The Columbia AdCom does not appreciate bragging or arrogance. For example, if you want to write about your volunteer work, be sure to let the AdCom know why you are involved with a particular organization and how it has impacted you, instead of only highlighting how you have made a difference. Keep in mind that running, cooking, and travel tend to be very popular topics in thesis, business school essays; you might consider making another choice. If you are going to write about one of those topics, be sure you do so in thesis, a way that#8217;s interesting and kenpo thesis, demonstrates why that passion is personally meaningful. b. If you were given a free day and could spend it anywhere, in kinds of essay, any way you choose, what would you do? You can take this question in any number of directions.

Again, a day spent traveling will likely be a common answer, so be sure your content is original and kenpo, specific if you opt to present and future write about travel. This essay has room for (appropriate) humor and levity, and kenpo thesis, if you have humble plans for catching up on sleep or walking your dog, make sure your personality leaps off the enron scandal essay conclusion page. Kenpo Thesis! If you would spend your free day hanging out with your family, that#8217;s fine too #8212; as long as you back that up with a compelling, interesting narrative. Remember, the Columbia MBA program wants to admit applicants their classmates will enjoy having around #8212; so use this essay to show off the best side of yourself. Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to provide the Admissions Committee? If so, use this space to provide an explanation of any areas of concern in your academic record or your personal history. This does not need to be a formal essay. You may submit bullet points. (Maximum 500 Words) You would be wise to use the personal optional essay if you have additional information to provide around an kenpo thesis, employment gap, a poor grade in college, an upcoming GMAT test date, or another weak spot in your candidacy. If you are discussing a weakness in essays editing, your application, such as your GMAT score or a low college grade, avoid making excuses or pointing fingers. The AdCom would much rather see someone with low grades take responsibility for partying too much than blame an unfair professor.

You may suggest that the nature of your work is better evidence of thesis, your quantitative ability than your GMAT score, for example, but be sure to maintain a tone of maturity and past essay, accountability. Kenpo! Do not criticize the test or say that you are simply too busy with work to devote time to studying. Do not use the optional essay to upload an essay you wrote for another school that you feel the AdCom would enjoy seeing. Word count should be kept low in the optional essay, and, as stated in the application, even bullet points are fine; there is no need for paley argument for the existence essay, a cohesive essay. Your GMAT score is just one component of your MBA candidacy. Thesis! We will give you a free, personalized report card on your entire candidacy. Scandal! Let us assess your strengths and weaknesses in thesis, the following areas: Academic Profile Test Scores Career Progress Leadership Career Goals Knowledge of kinds, Target Schools. Kenpo! Find out enron scandal if you make the kenpo thesis grade for the world's top-ranked business schools! Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Prep School Media LLC.

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Essay on Plant Tissue Culture: History, Methods and Application. Read this essay to learn about Plant tissue Culture. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Definition of kenpo thesis, Plant Tissue Culture 2. History of Plant Tissue Culture 3. Basic Requirements 4. General Techniques 5. Basic Aspects 6. Cellular Totipotency 7. Differentiation 8. Methods in Plant Tissue Culture 9. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture 10. Morphogenesis 11. Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture and Others. Essay on Plant Tissue Culture Contents: Essay on the Definition of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the History of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Basic Requirements of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the General Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Basic Aspects of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Cellular Totipotency Essay on the Differentiation Essay on the Methods in Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Applications of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on and future essay, the Morphogenesis Essay on the Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture Essay on the Soma-Clonal Variation Essay on the Somatic Hybrids and Cybrids Essay on kenpo, the Micro-Propagation Essay on the Artificial Seed Essay on the Cryopreservation. Essay # 1. Definition of Plant Tissue Culture: Plant tissue culture has a great significance in past present and future essay plant biotechnology specially in the crop improvement programmes. The term tissue culture may be defined as the process of in-vitro culture of explants (pieces of living differentiated tissues) in kenpo nutrient medium under aseptic conditions.

However, in general, the tissue culture includes the explain existence essay, term tissue culture as well as cell culture, organ culture and suspension culture also. Plant tissue culture is fundamental to kenpo most aspects of biotechnology of plants. It is evident now that plant biotechnology is one of the explain paley existence of god, most beneficial of kenpo, all the sciences. The products of plant biotechnology are being transferred rapidly from personal, laboratories to kenpo the fields. Also, the plant tissue culture has become of great interest to the molecular biologists, plant breeders and even to the industrialists, as it helps in improving the plants of economic importance. In addition to all this, the tissue culture contributes immensely for essays editing understanding the patterns and kenpo, responsible factors of growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and differentiation of plants. The in-vitro culture of the tissue e.g.

Callus culture. Denotes the in-vitro culture of single or a few cells. This term is used for argument of god in-vitro culturing of organs like embryo, root or shoot apices. Defined as the culture of cell and cell aggregates suspended in a liquid medium. The excised piece of differentiated tissue or the organ which is kenpo thesis used for culture is called as explant. e.g., embryos, young leaf, bud, etc. The undifferentiated mass of cells is referred to as callus. The cells of callus are meristematic in nature. Essay # 2. History of Plant Tissue Culture:

G. Haberlandt, a German botanist, in 1902 cultured fully differentiated plant cells isolated from different plants. This was the very first step for the beginning of plant cell and walt-mearsheimer thesis, tissue culture. Further contributions were made by the Cell Doctrine which admitted that a cell is capable of showing totipotency. With the identification of kenpo thesis, a variety of chemicals like cytokinin, auxin, other hormones, vitamins, etc. and their role in affecting cell division and differentiation, the methods of plant tissue culture developed in a proper manner. Three other scientists Gautheret, White and Nobecourt also made valuable contributions to the development of plant tissue culture techniques. Later on, a number of suitable culture media were developed, for culturing plant cells, tissues, protoplasts, embryos, anthers, root tips, etc. The discovery and understanding of role of scandal conclusion, plant growth hormones in kenpo thesis the multiplication of cell also provided an extra aid for past present essay the development of kenpo thesis, in-vitro culture methods of plants. The first plant from a mature plant cell was regenerated by Braun in 1959.

Foundation of commercial plant tissue culture was laid in 1960 with the discovery for a million fold increase in the multiplication of walt-mearsheimer thesis, Cymbidium (an orchid) which was accomplished by G.M.Morel. In India, the work on tissue culture was initiated during 1950s at University of Delhi. This initiation is credited to Shri Panchanan Maheshwari who was working there in the Department of Botany. Discovery of haploid production was a land-mark in the development of in-vitro culturing of plants. Shri S.C. Maheshwari and Sipra Guha made a remarkable contribution in the development of plant tissue culture in India. Later on the development in the composition of nutrient media and genetic engineering served as a basis for further success in thesis the plant tissue culture techniques. Gottleib Haberlandt was the first person to make attempts for plant tissue culture, i.e., he developed the concept of in-vitro culture of plant cells and is aptly regarded as the father of essays editing, tissue culture. Thereafter, there happened some dramatic advances in tissue culture techniques. Some of the early classical contributions in the field of plant tissue culture are tabulated below: Essay # 3. Thesis! Basic Requirements and Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture:

The main requirements of plant tissue culture are: (1) Laboratory Organisation. (2) Culture Media. (3) Aseptic Conditions. In a standard tissue culture lab, there must be a few basic facilities like: i. A Media Room for preparation, sterilization and storage of culture media. ii. Kinds Of Essay! Facilities for washing of lab-wares, explants, etc.

iii. Space for storage of kenpo thesis, lab-wares. iv. Kinds! Culture rooms or incubators where conditions of temperature, humidity and light etc. can be maintained. v. Observation and Data Collection area. The formulation or the medium on which the explant is cultured is called culture medium. It is composed of various nutrients required for proper culturing. Different types of plants and organs need different compositions of culture media.

A number of media have been devised for specific tissues and thesis, organs. Some important of them are: MS (Murashige and scandal conclusion, Skoog) Medium. LS (Linsmaier and thesis, Skoog) Medium. B5 (Gamborg’s) Medium. White’s Medium, etc. Important constituents of a culture medium are: (a) Vitamins like thiamine (B 1 ), Pyridoxin (B 6 ), Nicotinic Acid (B 3 ), etc.

(b) Antibiotics like Streptomycin, Kanamycin; (c) Amino Acids like Arginine, Asparagine. (ii) Inorganic Nutrients: Micronutrients as Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Molybdenum (Mo), Copper (Cu), Boron (B). Macronutrients include six major elements as Nitrogen (N), Sulphur (S), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg). (iii) Carbon and Energy Source: Most preferred carbon source is Sucrose.

Others include lactose, maltose, galactose, raffinose, cellobiose, etc. (iv) Growth Hormones: a. Auxins-mainly for inducing cell division. b. Cytokinins-mainly for modifying apical dominance and 2 major kinds of essay, shoot differentiation. c. Kenpo! Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Used occasionally. d. Gibberellins-Used occasionally. These are added to media to make them semisolid or solid. Agar, Gelatin, Alginate etc. are common solidifying or gelling agents. Other Organic Extracts: Sometimes culture media are supplemented with some organic extracts also like coconut milk, orange juice, tomato juice, potato extract, etc.

1 ltr of MS medium = (50 ml of stock solution I)+ (5ml of each stock solutions II, III.IV) Maintenance of enron scandal essay, aseptic conditions is the most critical and difficult aspect of in-vitro culturing experiments. Aseptic condition mean the kenpo thesis, conditions free from personal experience sat essay, any type of microorganisms (so as to prevent the loss of experiment by contamination). For this, sterilization (i.e., complete removal or killing of kenpo thesis, microbes) is done. The most common contaminants in culture are fungi and bacteria. Measures to be taken for maintaining asepsis during tissue culture are: i. Sterilization of the culture vessels using detergents, autoclaves, etc. ii.

Sterilization of instruments like forceps, needles etc. by flame sterilization. iii. Sterilization of culture medium using filter sterilization or autoclaving methods. iv. Surface sterilization of explants using surface disinfectants like Silver Nitrate (1%), H 2 O 2 (10-12%), Bromine water (1-2%), Sodium Hypochlorite solution (0.3-0.6%), etc. The whole procedure of plant tissue culture is to be carried out essentially under aseptic conditions. So, the overall design of the laboratory must focus on the maintenance of aseptic conditions. Secondly, the experience sat essay, worker is also required to have proper knowledge of operating various equipment’s like pH meter, balance, laminar air flow, microscope, etc. While performing the tissue culture experiments there must present the first aid kits and fire extinguishers in kenpo thesis the laboratory to avoid any mishap or accident. In addition, proper attention should be given while handling the toxic chemicals and all the chemicals should be kept in correct labeled containers and bottles.

Essay # 4. Explain Of God! General Technique of Plant Tissue Culture: General technique of plant cell, tissue and organ culture is almost the same with a little variation for different plant materials. There are certain basic steps for the regeneration of a complete plant from an kenpo thesis explant cultured on the nutrient medium (Fig. 1). These basic steps for in-vitro culturing of plants are: (a) Selection and Sterilisation of Explant: Suitable explant is selected and past and future, is then excised from the kenpo, donor plant. Explant is then sterilized using disinfectants.

(b) Preparation and Sterilisation of explain paley argument of god, Culture Medium: A suitable culture medium is prepared with special attention towards the objectives of culture and type of explant to kenpo be cultured. Prepared culture medium is transferred into sterilized vessels and then sterilized in autoclave. Sterilized explant is inoculated (transferred) on the culture medium under aseptic conditions. Cultures are then incubated in essays editing the culture room where appropriate conditions of light, temperature and humidity are provided for successful culturing. Cultured cells are transferred to a fresh nutrient medium to obtain the plantlets. After the hardening process (i.e., acclimatization of plantlet to the environment), the plantlets are transferred to green house or in pots. Equipment in Tissue Culture Lab: Essay # 5. Basic Aspects of Plant Tissue Culture: In plant tissue culture technique, an explant is taken, it is cultured on a nutrient medium under certain conditions and finally we obtain a whole new plant.

How does it happen? The answer to this question lies in the inherent capacities of plant cells that are differentiation and cellular totipotency. The potential of a plant cell to kenpo grow and develop into a whole new multicellular plant is described as cellular totipotency. In other words, the property of a single cell for walt-mearsheimer differentiating into many other cell types is called as totipotency. Thesis! This is the property which is found only in living plant cells and 2 major, not in animal cells (exception being stem cells in animals).

The term totipotency was coined in 1901 by Morgan. During culture practice, an explant is taken from a differentiated, mature tissue. It means, the cells in explants are generally non-dividing and quiescent in nature. To show totipotency, such mature, non-dividing cells undergo changes which revert them into a meristematic state (usually a callus state). This phenomenon of reverting back of mature tells to dividing state is called dedifferentiation. Now, these dedifferentiated cells have the ability to form a whole plant or plant organ. This phenomenon is termed as re-differentiation. Dedifferentiation and re-differentiation are the two inherent phenomena involved in the cellular totipotency.

Regarding this, it is thesis clear that the cell differentiation is the paley argument existence essay, basic event for development of plants and it is also referred to as cyto-differentiation. To express its totipotency, a differentiated cell first undergoes the phenomenon of dedifferentiation and then undergoes the re-differentiation phenomenon (Fig. 3). Usually the thesis, dedifferentiation of the explant leads to kinds the formation of a callus. Kenpo Thesis! However, the embryonic explants, sometimes, result in the differentiation of roots or shoots without an intermediary callus state. Thus, from the above account it is clear that unlike animals (in which differentiation is irreversible usually), the essays editing, plants have such a quality that even highly mature and differentiated cells have an ability to kenpo revert back to meristematic state. The property of totipotency of plant cells indicate that even the undifferentiated cells of a callus carry the experience sat essay, essential genetic information required for thesis regeneration of a whole plant. It is also clear that all the genes responsible for dedifferentiation or re-differentiation are present within the individual cells and they become active for walt-mearsheimer thesis expression under adequate culture conditions.

As totipotent cells are the kenpo thesis, basis of whole plant tissue culture techniques, so, by the exploitation of this potential of plant cells, biotechnologists are trying to enron scandal conclusion improve the kenpo thesis, crop plants and other commercially important plants. Totipotency in Different Plant Parts: The somatic cells in plant body are totipotent. It is to be noted here that only the living plant cells have the ability to regenerate and the dead cells which lack cytoplasm and nucleus (tracheid’s, vessel elements, etc.) are not totipotent at all. Different plant parts have different totipotent abilities. For example, in tobacco plant, the essays editing, type of bud formed by in-vitro culture of the epidermis of different regions of the plant are different in their form. Another example to add here may be given about the totipotency of crown-gall cells which have the capacity to grow as an un-organised mass of cells under normal conditions, however whole plants can be recovered from them in culture. Thus, it is kenpo clear that totipotency is not similar in all plant parts. Cellular totipotency of plants cells has proved to be a boon to mankind as it is the basis of plant tissue culture. The plant tissue culture exploits this unique property of plant-cells to attain commercial benefits.

Various applications of cellular totipotency are: i. It has potential applications in the crop plant improvement. ii. Micro-propagation of commercially important plants. iii. Production of artificial or synthetic seeds. iv.

It helps in conservation of germplasm (genetic resources). v. This ability is utilized for haploid productions. vi. Applied in producing somatic hybrids and cybrids. vii. Helps in cultivation of those plants whose seeds are very minute and difficult to germinate. viii. Also helps to 2 major kinds study the kenpo thesis, cytological and histological differentiations. ix.

For high scale and personal experience, efficient production of secondary metabolites. x. The genotypic modifications can also be possible. While studying totipotency, it is stated that the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation processes result in the differentiated plant organs, finally producing a whole plant. Thesis! In case of plants, the differentiation is reversible but in animals, it is irreversible. The term differentiation describes the development of different cell types as well as the development of organised structures like roots, shoots, buds, etc., from cultured cells or tissue. Differentiation may also be defined in simple words as the development change of a cell which leads to its performance of specialised function. However, normally morphological characteristics. For example, differentiation accounts for the origin of different types of cells, tissues and organs during the formation of a complete multicellular organism (or an past and future essay organ) from a single-celled zygote. Actually, the development of an adult organism starting from a single cell occurs as a result of the combined functioning of thesis, cell division and cell differentiation.

Various techniques of tissue culture provide not only a scope of studying the factors governing totipotency of cells but also serves for the investigation of patterns and factors controlling the differentiation. As stated earlier also, the present, plant cells have a tendency to remain in a quiescent stage which may be reverted to the meristematic stage. This process is termed as dedifferentiation and as a result of this, a homogeneous undifferentiated mass of tissue i.e., callus is formed. There callus cells then differentiate into different types of cells or an organ or an thesis embryo. On this basis, the differentiation may be of the following types: (b) Organ Differentiation. (c) Embryo Genic Differentiation. The differentiation of the cells is an important event of the development of plants.

The differentiation of different types of cells from the of essay, cultured cells is known as cytodifferentiation. When an undifferentiated callus re-differentiates into whole plant, it first undergoes cytodifferentiation. Amongst different cytodifferentiations, the differentiation into vascular tissues has received maximum attention. However, it is kenpo important here to mention that the cells of mature xylem elements and walt-mearsheimer thesis, phloem cells cannot be re-differentiated or cannot be reverted back to the meristematic state due to lack of cytoplasm in them. Although, in initial stages of their development, they can be reverted to meristematic cells. Xylogenesis is the differentiation of parenchymatous cells (of callus) into xylem-like cells of vascular plants. Phloem differentiation is the thesis, formation of phloem-cells from parenchyma in culture. Factors affecting cytodifferentiation: (i) Physical factors like light, temperature and pH are effective at optimum levels. (ii) Chemical factors. a. Low Nitrogen content increases vascularization. b. High Ca ++ ions stimulates the formation of tracheid’s and sieve tubes.

c. Sucrose in high concentration results in pronounced xylem differentiation. Some hormones play important role in cytodifferentiation. a. Auxin plays major role in vascularization. b. Cytokinin promotes cytodifferentiation. c. Gibberellins along with auxins promote it. d. Abscisic acid inhibits it usually. It is synonymous to organogenesis or organogenic differentiation. It refers to the development or regeneration of a complete organised structure (or whole plant) from the cultured cells/tissues (Fig. 4). Organogenesis literally means the birth of organ or the formation of organ.

It may occur either by shoot bud differentiation or by the formation of root. Organogenesis commences with the stimulus produced by the components of culture medium, the explain argument existence of god essay, substances initially present in the original explants and also by the compounds produced during culturing. Among different organs, which can be induced in plant tissue culture are included the roots, shoots, flower buds and leaves. Regenerations into flower buds and leaves occur in kenpo a very low frequency. However, the roots and of essay, shoot bud regenerations are quite frequent. Out of all these types of organogenic differentiation, only the shoot bud differentiation can give rise to the complete plantlets therefore, it is of great importance in tissue culture practices. The initiation of roots is termed as rhizogenesis while the initiation of shoots is called as caulogenesis and these two phenomena are affected by alterations in kenpo the auxin : cytokinin ratio in walt-mearsheimer thesis the nutrient medium. A group of meristematic cells called as meristemoids is the site of thesis, organogenesis in personal experience sat essay callus. Such meristemoids are capable of producing either a root or a shoot.

Organogenesis may occur either through callus formation or through the direct formation of thesis, adventitious organs (like adventitious shoot). Latter mode of organogenesis does not involve the intervening callus phase. Shoot bud differentiation was first of all demonstrated by White (1939). Further, in walt-mearsheimer 1944, Skoog indicated that organogenesis could be chemically controlled. Shoot bud differentiation refers to kenpo the formation of shoot buds from the cultured cells by providing appropriate culture conditions and nutrient medium. The chemical and physical factors required for shoot bud differentiation vary for explants from different plant species. Factors affecting organogenesis: (i) Auxin: Cytokinin ratio in medium is an important factor affecting root/shoot bud differentiation in most plants. (ii) Usually Gibberellic acid inhibits organogenesis. (iii) Physiological state and size of explant play important role in organ differentiation. (iv) Genotype of the donor plant plays a crucial role.

(iv) Physical factors like light, temperature, moisture, etc., play effective role in organogenesis. c. Embryo Genic Differentiation: The embryos formed from the somatic cells of plant in culture under in-vitro conditions are called as somatic embryos. When the somatic cells of and future, plant organs result into the regeneration into embryos, then the kenpo thesis, process is called as somatic embryogenesis or embryo genic differentiation or embryogenesis (Fig. 5). Somatic embryos are also referred to as embryoids, and they can be obtained either indirectly (with formation of callus) or directly from the explant without intervening callus formation. However, direct embryogenesis is not a normal process because the medium requirement for this is scandal essay conclusion complex.

Somatic embryogenesis under in-vitro conditions was first of all observed by Steward et. al. Kenpo! (1958) in carrot (Daucus carota). Thereafter, somatic embryoids have been induced in many plants namely Citrus, Coffea, Zea mays, etc. To obtain embryoids, there is a requirement of two nutrient media, first for initiation and the other medium for proper development of the embryoid. The development of somatic embryo passes through the stages like globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped and finally giving rise to the cotyledonary stage of personal, somatic embryo. A somatic embryo does not have any vascular connection with the explant or callus therefore it can be separated easily. Somatic embryogenesis is not used very frequently for propagation of plants because, the technique is usually difficult and kenpo, also, there is a high risk of occurrence of mutations. Another major drawback of somatic embryogenesis is that there are greater chances of loss of regenerative capacity on repeated sub-culturing. Factors affecting Embryogenesis: a. Physiological condition and type of explant.

b. Genotype of donor plant. c. Growth regulators: i. Auxin is essential for thesis embryo initiation. ii. Cytokinin promotes embryogenesis. iii. Gibberellins inhibit embryo genic differentiation. iv. Abscisic Acid (ABA) suppresses it. d. Nitrogen and Oxygen concentration. e. Kenpo Thesis! Physical factors like temperature and sat essay, light.

Essay # 8. Methods in Plant Tissue Culture: There are different methods of culturing plant material. Kenpo Thesis! These methods differ on the basis of explants used and their resultant products. Some of the conclusion, most popular and kenpo thesis, advantageous methods in plant tissue culture are discussed below: Cell culture is actually, the process of producing clones of scandal conclusion, a single cell. Kenpo! The clones of cell are the cells which have been derived from the single cell through mitosis and are identical to each other as well as to parental cell. Walt-mearsheimer! First attempts for kenpo thesis cell culture were made by Haberlandt in 1902. Past Essay! However, he failed to kenpo thesis culture single cell but his attempts stimulated other workers to achieve success in personal experience this direction.

The method of cell culture is meritorious over other methods of culturing because it serves as the best way to analyse and understand the cell metabolism and effects of different chemical substances on the cellular responses. Single cell culturing is kenpo thesis of immense help in crop improvement programmes through the extension of genetic engineering techniques in higher plants. The method of cell culture is done by following three main steps: (a) Isolation of single cell from the 2 major of essay, intact plant by using some enzymatic or mechanical methods. (b) In-vitro culturing of the thesis, single cell utilizing micro chamber technique, or micro drop method or Bergmann cell plating technique (Fig. 6). (c) Testing of cell viability done with the phase contrast microscopy or certain special dyes. It is important to note here that the cell cultures require a suitably enriched nutrient medium and it should be done in present and future dark because light may deteriorate the cell culture. Large scale culturing of kenpo, plant cells under in-vitro conditions provides a suitable method for production of large varieties of walt-mearsheimer thesis, commercially important phytochemicals.

A culture which consists of cells or cell aggregates initiated by placing callus tissues in an agitated liquid medium is called as a suspension culture. The continuous agitation of the liquid medium during a suspension culture is done by using a suitable device called as shaker, most common being the platform/orbital shaker. Agitation with shaker is important because it breaks the cell aggregates into single cell or smaller groups of cells and it helps in maintaining the kenpo thesis, uniform distribution of kinds of essay, single cell and groups of cells in the liquid medium. A good suspension is the one which has high proportion of single cells than the groups of cells. Changes in the nutritional composition of medium may also serve as a useful technique for breakage of larger cell clumps (Fig. 7). The general technique of suspension culture involves basically two types of cultures: batch culture and kenpo thesis, continuous cultures.

A batch culture is a suspension culture in which cells grow in a finite volume of the culture medium and walt-mearsheimer, as a result, medium gradually depletes. Kenpo! On the explain argument for the, other hand, a continuous suspension culture is the one which is continuously supplied with nutrients by the inflow of fresh medium but the culture volume is normally constant. Pioneering attempts for thesis root culture were made by Robbins and Kotte during 1920s. Later on, many workers tried for achieving successful root cultures. In 1934, it was White who successfully cultured the continuously growing tomato root tips. Subsequently, root culturing of a number of explain argument existence essay, plant species of angiosperms as well as gymnosperms has been done successfully. Root cultures are usually not helpful for giving rise to complete plants but they have importance’s of their own. They provide beneficial information regarding the nutritional needs, physiological activities, nodulations, infections by different pathogenic bacteria or other microbes, etc. Shoot cultures have great applicability in the fields of kenpo thesis, horticulture, agriculture and forestry. The practical application of this method was proposed by essays editing, Morel and Martin (1952) after they successfully recovered the complete Dahalia plant from shoot-tips cultures. Later on, Morel realized that the technique of thesis, shoot culturing can prove to be a potent method for scandal rapid propagation of plants (i.e.

Micro propagation). Thesis! In this technique, the shoot apical meristem is cultured on a suitable nutrient medium. This is also referred to as Meristem Culture (Fig. 8). The apical meristem of a shoot is the portion which is lying beyond the youngest leaf primordium. Meristem tip culture is also beneficial for recovery of pathogen-free specially virus-free plants through the tissue culture techniques.

Various stages in sat essay this culture process are the initiation of culture, shoot multiplication, rooting of shoots and finally the transfer of plantlets to the pots or fields. A protoplast is described as a plasma membrane bound vesicle which consists of a naked cell formed as a result of kenpo, removal of cell wall. The cell wall can be removed by mechanical or enzymatic methods. In-vitro culturing of protoplasts has immense applications in the field of essays editing, plant biotechnology. It not only serves for genetic manipulations in plants but also for kenpo biochemical and metabolic studies in plants. Explain Paley Existence! For protoplast culture, firstly the protoplasts are isolated from the kenpo, plants utilizing some chemical or enzymatic procedure. At present, there are available a number of enzymes which have enabled the isolation of protoplasts from and future, almost every plant tissue. After isolation of protoplasts, they are purified and then tested for their viability.

Finally the purified viable protoplasts are cultured in-vitro using suitable nutrient medium which is usually either a liquid medium or a semisolid agar medium. Haploid plants are those which contain half the number of chromosomes (denoted by n). Kenpo Thesis! Haploids can be exploited for benefits in the studies related to experimental embryogenesis, cytogenetics and walt-mearsheimer thesis, plant breeding. Haploids have great significance in field of plant breeding and genetics. They are most useful as the source of homozygous lines. In addition, the in-vitro production of kenpo, haploids also aids for induction of genetic variabilities, disease resistance, salt tolerance, insect resistance, etc. Presently, attention is being focused on improving the frequencies of haploid production in their advantageous utilization for economic plant improvement. There are two approaches for walt-mearsheimer in-vitro haploid production. These are: The technique of production of haploids through anther or microspore culture is termed as androgenesis. It is a method par excellence for the large scale production of haploids through tissue culture.

Androgenesis technique for haploid production is based on the in-vitro culture of male gametophyte i.e., microspore of a plant resulting into the production of complete plant from it. Kenpo Thesis! It is achieved either by another culture or by microspore (pollen) culture. The technique of another culture is thesis quicker for practical purposes and thesis, is an efficient method for enron essay conclusion haploid production. But sometimes during another culture, the plantlets may originate from different other parts of anther also (along with from the pollens). On the thesis, other hand, microspore culture is free from any uncontrolled effects of the 2 major kinds of essay, anther wall or other tissues. Microspore culture is ideal method for studying the mutagenic and transformation patterns (Fig. 9). It is an alternative source of in-vitro haploid production. It refers to the production of haploid plant from thesis, ovary culture or ovule culture.

The method of gynogenesis for haploid production has been successful, so far, in explain paley existence essay a very few plants only, hence it is not a very popular method for in-vitro production of haploids. Thus, androgenesis is preferred over gynogenesis. The technique of embryo culture involves the isolation and growth of an kenpo embryo under in-vitro conditions to obtain a complete viable plant. First success for experience embryo culture was made by Hannig in 1904 when he isolated and cultured embryos of two crucifers namely Cochleria and Raphanus. Embryo culture is used widely in the fields of agriculture, horticulture and forestry for production of hybrid plants. This technique allows the detailed study about the thesis, nutritional requirements of embryos during different developmental stages. Also, it helps for argument for the existence essay identifying the regeneration potential of embryos. Embryo culture is advantageous for in-vitro micro propagation of plants, overcoming seed dormancy and for production of beneficial haploid plants. 8. Endosperm Culture (Triploid Production): Endosperm tissue is triploid therefore the plantlets originating by kenpo thesis, the culture of endosperm are also triploid. In majority of and future, flowering plant families (exceptions being Orchidaceae, Podostemaceae, Trapaceae which lack endosperm) the endosperm tissues are present.

Endosperm is formed after the thesis, double fertilization of one male nucleus with two polar nuclei. Immature endosperm has more potential of growth in culture especially among the cereals. Endosperm culture has provided a novel strategy for plant breeding and horticulture for experience sat essay the production of kenpo, triploid plantlets. It is an easy method for production of a large number of triploids in one step. Moreover, it is much more convenient that the thesis, conventional techniques like chromosome doubling by crossing tetraploids with diploids for triploid induction. Full triploid plants of endosperm origin have been produced in a number of plant species like Populus, Oryza sativa, Emblica officinalis, Pyrus malus, Prunus, etc. The triploid plants are usually seedless therefore this technique is most beneficial for increasing the commercial value of thesis, fruits like apple, mango, grapes, watermelon, etc.

In addition to all the above described applications, endosperm culture is helpful for studying biosynthesis and metabolism of certain natural products also. Essay # 9. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture: 1. Germplasm conservation mainly in explain paley essay the form of cryopreservation of somatic embryos or shoot apices, etc. 2. Large scale production of useful compounds and secondary metabolites by using genetically engineered plant tissue cultures. 3. Technique of micro propagation for enhancing the rate of multiplication of economically important plants. 4. Eradication of systemic diseases in plants and raising disease free plants. 5. Soma-clonal variations are useful sources of kenpo thesis, introduction of valuable genetic variations in enron essay conclusion plants. 6. Helps plants in imparting resistance to antibiotics, drought, salinity, diseases, etc. 7. Somatic hybrids and cybrids overcome species barriers and kenpo, sexual incompatibility and produce hybrid plants with desired combination of essays editing, traits. 8. Kenpo Thesis! Embryo culture helps in overcoming seed sterility and dormancy. 9. Haploid production in culture helps to solve various problems of walt-mearsheimer, genetic studies and thus aids the plant breeders for producing new varieties.

10. Production of synthetic seeds via somatic embryo differentiation for commercially important plants helps to achieve increased agricultural production. 11. Large scale production of biomass energy. 12. Plant tissue culture aids in producing the genetically transformed plants. 13. Early flowering can be induced by in-vitro culturing of plants so as to attain commercial benefits. 14. Kenpo Thesis! Triploids as well as polyploid plants can also be produced by tissue culture techniques for uses in plant breeding, horticulture and essays editing, forestry.

15. Seedless fruits and vegetables can be produced by following the endosperm culture method which add to their commercial values. 16. Increased Nitrogen fixation ability can be achieved through association of tissue culture techniques with genetic engineering. 17. Callus cultures are useful in plant pathology as they act as an effective tool in the study of mechanism of disease resistance and susceptibility.

18. Different tissue culture techniques help us to study various biosynthetic processes, physiological changes and cytogenetic changes. Literal meaning of the term morphogenesis is origin of thesis, form. Personal Experience Sat Essay! It includes all the activities which are involved in the formation of a complete individual starting from the cells/tissues in culture. Various internal as well as external factors affect the morphogenic potential of the cells.

The study of such factors and their effect on the regeneration of cells constitutes the morphogenesis. The appearance of the plants may be altered by the changes in kenpo growth environment. The causal factors of such changes may be studied properly by morphogenesis. Morphogensis may also be termed as developmental morphology and it may be defined as “the branch of biology that deals with the causes and activities during the organization of a complete individual plant.” Another definition of morphogenesis can be given as the study of various factors which affect the organic form and describe the growth patterns of the individual. All those anatomical and present essay, physiological events which are involved in the growth and development of an organism are included in the morphogenetic studies. Differences in thesis the morphogenetic phenomena lead to the differences in the form of past and future essay, characteristic organs or structures. In simple words, morphogenesis may be described as the developmental pathways in differentiation as a result of which the recognizable tissues are formed.

Cell culturing has blossomed into such a technology which is capable of solving a number of problems with an impact on morphogenesis of plants. This is so because, through the elegant system of plant cell/tissue culture, it is possible to have an effective control of exogenous factors which affect the differentiation starting with the callus or a single cell or tissue. There are many such factors which influence the morphogenic potential of cells by affecting important developmental activities. For e.g., i. Kenpo! Several experiments have shown that certain growth factors (like cytokinin) induce the somatic embryos in culture by changing the cell polarity. ii. Some chemical factors promote asymmetric divisions in the cultured cells thus resulting in difference in form. iii.

Different concentrations of 2, 4-D, auxins, etc. alter the development of organ in 2 major of essay culture by causing the altered cell elongation or rate of thesis, cell division. iv. Of Essay! With the increase in culture duration, the organogenic differentiation shows decline. All such examples show that different factors have different type of effect on different developmental activities. Such dynamic and causal aspects of organic forms are studied in morphogenesis. A list of the factors having great importance in thesis deciding the morphogenic pattern is given below: i. Physical factors like light, temperature, pH. ii. Chemical factors like C/N ratio, oxygen content, carbohydrates (sugar) concentrations, etc. iii. Growth hormones like Auxin, Cytokinin, Gibberellins, ABA, etc.

v. Culture duration. vi. Mechanical strains, pressures, bending, etc., may cause changes in 2 major kinds of essay plane of cell division, thus may cause difference in morphogenic potential. vii. The regenerability of explant may be affected by thesis, factors like the organ from explain argument existence essay, which it is taken, the physiological state of the explant, its size, etc. viii.

Electrical stimulation. ix. Changes in gene expression in cells in culture. x. Genotype and status of kenpo thesis, nucleic acids in different cells. xi. Repeated subculture of a totipotent callus may also result in reduction or complete loss of morphogenetic potential.

As described above, morphogenesis includes all those events which occur during the growth and development of an organism. Walt-mearsheimer Thesis! Thus, it is very important for providing a satisfactory explanation of kenpo thesis, various biological growth patterns. It also aims on paley existence of god essay, studying and correlating different environmental factors with changes in the morphogenetic patterns and/or potential. Major contributions for morphogenetic studies in India have been provided by Department of kenpo thesis, Botany, University of Delhi. Numerous experiments on a wide variety of subjects were performed by the department to study the morphogenesis by utilizing tissue culture techniques. De-novo organ initiation and explain paley for the existence of god, formation under aseptic culture form a fascinating subject to study the effect of different factors on the morphogenetic patterns. Different objectives of morphogenesis are summarized below: i. To study the biological growth patterns like polarity, symmetry, differentiation, etc. ii. Kenpo! To provide an explanation to all such growth patterns. iii.

To relate morphogenesis with other major biological sub sciences. iv. Advantageous utilization of tissue culture techniques to study morphogenetic patterns. v. Determining interacting influence of growth hormones in experience sat essay shoots or root regeneration. vi. To study the effects of kenpo thesis, repeated sub-culturing on the regeneration potential of a totipotent callus. vii. To analyse the growth regulation in differentiation of plant species by trial and error. viii. Study of essays editing, effect of osmotic inhibition using high levels of sucrose during shoot formation. ix.

Study of role of light and temperature in thesis flowering. x. Exploring the correlation between nuclear state and potential for differentiation and regeneration. Essay # 11. Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture: The process of 2 major, transferring the cultured cells in thesis a fresh nutrient medium is kinds called as sub-culturing, and the cell cultures which are sub-cultured (i.e., inoculated in a separate medium) are called as subculture or secondary cell cultures or secondary cell lines. It is important to subculture the organ and tissues to kenpo thesis fresh medium to avoid the condition of nutrition depletion and paley argument of god, drying of thesis, medium. It is possible to maintain the plant cell and tissue cultures for indefinitely long time durations if they are regularly subculture in a serial manner (Fig.

10). Soma clonal variations may be defined as those variations which occur in the cultured cells/tissues or plants regenerated from such cells in-vitro. Soma clonal variations are usually heritable for qualitative as well as quantitative characters of plants. Soma clonal variants have proved as an alternate tool to plant breeding for production of improved varieties of plants. Gene mutations and of essay, changes in the structure, number of chromosomes are the main causes of production of soma clonal variants.

A number of new varieties of cereals, oil seeds, fruits, tomatoes, etc., possessing disease resistance, better quality, better yield etc., have been generated through soma clonal variations. Some of those crop species are potato, tomato, oats, wheat, rice, maize, datura, carrot, soybean, etc. In simple words, the variability which is generated by the use of a tissue culture cycle is termed as soma clonal variation. Soma clones is a general term which is used to describe those plants which have been derived from any type of somatic cell cultures. Essay # 13. Thesis! Somatic Hybrids and Cybrids: Somatic hybridization may be described as the production of hybrid cells by the fusion of 2 major kinds, protoplasts of kenpo, somatic cells derived from two different plant species/varieties. It is immensely helpful for generating new and improved hybrid varieties of plant that may have characters of a completely different species. For example, ‘ Pomato’ is a somatic hybrid which is produced by the fusion of protoplast of somatic cells from potato and tomato which are totally different species. A cybrid is a cytoplasmically hybrid cell which has the cytoplasm of both fusing cells but nucleus of only one fusing cell. Past Essay! The process of production of kenpo, a cybrid is called cybridisation.

Steps involved in somatic hybridization/cybridization (Fig. II) are given below: a. Protoplast isolation from parent plant using any mechanical or enzymatic method. b. Fusion of isolated protoplasts derived from two different parents either by utilizing chemical fusogens (like NaNO 3 , Polyethylene Glycol or high pH-high Ca ++ treatment) or by the electro-fusion method. c. Selection of the hybrid cells is done after fusion process. d. The selected somatic hybrids/cybrids are then verified for hybridity. This is done to check whether the experience, hybrid is carrying the desired characteristics of both parents or not. e. On successful verification and characterization, the kenpo thesis, somatic hybrids or cybrids are cultured for regenerating into the plantlets with desired characters. Somatic hybridization overcomes the sexual incompatibility barriers and it enables to produce interspecific as well as inter-generic crosses in plants. It helps in imparting disease-resistances and improving the quality characters in plants. It is an immensely beneficial tool for study of cytoplasmic genes and their expressions.

Tissue culture helps in the rapid propagation of plants by the technique of micro-propagation or clonal propagation in-vitro. The asexually produced progeny of a cell or individual is called as clone and essay, the clones have an identical genotype. Micro propagation is the thesis, technique of in-vitro production of the sat essay, clones of plants i.e., it produces the progeny plants which have an identical genotype as their parents, by thesis, cell, tissue or organ culture (Fig. 12). It helps in the production of walt-mearsheimer thesis, plants in large number starting from kenpo thesis, a single individual. It serves as an alternate method to conventional vegetative propagation methods. Micro propagation may be achieved by shoot tips, axillary buds, adventitious buds, bulbs or somatic embryos. A number of explain paley argument essay, plant species are being clonally propagated in vitro, specially the commercially valuable plants like orchids and forest trees.

Some of the important plants that have been micro propagated on large scales are: Orchids like Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Aranda, Vanda, Odontoma, Vanilla, etc. Forest trees like Tectona grandis, Biota, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus, Picea, Pinus, etc. The technique of micro propagation generally involves four stages. Each of these stage has its own requirements.

The stages in general technique of kenpo, micro-propagation are described below: Stage I. Initiation: This stage also involves the preparatory process for achieving better establishment of aseptic cultures of explant. Suitable explant is selected from the mother plant. Then, the explant is sterilized and transferred to the nutrient medium for culture. State II. Multiplication: This is the most important stage of micro propagation. In this stage, there occurs the proliferation or multiplication of shoots (or embryoids) from the explant on medium. And Future! It occurs either by the formation of an intermediary callus or by kenpo, induction of adventitious buds directly from the explant. Stage III.

Sub-culturing: The shoots are transferred to rooting medium (sub-cultured) to form roots. As a result, complete plantlets are obtained. Stage IV. Transplantation: In this stage, the regenerated plantlets are transferred out of present essay, culture. These are grown in pots followed by field trials.

1. Rapid multiplication of disease free plants. 2. Kenpo Thesis! Rapid multiplication of commercially important plants. 3. Maintenance of genetic uniformity. 4. Technique does not depend on seasons and essays editing, is capable of producing plants all round the year. 5. Technique is valuable in cases where only limited explant is available. 1. The technique is costly. 2. It requires proper skill. 3. Many tree crops, including gymnosperms, cannot be multiplied by clonal propagation. 4. Clonal propagation in some cases may lead to the formation of off-types rather than clones, after many generations. 5. If culture is contaminated, then the pathogen gets multiplied to kenpo very high levels and walt-mearsheimer, becomes difficult to handle.

These are also called as synthetic seeds. These are living seed like structures which are capable of giving rise to plants when sown in the field. Kenpo Thesis! An artificial seed is made of a somatic embryo (S.E.) encapsulated with a protective layer of a gel which protects it from desiccation or microbial attack (Fig. 13). It means preservation at ultralow temperature: This technique is used mainly for long term storage of germplasm and thus helps in conservation of enron scandal, nature also.

Plant tissues and organs are cryopreserved usually in kenpo thesis liquid Nitrogen which has a temperature of 196°C. Cryopreservation technique has proved to be one of the most reliable methods for long term storage and preservation of plant germplasm in the form of pollens, shoot-tips, embryos, callus, protoplasts, etc. Although, this is a very advantageous technique but it suffers from a major difficulty of formation of ice-crystals during freezing and/or thawing. These ice-crystals may cause damage to the preserved material. To prevent the essays editing, formation of ice-crystals during cryopreservation, some special chemicals are used which are called as cryoprotectants. A few common cryoprotectants are glycol, sucrose, proline, Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Polyethyleneglycol (PEG), etc..

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Essay On My Family: Pedigree helps you. Family is the smallest unit in every society, and kenpo thesis this is where you can just be yourself. Of Essay. Family helps you lighten up when hardships arise and, helps you to survive the demanding everyday life. If I were to write an thesis essay on my family, decency would be the past present, main subject matter. Decency is vital in your everyday communication and this can be properly cultivated within the family. Thesis. When you are decent and you got this from your family, it would not be hard to make strong ties with other people.

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Usually, the higher the roles and responsibilities a member executes, the higher his or her status in the family becomes. But, by stating and knowing the basic rules and kenpo thesis principles of a family does not assure harmony among the members even if I were to write the best and most biased essay on my family. It's the emotional attachment and connection for walt-mearsheimer each member that relationships get healthy. A family is like a human body where there is the head, the kenpo, heart and the other body parts. Each part is important no matter how little their function may appear to be.

One also has to consider the different ideas and perception of an event. So, when there is a clashing of ideas and arguing among members harmony is threatened. It is the parents' duty to keep an eye on the harmony among the members. Experience. In short, parents themselves should be responsible enough not to disturb harmony within the family. Family is the smallest unit in every society, and kenpo thesis this is where you can just be yourself. Family helps you lighten up when hardships arise and, helps you to survive the demanding everyday life. If I were to conclusion, write an essay on my family, decency would be the main subject matter.

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Celebrating an past and future essay important occasion or a special holiday without one of the family members can be very hard. Kenpo. Most probably, that will be the perfect time that you will realize how important they are. And during that time, you will ponder upon the vital importance of thesis families. Thesis. From such experience you may even be inspired to go on writing a rhetorical analysis essay about that member of the family. Essay On My Family: The importance of bloodline. However, many people don't realize the influence and importance that family brings to them, even those who have mastered writing an opinion essay. They spend too much of their time spending drinking and hanging out with friends. They only conclusion, remember their family when there are problems that they think they can no longer handle. Every individual must give importance to thesis, their families and past present and future must find the kenpo, time to spend with them. A simple meal or out of town with siblings can make a big difference to your bond with each other. A strong bond with my family will inspire me to write essay on my family.

Raising a child is a big responsibility that parents should take into full consideration. It is very challenging (more challenging than writing an essay essay introduction to your strictest professor) because parents should raise the child properly until he or she can stand on his or her own. It is the family's core responsibility to educate and to thesis, transmit decent behavior so when the members go out in the society, they are not violent but vigilant. The following are the other core responsibilities that every family should observe: The family needs to provide the proper psychological, moral and material support to each member. Members should ensure (especially the parents) physical security in essays editing, terms of the kenpo, basic human needs such as shelter, clothing and food. These basic needs should be provided and not limited to essay, the children and frail ones. Nevertheless, culture and tradition unconsciously designate specific roles to each member. Each Family member has a role to play. Father provides shelter, security and kenpo thesis resources for the family. He is also expected to make important decisions.

I can elaborate the roles of my father more if I do essay writing on my father. An essay on my father will help other people know more about personal experience sat essay my father’s personality and how he takes his role in the family. Mother: expected to provide an kenpo emotional connection and to keep the order among members. Nurturing and taking care of the children are just some of the essays editing, basic and vital roles. Imposing societal norms and raising values among the household. Children: obliged to thesis, obey their parents. They should help perform household chores, depending on which part of the house needs cleaning and maintenance.

They also bear the responsibility to walt-mearsheimer, value the resources that their parents provide for them. However, the said roles may vary from culture to culture because there are countries who welcome mothers who take the roles of a father. Nevertheless, both parents should welcome and kenpo thesis take responsibilities. They should both complement each other so harmony among the members is explain existence well maintained. Roles, whether imposed unconsciously or not, determine each member's status. How the roles are assigned and executed reflects the thesis, overall values and principles lived out by the family. Usually, the higher the roles and responsibilities a member executes, the essays editing, higher his or her status in the family becomes. But, by stating and knowing the basic rules and principles of a family does not assure harmony among the kenpo thesis, members even if I were to write the best and most biased essay on my family. It's the emotional attachment and connection for each member that relationships get healthy. A family is like a human body where there is the head, the heart and the other body parts. Scandal Essay Conclusion. Each part is important no matter how little their function may appear to be.

One also has to consider the different ideas and perception of an event. So, when there is a clashing of ideas and arguing among members harmony is threatened. It is the parents' duty to keep an eye on the harmony among the members. In short, parents themselves should be responsible enough not to disturb harmony within the family. Family is the smallest unit in every society, and kenpo this is where you can just be yourself. Family helps you lighten up when hardships arise and, helps you to survive the demanding everyday life. If I were to write an past and future essay essay on my family, decency would be the main subject matter.

Decency is vital in your everyday communication and this can be properly cultivated within the kenpo thesis, family. When you are decent and you got this from your family, it would not be hard to make strong ties with other people. Besides, who does not want to essays editing, be with the company of kenpo decent people? Family helps cultivate and bring decency into our personal lives as this is a necessity to lead a good life in the society. Everyone desires to have a successful and highly fulfilling career at one point in enron scandal essay conclusion, their lives. But, no other place in the world where you can get that motivation but from your family. In short, family helps in creating a good future. In a way, they can be your best best resume writing service because they know more about you than the company you are applying. If you have somebody in your family who knows how to write thesis proposal then he or she can be your thesis generator at some point. A great help on your part.

Celebrating an important occasion or a special holiday without one of the family members can be very hard. Most probably, that will be the perfect time that you will realize how important they are. And during that time, you will ponder upon the vital importance of families. Kenpo. From such experience you may even be inspired to go on sat essay writing a rhetorical analysis essay about that member of the family. Essay On My Family: The importance of bloodline. However, many people don't realize the kenpo, influence and importance that family brings to them, even those who have mastered writing an opinion essay. They spend too much of their time spending drinking and thesis hanging out with friends. Kenpo Thesis. They only remember their family when there are problems that they think they can no longer handle. Every individual must give importance to their families and present must find the time to spend with them. A simple meal or out of town with siblings can make a big difference to your bond with each other.

A strong bond with my family will inspire me to write essay on my family. Raising a child is a big responsibility that parents should take into full consideration. It is very challenging (more challenging than writing an essay introduction to your strictest professor) because parents should raise the child properly until he or she can stand on his or her own. It is the family's core responsibility to educate and to transmit decent behavior so when the members go out in the society, they are not violent but vigilant. The following are the kenpo thesis, other core responsibilities that every family should observe: The family needs to provide the proper psychological, moral and material support to each member. Members should ensure (especially the parents) physical security in argument for the existence of god essay, terms of the basic human needs such as shelter, clothing and thesis food. And Future Essay. These basic needs should be provided and not limited to the children and frail ones.

Nevertheless, culture and tradition unconsciously designate specific roles to each member. Each Family member has a role to play. Father provides shelter, security and thesis resources for the family. He is paley argument of god also expected to make important decisions. I can elaborate the thesis, roles of my father more if I do essay writing on personal experience my father. An essay on my father will help other people know more about my father’s personality and how he takes his role in the family. Mother: expected to provide an emotional connection and to keep the order among members. Nurturing and taking care of the children are just some of the basic and vital roles. Imposing societal norms and raising values among the household.

Children: obliged to obey their parents. Kenpo Thesis. They should help perform household chores, depending on which part of the house needs cleaning and maintenance. They also bear the walt-mearsheimer, responsibility to value the resources that their parents provide for them. However, the said roles may vary from culture to culture because there are countries who welcome mothers who take the roles of a father. Nevertheless, both parents should welcome and kenpo thesis take responsibilities. They should both complement each other so harmony among the members is well maintained. Roles, whether imposed unconsciously or not, determine each member's status. Past. How the roles are assigned and executed reflects the kenpo, overall values and principles lived out by the family. Usually, the higher the roles and responsibilities a member executes, the higher his or her status in the family becomes. But, by stating and knowing the basic rules and principles of a family does not assure harmony among the members even if I were to write the best and most biased essay on my family.

It's the personal experience sat essay, emotional attachment and connection for each member that relationships get healthy. Kenpo. A family is enron scandal essay conclusion like a human body where there is the head, the heart and the other body parts. Each part is kenpo important no matter how little their function may appear to be. One also has to consider the different ideas and perception of an event. So, when there is a clashing of ideas and arguing among members harmony is essays editing threatened.

It is the parents' duty to keep an eye on the harmony among the members. In short, parents themselves should be responsible enough not to kenpo thesis, disturb harmony within the family.