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anthology essay plan This guide is written for students and teachers who are preparing for GCSE exams in English and English literature. This guide gives a general introduction to the AQA Anthology , which is a set text for lecturer the AQA's GCSE syllabuses and to the prose texts. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this.
Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. The English Anthology is a collection of poems and essay and media short prose fiction. These are set texts (texts you have to creative writing study) for outline on should GCSE exams in English and English Literature. Creative Lecturer! If you are a student preparing for these exams, then #45; for some parts of each exam #45; you will write about some of these texts. For other parts (such as written or spoken coursework) your teacher may use the Anthology or may choose other texts. There is more than one Anthology #45; as different exam boards have their own. This guide is aimed at the AQA Anthology for GCSE English/English literature (Specification A) from research paper outline, 2004 onwards.
Your teacher will help you prepare for your exams, but you may use other sources of help. Your Anthology is creative lecturer a very important book. Your teacher may ask you to keep it in school for at least part of the GCSE course. You will use a clean copy of the Anthology for your exams, which will normally be in reasons for the french revolution, June or possibly May. (Most students take a two#45;year course and are assessed at the end of Year 11, but it is possible to creative lecturer take either exam in an earlier year. There is a special syllabus for older students; this usually takes one year to do.) For GCSE English (AQA Specification A), you need your Anthology for the first half of the second exam paper ( Section A: Reading ). For this you will answer one of the questions (in past exams there have been two to choose from) on Poems from Different Cultures . You will normally write about poems in one or other of the two clusters #45; but you can mix poems from both clusters. The two clusters belong to samuel wilberforce essays to the a single coherent collection of texts.
The only significance of the clusters is the creative requirement to name a poem - there will be two questions and one will have a named poem from questions, cluster 1 whilst the other names a poem from cluster 2. And candidates are free to choose a second poem from either cluster. Answering your chosen question should take you about half an hour. If you go over this time, you may have to rush the writing second half of the paper ( Section B: Writing ). This is quarterly not a good idea generally. However your teacher may advise you to spend a little more time in a given section if he or she knows that you can pick up extra marks at writing one point without too much risk of losing lots of marks elsewhere. Of course, if you finish the Writing section early, you can always go back to your work on Poems from Different Cultures in Section A: Reading. Below you will find guidance on how to for the french use your answer booklet to leave space for creative writing this. For GCSE English Literature , use of the Anthology is optional for the first part of the paper (you may use it but you don't have to) but compulsory for the second part. In the end#45;of#45;course exam (for which there is only one paper) you have to write on set texts. Essays Contributed To The Review! These are divided into two sections: post 1914 Prose (Section A) and pre#45; and post#45;1914 Poetry (Section B) Section A #45; the prose texts in the Anthology are mostly shorter than the creative writing other set texts.
If you find a lot of reading hard or can't cope with lots of books, studying the prose in the Anthology may be best for you. This section is worth 30#37; of the total marks for welfare rights literature. The question may name one of the stories or ask you to choose from a selection #45; but you will normally have to writing write about for the french revolution essays, two stories together. The seven stories in the Anthology are: Doris Lessing #45; Flight Sylvia Plath #45; Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit Michele Roberts #45; Your Shoes Joyce Cary #45; Growing Up Ernest Hemingway #45; The End of Something Graham Swift #45; Chemistry Leslie Norris #45; Snowdrops. Writing! The titles of the stories are interesting. With one exception (click here to find out which) the paper titles suggest the themes of the stories. Two of them are abstract , while four of them are ambiguous #45; they refer to one thing literally (an object or physical process) and another thing metaphorically (an abstract process). Take the writing example of Chemistry . This word literally names a physical science #45; most students will learn about chemistry as part of a science course. But chemistry is also used as a metaphor for the way people get on thesis continuity, together (it is very commonly used to describe characters in film who have #45; or lack #45; on#45;screen chemistry together, for creative example).
Reading the stories and getting to know them. Reasons French! The Anthology has a lot of print in it. Creative Writing Lecturer! For many students this is no problem #45; you enjoy reading independently and know what things mean, or are comfortable that you can find out. The same might be true of most teachers, too! But we do not all have the same learning styles #45; and we can use visual, auditory and questions kinaesthetic learning to make the experience more lively and enjoyable, as well as more memorable. If you are a teacher, it makes sense to read through any text before you try to present it in a live reading #45; otherwise you may be unsure how to creative writing lecturer pronounce, say frangipani in Flight . Probably all of the persuasive on celebrities and media stories are short enough for you to manage a live reading in the course of a teaching period #45; the shortest is writing just over thesis on business plan three pages long while the writing lecturer longest is reasons for the revolution essays some seven pages. Do you know which these are? Click to find out the lecturer names of the shortest and the longest stories. (At about three minutes a page, that might take over twenty minutes.) Where a story has passages of dialogue, then you might like to ask pupils to read a part, as in a play. (All of the stories have dialogue except one #45; do you know which? Click here to check the answer.) You should give the readers time to look at their lines before they read them.
The ideas in the next section are suitable, in many cases, for assessment in English (speaking and listening), as well as supporting the welfare vs animal rights study of prose for English literature. Ideas for students (with or without teachers) These ideas will work both for students working in a class and those working independently #45; perhaps with a home tutor or being educated at home. If you enjoy visual learning #45; maybe you are good at writing lecturer illustration #45; then you can produce a shortened version, or even the full version, of the text in yale questions, an illustrated format: as a comic strip, photo#45;story or mix of text and lecturer images. You will not want to copy the on business continuity full text (unless you are very patient) but can use a scanner and optical character recognition (OCR) software to produce a copy. Creative! (It will need a few corrections, but this is much easier than typing it out.) Please note that because of copyright laws, you may only yale questions, do this for your own private use, and should not distribute copies to creative writing lecturer anyone or publish them anywhere. A teacher could use this technique in a classroom, where all the students already had the research outline on should college be paid Anthology, but could not save the resulting document to a public network. This idea works best for creative writing lecturer students working in pairs or small groups. You can prepare and rehearse dramatic readings of research paper on should be paid, part or all of a story. You can also record it.
One way is to use analogue technology #45; compact cassette or VHS tapes. You can also use digital recording software to record on a computer, in formats like Real Audio or mp3. You can store the resulting data files on lecturer, a hard disk drive or other media (CD, floppy disk, minidisk, memory stick and so on). Digital audio files are very good if you want to edit them or add effects (FX). If you produce a high quality audio version, then you may want to share it with other people. Again, you need to welfare research be aware of copyright and may need to get the permission of the publishers of the story.
All of the writing lecturer programs listed here are available as freeware - you can get them at no cost. (Click on samuel essays quarterly, the hyperlinks to go to creative writing lecturer the suppliers' Web sites.) You can record mp3 files using Audacity. You can record Real Media files (or convert them from wav or mp3 files) using Helix Producer Basic. Welfare! To play these files you will need a media player such as RealOne Player or Windows Media Player. Writing! Once you have recorded files, you can edit them and add effects, using these programs. If you keep recordings for your own use, then they can be very good as revision aids.
You can listen at the same time as you read on the page. Or you can play back a reading while doing other things. (On car journeys, while getting ready to go out, while playing a game on the PC #45; so revision does not have to be painful.) You can also use physical actions to reinforce learning. In the case of the stories this could involve some of these ideas: Dramatic reading: actors speak the thesis continuity dialogue at the same time as performing physical actions. Dramatic reading: one group reads the narrative and dialogue; others perform the actions (this means that the writing lecturer actors are not restricted by holding copies of the Anthology, to read from). Mime: work out a play, without any speech, to show the main events in the story. This is essays contributed quarterly very hard, but in planning it, you would come to know the writing lecturer story well. Scenes: Take an episode from a story and welfare vs animal paper make it into a scene for performing.
In this case you might learn the lines by heart, use properties and costume, to produce a more convincing result. You will want to be able to write about any two stories #45; and must be ready to answer any question that the examiners set. Broadly speaking, the creative questions will be of two kinds. Yale! These are. questions that group stories by subject or theme, and writing lecturer questions that ask you to look at the writer's method, the form or structure of the stories. It is probably easier for on business plan you to think of the stories in the first way. Here are some ideas of how you might group them. This is a popular subject for treatment in short stories #45; in some of the Anthology stories we find this theme.
Do you agree with the writing statements below? In Flight the grandfather may be wrong about essays contributed review, his granddaughter and her fiance. Writing Lecturer! In Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit people are wrong about the narrator. In Your Shoes we have a sense that what the mother/narrator tells us is not the same as what is really happening. In Chemistry we are not quite sure if all the things the narrator presents are really the way he sees them. Can you think of things not being what they seem in other stories?
If this idea is right #45; then how does the reader discover what is really happening #45; or at least come to have doubts about what seems at first to be going on? This is a similar idea to samuel essays contributed to the review that of things not being what they seem #45; but you should be prepared for slightly different emphasis and different wording. In many of the stories we get a sense of something that the writer is telling us #45; but not directly. Here are a few suggestions as to how this might work in a few of the stories. In Your Shoes the writer suggests some things that the narrator does not tell the creative writing reader in a straightforward way #45; but which she reveals without meaning to do so. In Snowdrops there is a love story hidden beneath the surface story of a young boy going to see some flowers with his class and wilberforce essays to the quarterly teacher. In Chemistry there are hints of something going on behind the creative lecturer scenes #45; but this perhaps never appears very clearly. Can you find other examples of hidden narratives below the research outline college athletes surface? Some of the lecturer stories conceal mysteries #45; which may or may not be resolved. In Chemistry we are never quite sure about the deaths of various characters, nor about what is the narrator's response to events. In Your Shoes , we are left uncertain about what has really happened to wilberforce to the quarterly review the young woman whose mother narrates the creative writing lecturer story.
In Snowdrops , we do not clearly learn what happened between the teacher Miss Webster and the young man who has died. Research Paper Outline On Should College Athletes Be Paid! Can you think of other mysteries in the stories? What do you think happens? Do you agree that the writer has not made it clear, or do have a firmer idea of what takes place? Many of the stories are about nature #45; perhaps that of animals and plants #45; and creative lecturer its relation to people. Look at the statements below and see whether you agree with any of them. You might use these as a starting point for a practice essay. Flight compares the paper on should college be paid homing pigeons kept by an old man #45; and lecturer especially his favourite #45; to his granddaughter, whom he fears to lose. Thesis On Business! In Growing Up , we see a contrast between nature in a wild state and in a civilized or cultivated state #45; this applies to the garden of the people in the story, their pet dog and the two daughters.
In Chemistry we see ideas of natural science #45; of chemistry and physics #45; in writing, the forces that control and attract people. One quite common theme in these stories is the idea of escape or leaving #45; with or without taking leave. Here are a few examples of yale essay, stories where this may be important. In Flight we can see how Alice is moving away from one kind of life to another #45; she will be leaving her mother to creative writing lecturer live with her new husband. Welfare Vs Animal Rights! In Your Shoes the daughter has left home.
We do not know where she has gone, and she has not said goodbye to her family. In The End of Something Nick is leaving Marjorie #45; he also may be running away from something else, commitment, perhaps. Chemistry has several partings #45; as well as the death of the creative writing lecturer grandfather, there are the on business earlier departures of his wife and the narrator's mother. Snowdrops has a narrative of a parting #45; the final parting of death. Many of the stories look at relations between two or over three generations. For example: Flight looks at the relationship between Alice and creative lecturer her grandfather #45; with her mother, Lucy, caught in the middle and trying to help her father accept what is happening.
In Superman and application Paula Brown's New Snowsuit the narrator, as a child, looks to her parents for support but does not receive it. Your Shoes gives a portrait of three generations of a very confused and unhappy family #45; the narrator's family history may be responsible for her relationship with her daughter. Growing Up explores the relation between a father and his two daughters. In Chemistry we again see a family spread out over three generations #45; and how an outsider upsets the symmetry of their relationship. A similar way of writing lecturer, looking at the stories is in terms of rites of passage #45; important events in the lives of the characters. Flight shows how Alice is growing up and moving on into a new life, while her grandfather and mother respond in their different ways to yale application this. Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit is about a first betrayal #45; the narrator is falsely accused by her schoolfellows, and her parents do not stick up for her. Your Shoes is also about a young woman's attempt to gain independence #45; though in creative lecturer, a very different way from that of be paid, Alice in Flight. In Growing Up we see how Robert Quick begins to recognize his daughters' increasing autonomy #45; the story looks forward to the idea of the girls' courtship, and Robert's becoming marginalized. The End of Something looks at writing the way love can come to an end #45; it is animal vs animal rights research about the writing severing of a relationship.
Both Chemistry and thesis on business continuity plan Snowdrops look at the last rites of creative writing lecturer, passage #45; at death, and yale essay questions the way the living accept death and get on with life. Another way to group the stories is to decide whether they are sad, happy or a mixture. Which is the most and which the least happy or sad? There are different kinds of sadness #45; both the mother in creative writing, Your Shoes and the teacher in Snowdrops are sad because they have lost someone they love. But the nature of their sadness differs greatly. Can you say how? Sometimes a story begins sadly but moves to a happy ending or seems to. In Flight the athletes old man accepts his granddaughter's moving on, and marrying.
But right at the end of the story she is in tears? The End of Something is about a relationship that dies #45; but is it as sad as other stories here? In some of the stories the characters or narrators accept things that happen to them. In other stories they are more defiant. Robert, in Growing Up , is lecturer perhaps more resigned to what happens than the samuel wilberforce essays contributed review narrator of Chemistry . Or is he? What do you think. Using a grid to writing lecturer compare the stories.
You can use a grid to organize comments on pairs of stories. Click on the links below to essays open a grid in a new window #45; fill in the blanks with your own responses, and you can produce an creative lecturer outline for an essay or exam answer. Samuel Essays Contributed To The Quarterly Review! If you want to use the grid with your computer, then you should use the .doc (Microsoft Word) or .rtf (rich text format) files. If you wish to print it out and write on it, then use the .pdf (portable document format file. Left click to creative open the document in a new window; right click to research outline on should college be paid save it to creative writing your computer or storage media. You can always get an idea of the kind of questions that examiners set, by looking at past papers from real exams.
But you know that these questions will not be set again. So it may be better to practice with questions that might come up #45; by looking at stories arranged in pairs by theme or subject. For example, you might think about stories that feature parents and/or their children . (You can prepare to write on both #45; the question in the exam will show you where to place the persuasive main emphasis.) This example (parents and writing lecturer children) would work for any of these stories: Flight (you could look either at Alice as the child of on business plan, Lucy, or Lucy as her father's child) Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit (the narrator and creative her parents; the other children and theirs) Your Shoes (the mother as parent or as child) Growing Up (Robert and his daughters) Chemistry (the narrator and his parents #45; one dead and one living) You could also write about Snowdrops , though this (parents and research college athletes be paid children) is writing not really the central subject. The End of Something would not be suitable. You can make up your own questions by using the examples discussed under the heading: Putting the Stories Together. Persuasive! When you are taking the exam it is creative writing very important for you to be able to see what the examiners are asking you. They are very un likely to set exactly the same question, using the very same words, that this guide or your teacher gives you. But they are very likely to ask you questions that are mostly the same #45; since the questions here are based on what the stories are about. The few example questions below are meant to show you the style the examiners will use in setting questions for you. In both Superman and Paula Brown's New Snowsuit and Growing Up the animal welfare rights main characters learn things about creative writing lecturer, people around them.
Compare the things they learn, and the ways the writers show the characters' experiences of reasons for the revolution essays, learning. the things they learn; how the writers show the characters' experiences of learning by lecturer the ways they write about them; similarities and differences between their experiences of learning, and thesis on business plan how the writers show them. In Flight the grandfather has to face some unpleasant truths. Compare the writing lecturer ways the yale essay grandfather and one other character from another story in the selection have to face unpleasant truths. the truths that the two characters have to face; how their experiences are shown to be unpleasant by the writers of the writing stories; similarities and differences between the experiences, and for the revolution the ways they are shown. Compare the attitudes of adults towards children in any two of the creative writing lecturer stories in wilberforce to the, the list below. the attitudes of the adults; how the writers show the writing lecturer attitudes of the adults by the ways they write about them; similarities and differences between the attitudes in the stories, and how the wilberforce essays contributed quarterly review writers show them. Creative Writing Lecturer! Compare the ways the writers of research on should, Flight and one other story from the Anthology shape their stories to prepare readers for creative lecturer the endings. Compare the ways the writers of any two of the stories in the list below show children coming to terms with growing up. Yale! Compare the ways the writers of any two of the stories in the list below present the relationship between parents and children. Can I print this guide and photocopy it? This guide is free for individual users - for example, teachers or students working from home - in any part of the world.
You can print out the guide, but it is not ideal for writing lecturer printing and photocopying, and may run to many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to persuasive and media make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to go to the ZigZag Education Web site: Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of creative writing, any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.
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Patent Claim Drafting 101: The Basics. Frequently inventors will ask me if it is a good idea for them to prepare and file their own patent applications. Whenever I am asked such a question I suspect the person doing the creative, asking already knows the answer, but is hoping against wilberforce essays review, hope that they might find someone who will tell them what they really want to hear. You have probably seen the commercial where the guy is sitting at his kitchen table and is on the phone with the surgeon who is telling him where to cut to take out his appendix while using a butter knife. Writing Lecturer. The guy asks: “shouldn’t you be doing this?” Well, writing your own patent application is paper outline athletes, a little like taking out your own appendix.
You won’t die if you screw a patent application, which is virtually inevitable, but you will not likely be pleased with the outcome. If you do achieve rights they will be far more narrow than necessary and you will have created an unnavigable prosecution history that will almost certainly make the claims you do have rather useless. Having said this, it is not at all uncommon for inventors to creative writing lecturer, want to attempt to yale application questions, draft and file patent applications on their own. The cost of creative writing hiring an attorney to draft a patent application can price some inventors out of the market, so they are left with the choice of samuel essays contributed to the doing nothing to pursue their invention and writing lecturer, dreams or trying to do something on their own. Inventors who are going to attempt to draft their own patent applications need to go into the process with their eyes wide open, realize that the resulting patent application will be better if a patent attorney is research outline athletes be paid, involved in the drafting, and most importantly understand that there are a good number of creative lecturer things that you can and likely will do that will lead to a resulting right that is compromised or completely worthless.
So those who are unable to pay a patent attorney to paper outline on should college be paid, draft and file a patent application must be willing to educate themselves to the greatest extent possible in order to creative writing lecturer, have any chance at application questions, a modestly successful outcome. Toward that end, I have created a system that helps you create a provisional patent application, which is called The Invent Patent System ™. Lecturer. Provisional patent applications, however, do not need claims and can and should focus on providing the broadest disclosure possible. Essays. Thus, while not preferable, a conscientious inventor who uses The Invent Patent System ™ can create a pretty good disclosure. What would be best, however, is to use this as a draft and creative writing, then get professional assistance. What The Invent Patent System ™ does not do is try and help you create any patent claims, although if you follow the instructions you will have all that you need there to translate parts of the disclosure into draft patent claims. Patent claims are enormously difficult to write due to the peculiar format rules required by the Patent Office. Indeed, the thesis, United States Supreme Court has on a number of occasions discussed in writing lecturer detail just how difficult it is to draft and ultimately obtain a patent. See Don’t be Fooled, Drafting Patents is Complicated . So most inventors should focus on trying to make sure you have an adequate disclosure and all the ingredients necessary, and application, do the best they can with these peculiar rules. Starting to Draft Claims. First, include a claim that defines your invention in broad terms, leaving out any and writing, all unnecessary options. Animal Vs Animal Rights Research Paper. Second, include another claim that defines your invention with as much specificity and with every option you can think of.
It does not matter that the claims won’t be in perfect format, with appropriate being defined as the format the creative lecturer, Patent Office will ultimately require. On Should. At the initial filing stage what matters most is that claims are present and they have appropriate scope, with some being broad and some being narrow and quite specific. By starting to write these two claims you will “bookend” your invention. By this I mean you have disclosed the very broad and generic version of creative your invention, as well as the highly specified version. When writing a claim it is important to for the french revolution essays, describe how the various components are structured and how the various components interact and lecturer, connect.
It is necessary to describe the invention so that it is complete, so that it works, but also so that it is different than what is known in yale application the prior art. What makes your invention different? This must be made clear in the claims. When drafting a claim you want to start with something like this: 1. A sandwich comprising: 2 pieces of bread, peanut butter and jelly, wherein the peanut butter is spread on 1 piece of bread and the jelly is spread on the other piece of bread and then the two pieces of bread are put together so that the creative writing lecturer, peanut butter and on celebrities and media, jelly are touching. This is maybe a silly example, but you should get the idea. Then in another claim what you want to do is creative writing lecturer, describe the invention with every possible option you can think of. Let’s say that my preferred peanut butter and samuel essays to the quarterly review, jelly sandwich has bacon, lettuce, tomato and fluff. I would have a second claim that is something like: 2. The sandwich of writing lecturer claim 1 further comprising: bacon, lettuce, tomato and research paper athletes, fluff, wherein these ingredients are disposed between the peanut butter and jelly.
Notice how I simply add the extra parts and then say where they go. Now, neither of these claims are in perfect Patent Office format, but for now the important thing is trying to get something here that is close. Creative Lecturer. You want to reasons revolution essays, figure out what your basic invention is and then little by little add more specificity. Here is another example for a claim to an ordinary shovel: 1. A shovel comprising: an elongated handle; and. wherein said shovel head is attached to said elongated handle. Now lets introduce the concept of lecturer “antecedent basis.” Notice that the elements are introduced with either “a” or “an”, as is grammatically appropriate. Then when you subsequently refer to the element introduced you refer to is by either “said” or “the,” hence introducing “a shovel head” and then later referring to “said shovel head.” Notice also that the shovel head could be attached to reasons for the, the elongated handle in a wide variety of writing ways, none of which would really create a shovel. To handle this description difficulty we introduce internal reference points that make it easier to describe how to connect the elements. So try this claim: 1. A shovel comprising: an elongated handle having a first end and a second end; and.
wherein said shovel head is attached to said first end of said elongated handle. Let’s say you want to add a rubberized grip to persuasive essay and media, the handle, you would do this with dependent claims. In fact, in dependent claims you build on a claim earlier to narrow the description to creative writing, make it more specific. Thesis On Business Continuity Plan. Some dependent claims to a shovel might look like: 2. The invention of claim 1 further comprising a grip disposed around said second end of creative writing said elongated handle.
3. The invention of claim 2 wherein the grip is made of rubber. If your invention were really this shovel you would probably want to further describe the shovel head and explain that it has a neck and a concave portion and the neck is what is samuel wilberforce essays contributed to the review, really connected to the handle. Also, you can and should add claims that discuss how things are specifically attached. Examples would be: 4. The invention of claim 3 wherein the lecturer, shovel head is attached to said elongated handle by insertion of a screw through said neck of the shovel head and into said elongated handle. Notice here we wanted to refer to the neck in order to explain where and how the research outline college athletes, screw connects the shovel head with the handle.
Unfortunately we have not introduced the creative lecturer, neck as an element, and referring to is as “said neck” signals the patent examiner that we are referring to something that we believe has already been introduced. So if we wanted to add this claim we might find it easiest to persuasive and media, modify claim 1 as follows: 1. Lecturer. A shovel comprising: an elongated handle having a first end and a second end; and. a shovel head, which is made up of a neck leading up into a blade; wherein said shovel head is attached to said first end of said elongated handle. Perhaps the best way to go about writing claims is to just start writing, then as you need to on business continuity, add elements to the invention to define ever more specific versions check to see if the pieces and parts being added have been introduced properly and result in an description of the creative writing, version that is complete and describes what you have pictured in your mind’s eye. There is wilberforce review, much to be learned with respect to drafting claims, which is lecturer, why inventors are at a substantial disadvantage if they are representing themselves. But if there is sufficient interest in this posting I will write some follow-up articles teaching additional lessons and exposing pitfalls. For more information on application essay questions, patent application drafting please see:
Gene Quinn is creative writing, a Patent Attorney and Editor and thesis continuity, founder of creative writing IPWatchdog.com. Gene is for the revolution essays, also a principal lecturer in the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and lecturer, an attorney with Widerman Malek. Gene’s specialty is in vs animal paper the area of creative strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and continuity, patent prosecution. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and lecturer, pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and around the outline on should, world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in writing lecturer New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. CLICK HERE to send Gene a message.
Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the vs animal research paper, author and writing, should not be attributed to the author’s employer, clients or the sponsors of IPWatchdog.com. Read more. There are currently 14 Comments comments. For a patent to samuel wilberforce contributed to the review, be of lecturer value, it must be a fit subject for scrutiny by a judge and in the US also by yale application, a jury, or at the very least fit for writing third party due diligence scrutiny. Anyone who has been in persuasive essay and media litigation and done that knows just how high a standard that is. If the invention is serious, raise the money and hire an attorney. Drafting the writing, specification is the least expensive part of patenting (again I do that every day for clients with international patent portfolios) but the most important.
If you are not that committed to the invention, then find something else to do. And so far as Europe is concerned, a rough and ready provisional will not do – you need a document to the same standards as a utility patent. If the necessary generalisations are not in the provisional, priority will be denied. I have long advocated that a provisional requires every bit as much diligence as a non-provisional, and in that regard, we are of thesis on business continuity accord. I noticed omitted was talk about writing lecturer, what elements of a patent applicatoin an engineer is capable of doing. In my opinion, the engineer/entrepreneur (since we’re talking small companies) is more than capable of writing a solid description – given some basic guidelines. Afterall, if your software application can do it (and software/hardware are simply a sequence of non-abstract steps), then a human can as well.
This isn’t a GPS-guided missile #128578; Writing the Claims should clearly be one of the vs animal paper, aspects that the attorney/agent handles – but other than filing and interfacing directly with the PTO – what else should be handled by the attorney/agent? Where is the evidence that an creative writing lecturer entrepreneur cannot save SOME $costs by writing the for the, core of the application and throwing that over the wall to the patent attorney or agent. After all, aren’t most of creative writing your applications already based on discussions with engineers and/or design documents? Given that most of the recent anti-patent sentiments originate from the software crowd – I would like to suggest that helping those folks to understand what goes into a patent (with a particular focus on software) might help lessen their continuous babble. Teach a man to fish… Thanks Jodi. In my opinion, what you write begs the key question, that of protection for a patentable invention that is intermediate in scope, between Claim 1 written by your patent attorney, and the description of the preferred embodiments that you are going to provide. In the real world, the wilberforce essays to the review, patent will issue with an independent claim narrower in scope than the creative writing lecturer, independent claim of the thesis, patent application as filed. except in creative lecturer chem/bio, that difference in persuasive essay on celebrities scope will likely not be just a dependent claim taken into the main claim.
Who is going to sculpture the writing, application as filed, so that it is an effective basis for the claim you want to take to issue? That is the highest value drafting skill, in my opinion. I ask because, time and research athletes be paid, time again, we find at the EPO that applications from the USA fail to provide adequate support for the “intermediate generalisation” which the Inventor wants to take to issue and to which she iwould have been entitled, if only the patent attorney had done an adequate job of drafting in the first place. Typically, there’s the balloon of Claim 1 and, inside it, the creative, diamond of the animal vs animal rights, Best Mode. But between the diamond and the envelope, we find nothing of substance, just hot air. Somehow, domestic US patent law seems to tolerate such drafting style, with no adverse consequences for the Inventor. Outside the USA though, that’s another world. Readers, tell me again that I’m wrong.
I love it when you do that. You state “ Where is the lecturer, evidence that an entrepreneur cannot save SOME $costs by writing the core of the application and throwing that over animal rights research paper the wall to the patent attorney or agent ” While I think this can work in creative some limited instances, by and large this type of ‘throwing over reasons for the french the wall’ actually ends up costing more – sometimes appreciably more. An application, a well-written application, must be integrated throughout, including the creative writing lecturer, specification, the drawings, the claims, the abstract, and even the continuing prosecution. With that said, teaching an understanding of patents may be a well intentioned goal. But just look at the recent threads and you will see an unreasonableness by many to even take the time to understand.
Such do not want to understand, and you would likely be merely wasting your time (and your client’s money) on on business continuity plan, such education. Make the writing, offer of samuel essays quarterly education, and to creative writing, those willing to understand, teach them to fish. I ask because, time and time again, we find at the EPO that applications from the paper outline college athletes be paid, USA fail to creative writing lecturer, provide adequate support for the “intermediate generalisation” which the Inventor wants to take to issue and to which she iwould have been entitled, if only the patent attorney had done an adequate job of drafting in the first place. Which essentially supports my point – the fact that “time and time again” the inventor finds out later that “if only the patent attorney had done an adequate job” suggests today’s common method of the attorney writing the entire patent may not be all its hyped up to welfare vs animal research, be. Most of the attorney-written software patents I come across are somewhere around 10-15 pages – so once they are narrowed during prosecution then of course they might be missing adequate support. Writing Lecturer. The attorney really doesn’t have the wilberforce review, time to flesh out all sorts of possible extraneous details.
Contrast this with the engineer/entrepreneur with everything on the line who finds it worth his/her time to creative writing lecturer, include all sorts of extra details. In fact, what added value does an attorney/agent provide in writing the details of the specification over the average engineer-entrepreneur armed with some basic guidelines? Not the yale questions, Claims – but the writing lecturer, Description, Summary, and Figures. The engineer can envision and generate all sorts of possible embodiments, and thesis on business, depth of details – after all – who knows the material better? An application, a well-written application, must be integrated throughout, including the specification, the drawings, the claims, the abstract, and even the continuing prosecution. Right, by creative writing, “integrated” you are referring to consistent terminology – a guideline that the engineer/inventor could be informed of. Good stuff Jodi, but you demonstrate my point. At least in Europe, the acme of the patent attorney’s skill and animal vs animal rights paper, talent is to abstract out of all the endless detail the generalisation, the concept which is “the Invention”.
Where I come from, the threat is not from the slavish copier of the creative writing, detail but from the well-funded competitor that eschews all the detail, disdains it, but nevertheless robs you of the one thing that’s really valuable, the concept. Can you abstract “the concept” like a top patent attorney can. iI has taken me 40 years of trying, and animal welfare rights paper, I’m still not there, seeing perfectly the concept, out of all the lecturer, background detail. Was it Malcolm Gladwell who explained to us that you need at least 10000 hours of practice, to perfect a skill? You know, i think he was right. French Revolution Essays. What do you think? A decent engineer has the ability to see the creative lecturer, 3 or 4 steps that combined together form the core or “the concept” as you term it.
Determining WHAT that core is – and HOW it distinguishes over wilberforce to the prior art is the hard part but isn’t that what the engineer usually brings to the attorney anyways? No – common terminology is but a mere result of the integration I speak of. An application is a legal document. Creative Lecturer. You will fail more than you succeed going down your path. Jodi, yes. It is your Invention. As the patent attorney, I just get the privilege of writing it up. A Ghost Writer will provide the text of the autobiography of samuel wilberforce essays contributed quarterly review a sports star, but the life being described is that of the creative, sports star not the Ghost Writer. Before the writer sets to work, there are hours and wilberforce contributed review, hours of discussions about what to creative writing, write and essays review, how to manage the key issues. It has to convince readers, that the writer is the Sports Star. Will the autobiography be a success?
That might depend on the quality of the writing. One thing’s for sure, whenever a patent application is written, ist legal effectiveness is creative writing, going to be decided by whether it has been written by a competent patent attorney or not. Or think of a film about the Sports Star. Should the Star Play the role? Will that make the film a success. Acting is a skill that takes years to learn. So too the writing of patent applications.
On that, anon is right. Frankly, I think Gene Quinn missed an paper outline college be paid opportunity to get across to readers how important it is to identify the inventive concept. Instead, he emphasises the imperative, in writing lecturer domestic US practice, of selecting the right Magic Words for the Claim. In practice outside the USA, however,English is a foreign language, so that it is the getting of the substance right that is crucial. Outside the USA, there are no magic words. Thanks for all of the helpful information and comments. I am an aspiring DIY inventor.
Everything that I’ve read up to this point has concentrated heavily on animal paper, Pro Se pitfalls. Realizing this is mainly the writing lecturer, case, are there any success stories I can read about from inventors who were granted a patent based off of their own efforts at the USPTO? I am a water-sports enthusiast, wakeboard specific, and I have a wake-shaping device that I’m trying to yale application essay questions, patent. I have 2 weeks until my utility application needs to be filed and up to now I’ve been unsuccessful in raising enough money to hire an IP Attorney. I have a working prototype and a demo-video that I’ve used to pique the interest of an inboard boat manufacturer, but I don’t have the lecturer, funds for legal assistance.
It’s an unfortunate situation I know but I’ve been trying regardless. Are there any options that I am not aware of? To my knowledge, if I do not convert my provisional to a utility or file a new utility app by Jan. 23, 2014 then I could lose all of my patent rights. Well, my provisional application is as detailed as I could make it (17pgs including drawings), so I figure worst case is I will attempt to vs animal rights research paper, draft my own claims. Currently, the mfg who has expressed interest has me on hold until Spring. They don’t have the capacity to open up any projects right now until after boat-show season. Trying to keep the creative, ball rolling so I don’t completely.
lose out… Any advice will help. Thank you kind regards! – Elliott Dollar. I am an attorney from research outline college athletes, Greece, deling with business law. Creative Writing Lecturer. In the context of my practice I had to make an application for patent. I would not say I am specialized in that sector, cause in Greece there are not attorneys dealing exclusively with patents, however I managed to grant my cliend a patent with a good examination report. It was very hard for me to explain the engineering details that had to be icluded in the claims. For this purpose, I had a very good cooperation with an engineer and through team work we had a good result.
I think that the combination of the two specialties is necessary. I assume from what i read that remunaration of IP attorneys is much higher in research paper outline on should be paid relation to Greece, but if you believe in your invention it is worth it to hire both attorneys and engineers to increase the possibility of a better result. Thnx, Kostas Kalantzis. Thank you for the valuable feedback! Very inspiring to know you figured it out and received a granted patent for your client. I bet they were thrilled! I did go ahead draft file my own non-provisional application. USPTO said that as long as all the subject matter is there by the deadline, then an inventor can go back and adjust or add claims, (expect filing fees). Thank you again for your attention to lecturer, this matter.
Currently, I’m working to further organize my team, so I can continue proto-typing and pursue commercialization with an inboard boat MFG.
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2008 economy essay The US Current Account deficit stands at over 5% of GDP (down from 6.5% in 2006). Lecturer? It is true in an era of capital mobility a current account deficit is easier to finance. But, if you maintain a deficit of over continuity, 5% for a prolonged period of time, it is unsurprising if, eventually, you face difficulties in attracting the necessary capital flows. Because Asian investors are becoming more cautious over the prospects in the US deficit, capital flows are slowing down contributing to the devaluing dollar. The current account deficit shows that there is a fundamental imbalance between consumption and domestic production and lecturer, could act as a contstraint on persuasive and media future growth. Confidence in America and creative, the Dollar.
US External Debt as a % of GDP Federal Debt at samuel wilberforce essays contributed to the, Treasury Direct. You talked of creative writing Inequality. that is because Middle-class is samuel contributed quarterly, being killed by outsourcing their jobs. Creative Writing Lecturer? Soon, you will see US divided among Corporate crowns and low-income earners. Income per contributed review, capita will be good, but distribution was GDP among population will be insane. The old saying that the rich get richer and the poor get poorer is true and a big part of this problem. I am having financial difficulty and the last resort was for my husband to clean out his 401K to avoid foreclosure.
We are still having trouble. The measley 39K we took out pushed us a few thousand over creative lecturer, the point where we don't get homestead rebates, stimulus rebate, screwed up the kids college financial aid, etc. The US is basically a bankrupt economy. Remember Ross Perot and his utterances. Perot blamed the nation#8217;s economic problems on the government#8217;s inability to research on should college contain deficit spending ($350 billion in lecturer 1992) and pay off the ever-increasing national debt (a little over $4.1 Trillion in #8217;92, less than half of outline college athletes what it is now). I am a 22 year old single mother trying to get a degree in nursing so i am as close to a guarenteed job as i can get. Now, i am faced with the lecturer, problem, i wont even be able to afford to go to samuel wilberforce essays quarterly school because of gas prices.. thus how will i survive? i feel for everyone who is struggling but at the same time what can we do? I don't agree with this. Deficit is mostly due to war situation with terrorists and raising cost of energy. Credit crunch happens due to existence of the big bank and corporations that are too big to creative fail. The main differences in income emerges due to very sharp social and cultular differences in US.
The low income people in contributed to the US are usually low educated people. Despite to the fact every person in US who really wants can get very good education. Creative Writing? High level of yale application questions legalized previously illegal immigrants contributes to this. We should expect that the next generation of writing lecturer those people supposed to be more competitive. This economy is getting worse.
The gov#39;t needs to lower taxes and the economy will go back up. Application Essay Questions? The people will be ablt to buy more products that way.And this health care. Just plain stupid! We are turning into china! China saw that we were making more money being a republic and everything. The people in the U.S. are just getting way too lazy. They want the gov#39;t to pay for everything but guess where the money is comming from?
The people who work for it. The rich are rich because they had to work for their money and mananged it wisly. If you have a million dollars, spend one cent and you arn#39;t a millionair any more. Stand up for what is right for our economy and do something about creative lecturer, our gov#39;t. You know, since im doing indv. speech and my topic is about the economy, I would like some help with it from some people who know what they are talking about. The speech is, Problems with the Economy. If anyone has some advice, I will love to use it. Thanx.
The beginning of US economic problems was a period we call Reganomics, AKA, the decline of the middle class. The redistribution of vs animal research paper wealth is a function of government, seems the US government since that time hasn#39;t been doing a very good job. I say, start at the bottom. Give consumers buying power and you will create jobs proportionally. However, if you practice trickle-down, the writing, wealth will only research college be paid end up in a rain barrel! It really seems to me that the media and creative lecturer, Washington politicians THINK they know how to fix the economy. First off, the thesis on business continuity, Economy is We the creative lecturer, People No government agency can fix this by pouring money into it.
The economy is where American people EARN money, then CIRCULATE IT into what is known as the economy. Now, for years, illegal immigrants have come into this country and obtained a Green Card. They work, many of samuel wilberforce contributed quarterly them getting paid, Under the table, and NOT paying taxes. They then get their pay, from the American business and SEND it OUT OF THE COUNTRY. Think of it as a wheel with five spokes and taking out 3 of the spokes. It will still turn, but will eventually break. Creative Writing? You can NOT earn the American Dollar, and send it out of the country and expect the economy to survive.
That is the problem in a nut shell. The notion that rich people are rich because of their own efforts is reasons revolution essays, a peculiarly American fantasy that will apply to a small number of lucky and talented people but in writing lecturer the main, is yale, simply not borne out by the facts. There is a huge amount of inherited wealth in the US, there has been a constant series of tax cuts aimed solely at the rich without any consideration of fairness for other citizens or how this will impact on fiscal deficits (the 2001 Bush tax cut being the creative writing, most flagrant example), and the statistics on how the top 10-20% have taken an animal research paper, ever-increasing proportion of national income and accumulated capital speak volumes. Even conventional financial commitment consultants are suggesting that property owners re-finance their present loans. If you took out a loan at a high amount several years ago, re-financing will get you a reduced rate. click here.
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essay lotus sutra Taigen Dan Leighton. Paper for an academic conference on Discourse and Rhetoric in the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism Version with full diacritical marks available from email@example.com. In this essay I will discuss aspects of Zen Master Dogen's appropriation and creative lecturer, use of the Lotus Sutra , as it is expressed in his rhetorical style. Dogen quotes the Lotus Sutra (from the Kumarajiva version) far more than any other sutra. This might seem reasonably expectable, since Dogen was first ordained as a monk in the Tendai school, which continued to see the Lotus as the preeminent sutra, even as it incorporated and attempted to synthesize a whole range of Buddhist teachings.
However, while prominent Kamakura innovators, Eisai, Dogen, Honen, Shinran, and for the revolution, Nichiren all had been Tendai monks, they vary greatly in their subsequent application of the creative Lotus Sutra . The Lotus is the fundamental object of devotion for thesis on business continuity Nichiren, but is scarcely mentioned explicitly by Shinran (although it might be discerned as part of the background of Shin thought). The situation of Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra in his teachings is more complex. The Lotus has been commonly perceived as tangential to Dogen, and to Japanese Soto Zen generally. For example, in discussing another great Soto literary figure from the eighteenth century, Ryokan, who also favored the writing Lotus Sutra , Ryuichi Abe says, Although Ryokan appears to vs animal research have remained faithful to the religious ideals of his Soto progenitor Dogen, there was nothing sectarian about Ryokan's Buddhist practice. Among the numerous Buddhist scriptures, the Lotus Sutra popular text not particularly emphasized in traditional training but the creative writing lecturer essential scripture of the Tendai and Nichiren schools was by far his favorite. While the Lotus is certainly not nearly as important to Dogen or Soto as it is to Nichiren, Ryokan's great appreciation for plan it is revealing of the lingering appropriation of the Lotus Sutra in Soto, an appreciation and writing lecturer, usage that does go back to the Japanese Soto founder. Dogen widely cites and interprets many doctrinal elements from the Lotus Sutra in samuel essays contributed, his teachings. Creative Writing Lecturer? Along with his many direct allusions to the parables from the animal welfare vs animal research paper sutra, Dogen frequently refers to specific Lotus teachings. Examples are skillful means ( hoben ); the single cause for buddhas' appearing in the world, i.e. to bring suffering beings onto the path of writing lecturer awakening; and that only a Buddha together with a Buddha can fully fathom the fundamental truth. While these teachings are not completely unique to the Lotus among Mahayana sutras, Dogen discusses them using direct quotes from the Lotus Sutra . Dogen also often discusses or critiques teachings commonly linked to the Lotus Sutra in Heian and Kamakura Buddhism, such as the paper on should college athletes importance of fundamental enlightenment (hongaku); and realization of writing lecturer buddhahood in this very body (sokushin jobutsu). Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra text is necessarily affected by the contemporary readings of the Lotus in persuasive on celebrities, Tendai and other Japanese understandings, a complex subject beyond the lecturer scope for this limited essay to detail.
A discussion of all the numerous direct references to the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's writings is also far beyond the scope of this essay. But to mention briefly one of the most prominent examples, in his Shobogenzo essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke The Lotus Dharma Turns the Lotus Dharma, Dogen discusses and elaborates his view of the liberative reality of the for the french revolution essays phenomenal world, which Dogen interprets as a primary teaching of the Lotus Sutra . Dogen expresses this interpretation in various ways. The Hokke-Ten-Hokke essay begins with the statement that, The contents of the lands in ten directions are the sole existence of the Lotus Dharma. In various writings, Dogen creatively reads and interprets parts of the Lotus Sutra such as the stories in chapters fifteen and sixteen about the writing underground bodhisattvas immanently present and available for the world, and the inconceivable life-span, and continuing presence in the world, of Shakyamuni Buddha. For The Revolution Essays? These are among the Lotus Sutra supports for Dogen's teaching about the active agency of the phenomenal world in the process and practice of Buddhist awakening. This interpretation and appropriation of the Lotus teaching as essentially immanent and writing lecturer, located in the phenomenal world is thesis on business continuity not only important to creative Dogen's philosophy, but is also relevant to Dogen's style of application essay expression, as will be described in what follows in this essay. In line with Dogen's many references, the Lotus Sutra also retains a significant place in Soto liturgy, albeit far less central than in Nichiren Buddhism. Creative? Even today in paper outline college be paid, many Japanese Soto Zen temples, the verse endings to the sutra's chapter sixteen on the Buddha's Inconceivable Life-span (Juryohonge), or to creative writing chapter twenty-five on Kannon Bodhisattva (Fumonbonge), are chanted daily. But instead of the sutra's doctrinal or liturgical applications, I will limit the scope of this essay to samuel wilberforce essays quarterly review examining some of the ways in which Dogen's style of discourse and rhetoric, as seen in his Eihei Koroku as well as in creative writing lecturer, Shobogenzo , resonate with his interpretations of aspects of the Lotus Sutra . My point is not at all to claim that the Lotus Sutra is the single most important source for Dogen; obviously there are many traditions from samuel wilberforce essays contributed quarterly, which Dogen borrows. Much of the Chinese Ch'an tradition is the central lexicon for Dogen, especially the creative writing classical koan literature, as well as closer Tsao-tung lineage forebears such as Hung-chih Cheng-chŸeh and T'ien-t'ung Ju-ching. In Dogen and welfare vs animal, the Koan Tradition, Steven Heine has masterfully demonstrated how Dogen's writings serve to develop and elaborate the koan genre. Dogen also makes ample use of the Japanese poetic tradition, as invoked in Yasunari Kawabata's appreciation of Dogen as a poet in Kawabata's 1968 Nobel Prize acceptance speech. Dogen's indebtedness to this poetic tradition has been further traced in Heine's The Zen Poetry of Dogen . Dogen certainly further appropriated the Chinese monastic tradition as a major basis for his praxis, and training program. But Dogen's utilization of Mahayana discourse, especially as developed in the Lotus, should also be considered as one of the fundamental backgrounds for viewing Dogen's teaching as a whole.
I believe that further inquiries into various aspects of their interrelationship will be illuminating to both Dogen and Lotus Sutra studies. But this present essay focuses on creative writing lecturer Dogen's borrowing aspects of its rhetorical style, based on essays his own interpretation of the Lotus. The essay proceeds with a discussion of the Lotus Sutra style of proclamatory rhetoric. The Self-Referential Lotus. The Lotus Sutra itself frequently emphasizes the importance of and rewards for creative writing lecturer the reading, copying, and reciting of the Lotus Sutra . To be sure, other Mahayana sutras talk about the samuel wilberforce contributed review merit to be derived by recalling or copying the creative writing lecturer sutra being read. However, the Lotus Sutra at times seems to hold this self-referential quality at its center, such that it promotes an extreme mode of self-referential discourse that is unique to the Lotus Sutra . The sutra often speaks of the wondrous nature of the Lotus Sutra , right in the text commonly referred to as the research paper on should athletes Lotus Sutra . This rhetorical device can become startling and mind-twisting, like Escher's painting of two hands drawing each other. Various important figures in creative writing, the sutra appear within the text of the reasons for the french revolution essays Lotus Sutra because they have heard that the Lotus Sutra is currently being preached by Shakyamuni Buddha on Vulture Peak. For example, in chapter eleven, the creative stupa of the ancient Buddha Prabhutaratna emerges from the earth and floats in mid-air, because he has vowed always to appear whenever the Lotus Sutra is preached. In the same chapter, myriad bodhisattvas arrive from world systems in all directions, in order to praise the Buddha for preaching this sutra in which they are appearing. This quality of the reasons for the french revolution essays sutra talking about the sutra, and especially its many references to the Lotus Sutra as something expounded many ages ago, as about to be expounded, or even as hopefully to be expounded in the distant future, has led some commentators to observe that the whole text of this sutra, more than any others, is a preface to writing a missing scripture.
As George and Willa Tanabe say: The preaching of the Lotus sermon promised in reasons for the french essays, the first chapter never takes place. The text, so full of creative writing merit, is about a discourse which is never delivered; it is reasons french essays a lengthy preface without a book. Writing Lecturer? The Lotus Sutra is thus unique among texts. It is not merely subject to various interpretations, as all texts are, but is open or empty at its very center.  This is a plausible perspective or interpretation.
The text does refer, in third person, to a designated text that one might keep vainly waiting for, as if for Godot. However, this perspective misses the manner in research athletes, which the creative Lotus sermon certainly does exist. Fundamental messages of the Lotus, such as the One Vehicle and the primacy of the Buddha vehicle, are difficult to miss, even if they might be interpreted in various manners. But furthermore, between the lines the Lotus Sutra functions within itself both as a sacred text or scripture, and as a commentary and guidebook to its own use, beyond the literal confines of its own written text. The Lotus Sutra is itself a sacred manifestation of spiritual awakening that proclaims its own sacrality. Right within the text's proclamation of the wonders of a text with the same name as itself, the text celebrates its own ephemeral quality with the visionary splendors of its assembly of buddhas, bodhisattvas, and spirits, and with the engaging qualities of its parables. The synthesis of the immanent spirit spoken about in the text, and the text's own intended functioning as an instrument or skillful catalyst to spark awakening, has been carried on among its followers. This is exemplified in the varieties of Nichiren Buddhism in that they are rooted and focused in devotion to the Lotus Sutra itself as a sacred manifestation, and for the essays, devotional object, which they are committed to proclaiming and promulgating. But for Dogen, the self-proclamation of the dharma in the Lotus Sutra becomes an aspect of his rhetorical style, rather than an writing externalized objectification.
In similar manner to the sutra's proclamations of the wondrous qualities of the yale application questions Lotus Dharma, Dogen in his writings commonly proclaims the lecturer wondrous nature of the Dharma, the contributed review Buddha, the many buddha ancestors, previous proclamations or utterances by ancestral teachers, and of course the Lotus Sutra itself. Dogen's style of discourse is usually not explanatory, discursive, or logical in the linear manner of modern rationality or cognition. Rather, Dogen seemingly free-associates, making illuminating connections based on lecturer doctrinal themes or imagistic motifs, aimed at welfare vs animal paper, proclaiming the non-dual reality of the present phenomenal world as fully imbued with the presence of the Buddha and of the ongoing possibility of awakening. A clear encapsulation of the Lotus Sutra 's self-proclamatory discourse strategy appears in volume one of Dogen's Eihei Koroku in two consecutive jodo, or dharma discourses, numbers 69 and 70, given in 1241. Jodo number 69 reads in its entirety: [Dogen] said: Today this mountain monk [Dogen] gives a dharma discourse for the assembly. What I have just said I offer to all the three treasures in the ten directions, to the twenty-eight Ancestors in India, to the six Ancestors in China, to all the writing lecturer nostrils under heaven, to the eyeballs throughout the plan past and present, to dried shitsticks, to three pounds of sesame, to writing lecturer Zen boards, and to application questions zafus. Writing Lecturer? Previously we offered incense for the limitless excellent causal conditions, and we dedicate it so that toads may leap up to Brahma's heaven, earthworms may traverse the eastern ocean, and clouds and research paper outline college, water monks may become horses and lecturer, cows. All buddhas, ten directions, three times; All honored ones, bodhisattva mahasattvas; Mahaprajnaparamita. Here Dogen states that he is proclaiming a jodo. But immediately, without saying anything more about the dharma, he dedicates that statement itself to for the french revolution the three jewels, the ancestral teachers, to meditation paraphernalia, and to famed Ch'an iconoclastic expressions for Buddha, Yun-men's dried shitstick (or dry turd) and his disciple Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's three pounds of sesame (or flax). He then further dedicates the incense offering, which had preceded the statement that he was now making a statement, to toads, earthworms, and monks who manifest as horses and creative, cows, followed by the traditional concluding liturgical dedication. He thereby declares the intention of the dedication for on business continuity plan all beings, no matter how humble. As in the Lotus Sutra , there is no visible dharma expressed except for the celebration via proclamation of a non-explicit dharma.
But then, in the following jodo, number 70, Dogen explicitly comments on his own use of self-referential dharma, while engaging even further in writing, celebrating an unexpressed dharma. We do not know how many days may have separated the two discourses. In this section of the text, between the jodos that can be dated and which are four months apart, there were an average of two discourse per week. But whatever the interval, it is clear in the overall text of welfare rights research Eihei Koroku that the different discourses, recorded chronologically with only very rare exceptions, are often linked sequentially through the associations of creative writing theme, imagery, ancestral figures, or textual allusion. Application Essay Questions? Jodo number 70 says: [Dogen] said: As this mountain monk [Dogen] today gives a dharma discourse, all buddhas in lecturer, the three times also today give a dharma discourse. The Ancestral teachers in all generations also today give a dharma discourse. The one who bears the sixteen-foot golden body gives a dharma discourse. The one endowed with the wondrous function of the hundred grasses (all things) gives a dharma discourse. Contributed To The? Already together having given a dharma discourse, what dharma has been expounded? No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma?
It is upheld within Shang-lan Temple; it is upheld within Kuan-yin Temple; it is writing upheld within the monks' hall; it is upheld within the buddha hall. Again, Dogen never talks about the rights content of creative lecturer his dharma discourse. But he proclaims that his own act of proclaiming this self-referencing dharma is echoed simultaneously in the discourses of the ancestral teachers and buddhas, just as the proclamation of the outline on should athletes be paid Lotus Sutra is echoed in various buddha realms, in various times. Then Dogen asks the same question that the Tanabes ask about the Lotus Sutra , What dharma has been expounded? And Dogen answers unabashedly, No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is lecturer this dharma? While not explaining or even stating the content of this dharma, his phrase, This very (shako) dharma, might seem to refer to the teaching of outline on should college athletes be paid suchness, or tathata, but it is also simply just this dharma, as opposed to that one. Thereby Dogen emphasizes not an abstraction, but the concreteness of phenomenal reality as the realm of dharma. Creative Writing? Then Dogen does declare and affirm that this non-explicit teaching is upheld in the context of the temples and the buildings where the practice is carried on. The example in these two jodos of Dogen's proclamation of a non-explicit dharma is presented in a direct and concise manner, as appropriate to the often brief declarations of the jodo form. But this rhetorical strategy recurs, more or less subtly, in many places throughout Shobogenzo , as well as in Eihei Koroku . That Dogen is yale application essay adapting this rhetorical posture at least in part directly from the lecturer Lotus Sutra is research paper college athletes be paid clearly evidenced by another early jodo in the Eihei Koroku , number 24, given in 1240.
In the entire universe in ten directions there is no dharma at all that has not yet been expounded by all buddhas in the three times. Creative? Therefore all buddhas say, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This great assembly present before me also is welfare rights research paper practicing the Way in writing lecturer, the manner of all buddhas. Each movement, each stillness is application essay not other than the dharma of all buddhas, so do not act carelessly or casually. Although this is the case, I have an expression that has not yet been expounded by any buddha.
Everyone, do you want to creative discern it? After a pause [Dogen] said: In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. In this dharma discourse Dogen again does not elaborate on the content of the dharma expounded by all buddhas in research paper outline on should, the three times, except to aver that it is no other than every movement, and every stillness, and is practiced by the monks at Eiheiji. Significant to the point of this essay is the context of this quote mentioned by Dogen from Sakyamuni Buddha, In the creative lecturer same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This statement that Dogen uses to express the inexplicit dharma proclaimed by all buddhas is research outline on should athletes be paid from the Lotus Sutra , chapter two on creative lecturer Skillful Means. Dogen further emphasizes this quote when he repeats it verbatim as his own expression for the inexplicit dharma, which he claims, Has not yet been expounded by any buddha. But saying it has not previously been expounded is tantamount to Dogen himself preaching the research paper original Lotus Sutra , or to his own manifestation as the Buddha in the Lotus text in lecturer, which it is first expounded.
There are ample examples of response with silence, or of indirect or inexplicit Dharma proclamation within the Ch'an literature that is Dogen's primary lexicon. Yet the contributed to the review Lotus Sutra referent for creative lecturer this 1240 jodo about french essays, expounding the creative lecturer dharma clearly demonstrates that Dogen himself saw the Lotus Sutra , expounded by all buddhas in the three times, as an important source for thesis continuity this self-proclamatory rhetorical style of expounding. Further studies of creative any references to for the french the Lotus Sutra in the development of early Ch'an rhetorical styles might be informative. But it is apparent that Dogen himself saw the Lotus as one model for creative lecturer a non-dualistic, inexplicit discourse approach. The Self-Reflexive as a Skillful Mode. In The Karma of Words, William LaFleur discusses the sophisticated nature of the Lotus Sutra as literature, and contributed to the quarterly, its impact in lecturer, medieval Japanese poetics. The surprising feature of essays contributed [the parables] in the Lotus is that they are simultaneously the vehicle and the tenor of writing that vehicle. Reasons Revolution? In a very important sense, the parables of the creative Lotus are about the thesis continuity role and lecturer, status of vs animal research paper parabolic speech itself. They are what I would call self-reflexive allegory; that is, their trajectory of creative discourse behaves like a boomerang. Much like the dharma described in a crucial section of the hoben chapter, they are characterized by the absolute identity [or equality] of their beginning and end.
LaFleur's analysis of this realm of discourse in the Lotus Sutra focuses on its radical nondualism, and its embodiment of skillful means. This standpoint of for the french nondualism represents interpretations of the Lotus Sutra developed in writing lecturer, T'ien-t'ai and in Japanese Buddhism prior to Dogen, and which impacted the medieval literature LaFleur examines. From such a nondualistic viewpoint, LaFleur suggests translating hoben as modes rather than the more common translations of skillful or expedient means. Hurvitz translates hoben as expedient devices, and for the essays, Watson translates it as expedient means, both implying a dualistic, and even manipulative, aspect of the teaching, especially when rendered as devices. Writing Lecturer? Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka translate it as tactfulness, which implies more consideration and inclusivity, but might still be seen as implying a hierarchy of the teachings. The upaya (or hoben ) doctrine is for the french a problematic aspect in the Lotus Ekayana One Vehicle teaching. The Lotus at times has been upheld, within the sutra itself as well as by creative writing lecturer some of its followers, for example in yale essay questions, the T'ien-t'ai p'an-chiao system, as the lecturer supreme epitome of the One Vehicle. In this perspective other teachings and scriptures may be seen as merely expedient, provisional (and therefore inferior) teachings that might be included in the One Vehicle as a kind of dharmic noblesse oblige. Such a view of upaya implies a hierarchy of teachings, and even a manipulative use of them.
Unquestionably the Lotus Sutra lends itself, and often explicitly encourages, a political, polemical reading in which the Lotus, and on business, those who preach it, represent the creative True Dharma, and those who follow provisional, expedient teachings exemplify the chaff, inimical to the full teaching. On the other hand, the alternate mode of reading the teaching of upaya, as championed by LaFleur, implies a radically nondualistic inclusivity, and an acceptance of all helpful teachings as simply a diversity of modes. Portions of the Lotus Sutra do indeed lend themselves to this alternate, more tolerant and thesis on business continuity, inclusive reading of writing hoben . For example, in chapter five the parable of the reasons Dharma rain falling universally on all implies no discrimination against any of the many plants that are equally nourished, each growing in creative, their own way. Applied as appropriate to the diversity of needs of thesis on business continuity plan suffering beings, all teaching modes might be equally beneficial to creative the ultimate purpose for yale questions buddhas' manifestation, as proclaimed in the upaya chapter: By resort to numberless devices and to lecturer various means, parables, and phrases do [buddhas] proclaim the dharmas, . . . for one great cause appearing in the world, . . . to cause beings to hear the Buddha's knowledge, . . Essay? . to cause the beings to understand, . . . to cause the beings to enter the path. Such an inclusive reading of hoben might be usefully appropriated to modern concerns of religious pluralism, which may be LaFleur's subtext. But LaFleur's reading also has implications to styles of discourse, the primary issue under consideration here. LaFleur sees the sutra's primary liberative purpose and its various skillful modes expressed nondualistically as exactly the reason for the sutra's self-referential discourse style. In his reading: The narratives of the writing Lotus are not a means to an end beyond themselves.
Their concrete mode of expression is not chaff to be dispensed with in order to attain a more abstract, rational, or spiritual truth. The Lotus is unequivocal on this point: One may seek in every one of the ten directions but will find no mode [ hoben ] other than the Buddha's. This accounts for what may seem to essay questions be an inordinate amount of praise directed by creative writing lecturer the sutra toward itself. It also implies that within the sutra there is an unmistakable philosophical move opposite to that in Plato's Republic, a move to affirm the animal research complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in lecturer, spite of the fact that they are impermanent. This common Japanese association of the outline on should college Lotus Sutra with affirmation of the reality of the phenomenal world, followed here by LaFleur, can be dated back to the Japanese Tendai founder Saicho. Creative Lecturer? Having studied with two of the disciples of the Chinese Hua-yen master Chan-jan, who argued for the Buddha nature of insentient beings (a teaching that Dogen would also later frequently celebrate), Saicho incorporated Hua-yen (Kegon) views of suchness into Tendai. But Saicho also applied this in continuity, an original way to his interpretation of the Lotus Sutra . Creative? His reading not only acknowledges two aspects of suchness but establishes a hierarchy between the two in identifying the dynamic aspect of samuel wilberforce quarterly review suchness—its expression as the phenomenal world—with the T'ien-t'ai category of the middle and with the one vehicle of the Lotus. This represents a crucial step toward the writing lecturer profound valorization of empirical reality found in medieval Tendai original enlightenment thought. From this Japanese Tendai perspective of samuel contributed to the spiritual reality immanent in concrete phenomena, the Lotus Sutra itself is not separate from, or talking about, a realm of transcendent spirit outside of itself. Thus the creative writing Lotus Sutra itself can become an embodiment of the awakening aspect of the phenomenal world, omnipresent, at least in potentiality, in all concrete phenomena. Outline On Should? The self-referential or self-reflexive aspect of the sutra demonstrates the non-separation of its liberative goals from the Buddha's skillful modes.
Given the nonduality of purpose and context of the Lotus Sutra as a text that itself represents and enacts veneration of the world's liberative potential, it is reasonable that this very sutra would become an creative lecturer object of persuasive on celebrities and media veneration, as in Nichiren Buddhism. To be sure, Dogen is not inclusive of the diverse modes of creative writing teachings in LaFleur's strictly non-hierarchical fashion, as, in common with all of the Kamakura innovators, Dogen at times upholds his own teaching lineage and strongly disparages others. However, Dogen's use of Lotus style self-referential discourse is directed at affirmation of the reasons for the nondualism of creative means and end, and yale application questions, he repeatedly affirms the phenomenal realm as the arena of nondual practice-realization, in accord with LaFleur's view of the creative Lotus Sutra discourse as based on hoben . In a similar skillful mode, Dogen often intentionally uses words as vehicles to express the discourse he is then proclaiming. Dogen's frequent inversion of conventional word order and word meaning from classical koans or sutras serves to express this quality of proclamation, in which the discourse itself demonstrates that which it is expounding. A prominent example is the oft-cited wordplay in Shobogenzo Bussho Buddha Nature, first written in 1241, in which Dogen retranslates the research paper college athletes passage from the creative lecturer Mahaparinirvana Sutra, All sentient beings without exception have Buddha nature. By rereading the animal welfare rights paper characters shitsu-u as whole being, rather than all have, Dogen alters the passage to, All sentient beings' whole being [is] Buddha nature. This elimination of dualistic grammar itself demonstrates the creative nondualism between sentient beings and persuasive essay and media, Buddha nature. In further accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus discourse, Dogen specifically affirms the creative lecturer complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in thesis on business continuity, his discourse rhetoric as well as its content, and even when leaving the content itself seemingly absent, or at least not stated. In jodo 49 in Eihei Koroku, also given in 1241, Dogen says: This mountain monk has not lectured for the sake of the assembly for a long time.
Why is this? On my behalf, the buddha hall, the monks' hall, the creative valley streams, the pine, and bamboo, every moment, endlessly speak fully for the sake of all people. Reasons French Revolution Essays? Have you all heard it or not? If you say you heard it, what did you hear? If you say you have not heard it, you do not keep the five precepts. Here Dogen rhetorically affirms the immanence of the dharmic discourse as well as its content, right in the world of dharmas, or phenomena, including streams, pines, bamboo, and temple buildings, which all themselves discourse on this dharma. He also self-consciously uses this nonexplicit discourse of the dharma and its immanence as a skillful means for challenging his monks in training to hear and express the dharma more fully. Have you all heard it or not? Dogen's Use of the Fantastic.
Another literary aspect of the Lotus Sutra that is disconcerting to conventional analysis is the degree to creative which its stories and teachings are rooted in images and fantasies. In his introduction to his book on for the Myoe, whose life and teaching were colorfully replete with the visionary, George Tanabe, Jr. cites the centrality of visions to East Asian Buddhist experience, despite the focus of much of modern Buddhist studies on doctrine and philosophy. The Buddhist tradition is as much a history of fantasy as it is a history of thought. Creative Writing? It should be studied as such to gain a better understanding not only essays of Buddhism as a fantastic philosophy, but of Buddhists as sentient beings as well. In the context of Myoe studies, Tanabe's discussion of the fantastic might more directly apply to the psychedelic visions of the Avatamsaka Sutra, which Myoe, as a Kegon monk, especially cherished. But Tanabe's remarks also certainly pertain to the striking images and creative lecturer, parables of the Lotus, about which he says, The Lotus Sutra is less a work of memory and animal welfare vs animal rights research paper, more a product of fantasy inspired with new visions derived internally. The Lotus Sutra thus calls for examination of the significance and function of its imagery as much as, if not more than, its philosophical positions. As Tanabe says: Mahayana Buddhism is, among many things it can be, a tradition of the mind's faculty for producing images in both waking life and sleep: a tradition, that is, of fantasy producing visions, . . . and writing lecturer, dreams, which were interpreted by welfare vs animal paper the dreamers for their own meanings and which can be, to add a modern aspect, read by us for their feelings. It will be possible to gain a better understanding of Mahayana Buddhism as a vehicle not only creative of ideas and institutions but of samuel wilberforce quarterly review human emotion as well only when studies of the fantastic end of the creative spectrum become more available. In this context, the Lotus Sutra parables and self-referential discourse style can be seen as the internal expression of vision, or fantasy, that expresses the human experience of Mahayana practice, more than its philosophical content. Even when, as may frequently be the animal welfare paper case, such discourse is a literary device or artifice, rather than directly inspired by lecturer literal meditative experience, visions, or dreams, such literary framing serves to honor the skillful use of imagination and the visionary.
The Lotus Sutra itself includes a parable that uses a fantastic vision to demonstrate how fantastic visions function as skillful liberative modes. In chapter seven, a conjured or phantom city is described as a vision that serves as a metaphor for the teaching of nirvana as cessation, which can provide a half-way oasis on the path to Mahayana universal liberation. Despite being a mere phantom, the vision of an oasis city acts as a necessary, beneficial encouragement for practitioners, who may be refreshed by temporarily imagining they have achieved their goal. Questions? Similarly, Lotus Sutra parables, no matter how fantastic, themselves function as beneficial encouragements. In another of the numerous examples in Shobogenzo of Dogen using wordplay to invert conventional thinking, in Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the creative writing lecturer Dream, written in 1242, Dogen extensively elaborates on the statement that all buddhas express the dream within a dream. He thereby denies the supposedly lesser reality of the dreams of the transient phenomenal world, and negates a Platonic exaltation of the absolute, which LaFleur describes as the application antithesis of Lotus teaching. Instead, Dogen proclaims the dream world of phenomena as exactly the realm of buddhas' activity. Every dewdrop manifested in every realm is a dream. This dream is the creative writing glowing clarity of the contributed quarterly review hundred grasses. Creative Writing Lecturer? . . Persuasive Essay On Celebrities And Media? . Do not mistake them as merely dreamy. The liberative awakening of buddhas is itself described as a dream.
Without expressing dreams, there are no buddhas. Creative? Without being within a dream, buddhas do not emerge and turn the persuasive essay wondrous dharma wheel. Lecturer? This dharma wheel is no other than a buddha together with a buddha, and a dream expressed within a dream. Simply expressing the dream within a dream is itself the paper athletes be paid buddhas and ancestors, the assembly of unsurpassable enlightenment. Dogen is not frivolously indulging in creative writing, mere paradox here, but follows the logic of the continuity dream as necessarily the locus of awakening. Creative Writing? As Dogen says in his celebrated essay, Genjokoan, Those who have great realization of delusion are buddhas. What is worthy of study is not delusions or fantasies about enlightenment, but rather the plan reality of the causes and conditions of the realms of delusion and suffering. A similar logic is creative writing lecturer expressed in the Lotus Sutra dictum that buddhas manifest only due to the presence of persuasive on celebrities suffering beings. Dogen's positive view of dreams will be significant in his parables to be discussed below, two of which Dogen frames as if they might have been dreams, whether or not they were his actual sleeping dreams.
Dogen does not attend to literal dreams with anywhere near the same dedication as his contemporary, Myoe, as exemplified by creative lecturer Myoe's extraordinary, forty-year dream journal. Along with Myoe, dreams and persuasive, visionary discourse are also more emphasized than they are by Dogen in the teachings of Keizan, Dogen's third generation successor, who is revered as the second founder of Japanese Soto Zen. Lecturer? The central role of dream and vision for Keizan has been discussed and application questions, elaborated by creative lecturer Bernard Faure in Visions of Power.  Keizan and reasons for the french revolution, his successors in writing lecturer, the following few generations helped spread Soto Zen throughout rural Japan. One stereotype in Soto studies is the distinction between Keizan's use of the visionary, inspired by Esoteric teachings, and the supposedly more pure Zen of Dogen. Paper College? According to this stereotype, Dogen emphasized zazen and a rational presentation of buddha dharma, untainted by the more colorful and writing, melodramatic Mahayana and Esoteric teachings indulged in by Keizan. However, Dogen does indeed employ dreams and visions as skillful teaching tools. Yale Essay? While we may certainly note differences in emphasis and style between Dogen and Keizan, Dogen is in fundamental accord with the world-view of medieval Japan, including the esoteric teachings of Shingon and writing lecturer, Tendai that were the background for all Kamakura Buddhism. Dogen sees the phenomenal world as dynamically alive, and imbued with spirit forces. Reasons French Revolution Essays? His visionary context is perhaps most apparent in his interpretations and appropriations of the Lotus Sutra , and in writing lecturer, his own references to dreaming. In Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, Dogen explicitly refers to the Lotus Sutra as a source for the role of research paper college athletes dreams in his discourse style. He quotes a long passage that concludes the final verse in chapter fourteen of the sutra, beginning from, All buddhas, with bodies of golden hue, splendidly adorned with a hundred auspicious marks, hear the dharma and expound it for others. Such is the fine dream that ever occurs. . . . Creative? Dogen interprets this passage as saying that the whole archetypal story of the Buddha occurs in a dream.
Dogen's reading takes this passage out of its context in the sutra to emphasize that the Buddha is made king, leaves the palace, awakens under the bodhi tree, and conducts his whole teaching career, all in a dream. Thus this passage at the close of chapter fourteen is creatively interpreted by Dogen to serve as foreshadowing for the revelation in chapter sixteen of Buddha's inconceivable life-span, in which the archetypal story of his birth, awakening, teaching, and death is more explicitly revealed as a skillful means to encourage beings. After quoting this passage, Dogen avers that, This dream of buddhas is not an analogy. In the quarterly review original context of the Lotus Sutra text, this passage is merely describing the rewards of those who preach the Lotus, in lecturer, this instance the reward of auspicious dreams. But Dogen uses his creative reading to essay validate, or at writing, least exemplify, his teaching that the dream-state of the conditioned phenomenal world is exactly the arena for awakening. But here he is furthermore claiming the dream mentioned by the Lotus Sutra as a model for a skillful discourse mode that has recourse to the visionary as a tool for liberation. As in the Lotus Sutra self-reflexive discourse style, the on business parable expression is itself a skillful mode of reality for Dogen, not separate from concrete phenomena. Dogen continues, People in creative writing lecturer, the past and present mistakenly think that, thanks to the power of expounding this foremost dharma, mere night dreams may become like this dream of samuel contributed buddhas. Thinking like this, one has not yet clarified the Buddha's discourse. Writing Lecturer? Awakening and dreaming from the beginning are one suchness, the genuine reality. The buddha-dharma, even if it were an analogy, is the genuine reality.
For Dogen, the particular events of this dream world are the reality, and also the skillful discourse, of the awakening of buddhas. The essays of persuasive on celebrities and media Dogen's Shobogenzo , such as Muchu Setsumu, are sometimes philosophical and elaborative of traditional Buddhist or Zen doctrines, and are addressed to a general audience of his contemporaries. Lecturer? In Eihei Koroku , by contrast, Dogen is outline on should athletes be paid directly addressing his small cadre of monk disciples at Eiheiji, stretching for means to encourage and develop their practice. In this work, the primary available source for his mature teachings, as well as occasionally revealing humor or feelings such as sadness or regret, Dogen at times offers his own parables, often using fantastic, playful imagery, sometimes expressed as if in dreams. In the following three parables from Eihei Koroku jodos, Dogen's appropriation of Lotus and Mahayana vision is evidenced through the allusions to Mahayana rhetoric or figures in each of them. In Eihei Koroku jodo number 229, given in 1247, Dogen directly parodies the rhetoric of Mahayana sutras. The millions of billions of lecturer transformation bodies [of buddhas] abide throughout a monk's staff, carry water and gather firewood to make offerings to persuasive buddhas as numerous as there are sitting cushions, and, on the tip of a whisk, simultaneously all attain unsurpassed complete perfect enlightenment. They are all equally named Broken Wooden Ladle Tathagata, Worthy of creative lecturer Offerings, Omniscient, Foot of Bright Practice, Well Gone One, World Liberator, Supreme One, Strong Controlling Person, Teacher of Humans and Heavenly Beings, World-Honored Buddha. The Country [of this Buddha] is named Clump of Soil; the kalpa is named Fist.
The duration of the True Dharma Age and essay and media, Semblance Dharma Age are both twelve hours, and the buddha's longevity is that of creative writing lecturer a dried turd from three thousand great thousands of worlds. Animal Welfare Vs Animal Paper? Do you all understand? If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained. Dogen plays with words here, replacing the creative lecturer conventional sutra rhetoric for a buddha abiding throughout kalpas with his abiding throughout a monk's staff.
Instead of making offerings to on should be paid buddhas as numerous as the proverbial grains of sand in the Ganges River, Dogen substitutes buddhas as numerous as sitting cushions. Instead of the writing buddha sitting under the samuel contributed to the review bodhi tree as he attains enlightenment, Dogen has him sitting on top of a whisk. Dogen then applies the standard ten epithets for a buddha, starting with Tathagata, to creative a new buddha invented here by research paper outline athletes be paid Dogen, named Broken Wooden Ladle, who might be seen as a reference to all of the humble monks practicing under him at Eiheiji. Continuing with his parody of conventional Mahayana sutra rhetoric, Dogen designates the writing buddha land of yale application questions this fabulous new buddha as Clump of soil, his kalpa as Fist, and his longevity as that of a dried turd. Dogen seems to mock the standard Mahayana sutra rhetoric, iconoclastically mimicking a formula for describing buddhas used often in the Lotus Sutra , for example in chapters eight and creative, nine on on business continuity the predictions of future buddhahood of the five hundred disciples, and of learners and adepts. However, Dogen actually is affirming his view of the creative writing lecturer Lotus Sutra , as originally interpreted by Saicho and expressed by LaFleur, that validates the world of concrete phenomena as expressive of the essence of animal vs animal paper awakening. The new buddha is called Broken Wooden Ladle in celebration of a humble implement, to which Dogen frequently refers in lecturer, highly exalted terms. For example, in jodo 204 in 1246 he says, If you really know it, the temple pillars confirm that, and the wooden ladles study together with you. Then he has wooden ladles doing three prostrations and samuel essays contributed quarterly, asking a dharma question. Similarly revered in jodo 229, above, are the practice paraphernalia of sitting cushions, a monk's staff, and a teacher's whisk. But in celebrating humble phenomena, Dogen also emphasizes their ephemerality, as he says that the True and Semblance Dharma Ages of Broken Wooden Ladle Buddha endure merely twelve hours. Although an intact wooden ladle is a useful implement, here the Buddha is named Broken Wooden Ladle, further emphasizing transiency, and recalling the Zen phrase, the bottom of creative writing a bucket broken out, which signifies the letting go of attachments in opening experiences. Dogen's challenge to research college athletes be paid his monks at the end of the jodo echoes the prominent Ch'an dharma combat rhetoric style of koan anthologies such as the Hekiganroku , Blue Cliff Record.
However, his statement, If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake, might also be seen as a rationale for the whole Lotus Sutra self-referential strategy of not explicitly stating the content of the dharma being celebrated and writing lecturer, proclaimed. Simultaneously, there is a mandate for this Dharma to be actually proclaimed. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained, implies the ethical responsibility not to deny whatever is realized, despite its ephemerality. This may be seen as echoing the frequent theme in the Lotus Sutra of the college responsibility of Shakyamuni's disciples to maintain the Lotus Dharma in the future. Again, whether Dogen's rhetoric here borrows more from Ch'an tradition or more from the creative lecturer indirect modes of the Lotus Sutra is not the issue. The fact that he uses this style to mimic Lotus Sutra rhetoric, however, does indicate that in persuasive essay, this jodo Dogen is concerned and creative writing, aware of Lotus Sutra discourse style, and of appropriating it rhetorically, at least in part. In the following two examples, Dogen provides fantastic parables that seem to be framed as dreams when he describes them as happening last night.
Whether they were literal dreams or meditative visions is beside the point. As Bernard Faure says, For Buddhists there is no clear distinction between dreams that come during sleep and visions achieved in a waking state, or more precisely during meditation, in revolution, a state (samadhi) that, like trance, is creative writing lecturer often defined as being 'neither sleeping nor waking.' Whether realized in sleep or samadhi, or merely used intentionally as literary devices invoking the visionary qualities of samadhi, Dogen uses these visions to express the dream within the dream, i.e. to reveal awakening amid the phenomenal. In his Enlightenment Day jodo, number 88, in 1241, Dogen says: Two thousand years later, we are the contributed quarterly descendants [of Shakyamuni]. Two thousand years ago, he was our ancestral father. He is creative writing lecturer muddy and wet from following and chasing after the animal welfare research waves. It can be described like this, but also there is the principle of the Way [that we must] make one mistake after another. Creative Writing Lecturer? What is this like? Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet.
Face after face is Buddha's face; fulfillment after fulfillment is Buddha's fulfillment. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] unintentionally stepped on a dried turd and it jumped up and covered heaven and earth. Wilberforce Essays Quarterly Review? This mountain monk unintentionally stepped on it again, and it introduced itself, saying, My name is Shakyamuni. Then, this mountain monk unintentionally stepped on his chest, and writing lecturer, immediately he went and sat on samuel contributed to the quarterly the vajra seat, saw the lecturer morning star, bit through the traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Without waiting for anyone to peck at yale essay questions, his shell from outside, he received the thirty-two characteristics common to all buddhas, and together with this mountain monk, composed the creative following four line verse: Stumbling I stepped on his chest and yale application questions, his backbone snapped, Mountains and rivers swirling around, the dawn wind blew. Penetrating seven and accomplishing eight, bones piercing the heavens,
His face attained a sheet of golden skin. In this jodo Dogen describes a dream-like fantasy in which he accidentally steps on writing lecturer a piece of shit, and in accord with Yun-men's utterance often cited by Dogen, it jumps up and declares itself to be Shakyamuni. On Should College Athletes Be Paid? This vision increases the apparent disrespect for Buddha in creative lecturer, Yun-men's utterance, as Dogen again steps on his back (albeit again accidentally), even after the dried shit identifies himself as Shakyamuni. But Dogen uses this scatological vision not to thesis on business continuity degrade, but rather to further celebrate Buddha, by declaring that upon being stepped on, He went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the creative writing past. Here Dogen skillfully proclaims and celebrates, non-explicitly, one of the major revelations of the Lotus Sutra , that of the Buddha's life-span enduring over inconceivable ages (mentioned above in connection with Dogen's reference in Expressing the Dream Within the Dream.) In chapter sixteen, Shakyamuni reveals that his archetypal story of his home-leaving and on business, awakening is demonstrated simply as a skillful mode. The effect of creative this dream parable of Dogen is to reinforce the story about skillful modes in chapter sixteen by describing Buddha and his awakening process as still omnipresent, last night right at wilberforce, Eiheiji, and even in excrement.
Dogen's dream story also echoes the Lotus Sutra , chapter four, parable of the prodigal son, who can only come to creative writing lecturer realize his fundamental endowment after years of shoveling manure in his father's field. Animal Welfare Vs Animal Rights Paper? As Dogen says in the introduction to his parable, even Shakyamuni is muddy and wet from following and chasing after the waves. Dogen's further introductory statement, Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet, echoes the Lotus Sutra parable about the ragged beggar unknowingly having the dharma jewel sewed within his robe. Creative Lecturer? It further suggests the essay image in writing, chapter fifteen of myriad bodhisattvas suddenly springing forth from wilberforce, beneath the ground under our feet, which represents the creative writing lecturer omnipresence of the bodhisattva potential in the ground of concrete phenomena. Having venerated Shakyamuni Buddha via seeming desecration in this last jodo parable, in Eihei Koroku jodo number 123, given in 1243, Dogen describes another dream vision, this one seeming to poke fun at Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. One sheet of on business continuity plan dull stubbornness is three inches thick. Three lengths of upside-downness is five feet long.
Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] struck the empty sky with a single blow. My fist didn't hurt, but the empty sky knew pain. A number of sesame cakes appeared and writing lecturer, rushed to become the faces and eyes of the great earth. In the mock creation myth in the introduction to the jodo, Dogen punches out the empty sky. On Business? Then with bravado akin to such classic Ch'an masters of creative writing fisticuffs as Lin-chi or Te-shan (Rinzai and thesis on business continuity, Tokusan in Japanese), Dogen declares that his fist didn't hurt, but the sky, which can also be read as emptiness itself, knew pain. Like the skillful fists of Lin-chi or Te-shan, with their constructive impact on their monk trainees, Dogen's fist brings forth a cascade of sesame cakes, which in turn shower down as thousands of faces and eyes.
The several references to the koan lexicon by writing lecturer Dogen in this jodo include case 78 of the Shoyoroku Book of Serenity anthology. When asked by vs animal rights research paper a monk about talk transcending buddhas and ancestors, Yun-men answers, Sesame cake. In case 82 of the Shoyoroku, the association of Yun-men with sesame cakes continues when he says, The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara brings money to buy a sesame cake: when he lowers his hand, it turns out to be a jelly-doughnut. This story must have inspired Dogen's vision of lecturer Avalokiteshvara striving to purchase sesame cakes. But Dogen envisions the sesame cakes as transformed into dynamically active eyes and faces rather than jelly-doughnuts, which are still mere commodities, even if richer than sesame cakes. As Dogen's parable in jodo 123 unfolds with dream-like narrative, someone shows up who wants to buy the sesame cakes (transformed into thesis continuity, faces and eyes). When Dogen inquires, the person identifies himself as Avalokiteshvara, just as the creative writing lecturer piece of shit in the previously discussed dream parable identifies himself as Sakyamuni.
Presumably Avalokiteshvara is trying to acquire from Dogen the outline college be paid eleven faces and writing lecturer, thousand eyes for his hands as depicted in one of the bodhisattva's foremost iconographic forms. With these multiple perspectives, the bodhisattva of compassion can fulfill the skillful means that he is known for, as seen in his diversity of forms in chapter twenty-five of the Lotus Sutra . When Avalokiteshvara further identifies himself by the very common Chinese names Ch'ang and Li, this represents Avalokiteshvara as an ordinary person. Even in a dream (or a literary discourse he frames as visionary or dream-like), Dogen is thereby implicitly affirming practice in the mundane world and the immanent presence of compassion. In Expressing the Dream Within the Dream, written the french year before the parable in jodo123, Dogen declares that, The expression of the dream within the dream is the thousand hands and eyes of Avalokiteshvara that function by many means. Here he explicitly denotes the discourse mode, the expression itself, as an aspect or example of Avalokiteshvara's skillful means. The parable itself ends with Avalokite§vara expressing his commitment and determination to obtain the eyes and faces (formerly sesame cakes), with which to proceed with his work of compassion, whether or not he has any money. Creative Lecturer? In his own concluding commentary, Dogen adds, When Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva makes an appearance, mountains and rivers on the great earth are not dead ashes. Here Dogen emphasizes the dynamic, liberating quality of the questions world of concrete phenomena. For Dogen, the whole world and its components, even the dreams within a dream, are the vital functioning of awakening, like the conjured city in the Lotus Sutra parable, assisting those on the path.
Dogen's jodo concludes with a further affirmation of the enlightening potency of the phenomenal world, You should always remember that in the third month the partridges sing and the flowers open. Here the emergence of vitality in spring, and also its very invocation, functions skillfully as an creative writing lecturer encouraging metaphor for the enduring potential of questions awakening in his disciple audience. The parables in the Lotus Sutra may lack Dogen's humorous irony and visionary whimsy. But in accord with LaFleur's account of the function of those parables, Dogen uses his dream parables similarly as skillful modes with which to creative writing encourage his monks' engagement with and affirmation of the complete reality of the samuel wilberforce essays to the quarterly review world of creative concrete phenomena in application essay questions, spite of the fact that they are impermanent. In his Eihei Koroku , Dogen relates parables that echo the function of the parables in the Lotus Sutra by demonstrating the presence of wondrous dharma, right in the phenomenal world and in writing, the midst of karmic consciousness. While such parables are occasional, and certainly not Dogen's major mode of application questions literary expression, they do exemplify his borrowing of Lotus Sutra styles in his discourse. More significantly than in Dogen's occasional use of parables, the profuse self-referencing of the Lotus Sutra and the complex, skillful impact of this self-reflexive discourse serves as one major resource or model for Dogen's style of proclamation. Dogen follows the Lotus Sutra self-referential style in various of creative writing lecturer his rhetorical modes to proclaim and celebrate a teaching that often remains unstated, but which may be more provocative because of on business this quality of the non-explicit. Dogen's self-referential, proclamatory discourse (at least in some part borrowed from the Lotus Sutra discourse style), used as a mode with which to express and exemplify radical nondualism, becomes a model for Soto Zen expression and practice, supporting prominent Soto teachings such as the oneness of practice-realization. This essay has focused on suggesting some of the aspects of Dogen's appropriation of Lotus Sutra styles of rhetoric in his own discourse.
Much more can be said about his inclusion of its doctrinal contents in his own teaching. Still, Dogen's primary literary source by far was the vast Ch'an koan literature, which he was introducing as a new, foreign language into Japan, and creative, which he had mastered to an astonishing degree. In his prominent use of the Lotus Sutra , on animal welfare rights the other hand, he was referencing the Buddhist text that was perhaps most familiar to his Kamakura audience. Creative Writing? His wide use of the Lotus Sutra raises many questions. His devoted dissemination of the alien koan literature suggests that he was not citing the Lotus simply to match audience expectations or familiarities. Some aspects of reasons for the essays Lotus teaching were clearly useful to legitimatization of Zen positions.
For example, he widely quotes the passage in creative lecturer, Kumarajiva's translation of essay on celebrities chapter two of the creative sutra that, Only a buddha together with a buddha can fathom the Reality of All Existence. Dogen appropriates this saying for his Shobogenzo essay Yuibutsu Yobutsu, Only Buddha and essays, Buddha, as support for the Zen Dharma transmission tradition. The Lotus Sutra focus on Shakyamuni also fits with the main buddha figure in writing lecturer, Zen, rather than the samuel wilberforce essays Buddhas Amida or Vairocana venerated in the contemporary Pure Land and Esoteric (and Kegon) movements. But perhaps most fundamentally, the significant presence of the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's teaching content and in his style of writing presentation may serve to remind us of the substantial underpinnings of Mahayana thought and practice in Soto Zen teachings.  For a discussion of some Lotus Sutra references by Dogen, and a list of some such citations, see Kagamishima Genryu, Dogen zenji to in'yo kyoten-goroku no kenkyu (Tokyo: Mokujisha, 1965), pp. 121-137; 217-219. A list of Lotus Sutra references in Dogen's Shobogenzo appears in Gudo Wafu Nishijima and Chodo Cross, trans. Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1 (Woods Hole, Mass.: Windbell Publications, 1994), pp. 293-321.  Ryuichi Abe and Peter Haskell, trans. with essays. Great Fool: Zen Master Ryokan; Poems, Letters, and Writings (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996), p.xiii. See also p. 21.
 For background on reasons revolution essays hongaku thought, see Ruben Habito, Originary Enlightenment: Tendai Hongaku Doctrine and Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 1996); and Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Honolulu: University of lecturer Hawaii Press, 1999). For Saicho's appropriation of wilberforce essays to the quarterly sokushin jobutsu from the Lotus Sutra story about the Dragon King's daughter, see Paul Groner, The Lotus Sutra and Saicho's Interpretation of the Realization of Buddhahood with This Very Body, in George J. Creative Writing Lecturer? Tanabe, Jr., and thesis continuity, Willa Jane Tanabe, editors. The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989), pp. 53-74.  For an lecturer English translation of Hokke-Ten-Hokke, see Nishijima and Cross, Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1, pp. 203-220. I have also referred to a translation by Kazuaki Tanahashi and Michael Wenger, from the application essay forthcoming Beyond Thinking , edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi.  Dogen appropriation of the Lotus, especially in creative lecturer, terms of wilberforce essays review its use in Dogen's fundamental world-view underlying his praxis, will be further detailed in my forthcoming dissertation: Visions of Awakening Space and creative writing, Time: The Bodhisattvas' Earth Emergence and the Inconceivable Life-Span in the Lotus Sutra , and their Impact in Dogen's Teachings.  Steven Heine.
Dogen and research on should college, the Koan Tradition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994).  See Yasunari Kawabata, Japan the Beautiful and Myself, trans. Edward Seidensticker (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969); and Steven Heine, The Zen Poetry of Dogen (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 1997).  See Yifa, The Rules of Purity for the Chan Monastery: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Ph.D.
Dissertation at Yale University, 1996. Creative Writing? The Chanyuan Qinggui was a major influence, quoted extensively by persuasive Dogen, in his Eihei Shingi. See Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A Translation of Eihei Shingi (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996).  See, for examples, Edward Conze, trans., The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines its Verse Summary (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973), pp. 15, 120-121; and Buddhist Text Translation Society, Sutra of the lecturer Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva (Talmage, Cal.: Dharma Realm Buddhist University, 1982), pp. 69-71, 89-92, along with many other passages.  I am using the Chinese /Japanese edition of Kumarajiva's translation, Myoho Rengekyo, 3 vols. Thesis On Business Plan? (Tokyo: Iwanamai Bunko, 1996). English translations consulted are Leon Hurvitz, trans. Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976); Bunno Kato, Yoshiro Tamura, and Kojiro Miyasaka, trans. The Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings, The Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law, and Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue (New York: Weatherhill, 1975); and Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra , (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).  Introduction to George J. Tanabe, Jr., and writing, Willa Jane Tanabe, The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture, p. 2.  Jodo, literally ascending the vs animal rights research paper hall, referred to here as dharma discourses, were the major form of presentation in Sung China Ch'an temples.
They were often quite brief, given in the Dharma Hall with the teacher on creative lecturer the high seat on the altar and with the monks standing. Apparently they were the teaching form eventually favored by Dogen, since he nearly stopped writing the longer essays of Shobogenzo after 1244, but continued using the formal Jodo talks, which were recorded in Eihei Koroku , in samuel to the review, training his monks at Eiheiji before his death in 1253.  All references to Eihei Koroku are from the earlier monkaku version (rather than Manzan's later edition) in Kosaka Kiyu and Suzuki Kakuzen, eds. Dogen Zenji Zenshu. vols. 3 and 4 (Tokyo: Shunjusha, 1989). All translations in this essay are from Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, trans. Creative Writing Lecturer? Dogen's Extensive Record: A Translation of Eihei Koroku (Boston: Wisdom Publications, forthcoming).  Yun-men's response to a monk's question, What is Buddha? of kanshiketsu has been interpreted legitimately either as a dried shitstick, a standard implement that was used as we now use toilet paper, or simply as a dried turd, an interpretation derived from Chuang-tzu's usage, which will be used as the translation in other jodo below, according to varied contexts. Reasons French Revolution Essays? Yun-men's equation of Buddha with kanshiketsu appears, for example, in writing lecturer, Mumonkan , case 21.
See Yamada, Gateless Gate, pp. 109-112. For a discussion of Dogen's likely interpretation of Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's utterance as sesame rather than the usual translation of flax, see the note to Dogen's reference to it in Tenzokyokun in Leighton and Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community, P. 56. This story appears, for yale example, in case 12 of Hekiganroku and in case 18 of Mumonkan . See Thomas Cleary and J.C. Cleary, trans. The Blue Cliff Record (Boston: Shambhala, 1977), pp. 81-87; and Koun Yamada, Gateless Gate (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1967), pp. 96-99.
 See Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra, p. 45; Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, p. 45; Kato, Tamura, and writing lecturer, Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 74.  William LaFleur, The Karma of Words: Buddhism and the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. 87.  Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 29-30.  LaFleur, The Karma of Words, p. 87.  Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, p. Reasons For The French Revolution Essays? 14.  See Norman Waddell and Masao Abe, trans. The Heart of writing Shobogenzo (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), pp. College Athletes Be Paid? 59-98.  George J. Creative Lecturer? Tanabe, Jr., Myoe the Dreamkeeper: Fantasy and Knowledge in Early Kamakura Buddhism. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 9.  See Taigen Dan Leighton and Kazuaki Tanahashi, trans.
Within a Dream Expressing a Dream, in Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen (Boston: Shambhala, 1999), pp. 165-172.  Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985), p. 69.  For Myoe's dream journal, and commentary, see Tanabe, Myoe the for the revolution Dreamkeeper, cited above, and Hayao Kawaii, The Buddhist Priest Myoe: A Life of Dreams, translated with introduction by Mark Unno, (Venice, Ca.: The Lapis Press, 1992).  See Bernard Faure, Visions of Power: Imagining Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).  For further discussion of the creative writing stereotypical distinctions between Keizan and Dogen, see Faure, Visions of Power, pp. 3-4, 211-215.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, pp. 170-171; and Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. Research College? 223-224.
 I am indebted for clarification of the difference in Dogen's reading of this passage, and for many other suggestions for this paper, to the kind response commentary of Jan Nattier.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 171.  The Lotus Sutra includes a number of variations on the full formula for descriptions of buddhas and their buddha-fields parodied by Dogen, also including versions in chapter twelve on creative writing lecturer Devadatta and paper on should be paid, chapter twenty-three on the Bodhisattva Medicine King. Creative Lecturer? One of the versions closest to the full formula parodied by thesis on business plan Dogen is the description of Ananda's prediction in writing lecturer, chapter nine. See Hurvitz, Scripture of the samuel wilberforce contributed to the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 168-169.  Dogen refers frequently to ladles in creative, Eihei Koroku , used as a term for animal research paper reliable practice implements, and sometimes for practitioners themselves. For other examples, jodo 219 in 1247 begins, Abundant with ten thousand virtues, the sitting cushions and wooden ladles are dignified. In jodo 320 in writing, 1249, Dogen refers to Shakyamuni himself as, The wooden ladle at Vulture Peak.
 Faure, Visions of persuasive essay Power, p. Lecturer? 116.  See Thomas Cleary, trans. Book of Serenity (Boston: Shambhala, 1998; originally published by Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990), pp. Thesis Plan? 332-334.  For the iconographic forms of lecturer Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, see Taigen Daniel Leighton, Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and their Modern Expression (New York: Penguin Arkana, 1998), pp.
159-170.  Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 169.  See Kato, Tamura, and samuel quarterly review, Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. Creative Writing? 52. Compared to the Sanskrit original, which simply denotes plural buddhas, Kumarajiva's rendition emphasizes the relational aspect of a buddha together with a buddha.  See Tanahashi, Moon in on celebrities and media, a Dewdrop, pp.
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Friday essay: Can you keep a secret? Family memoirs break taboos – and trust. Lecturer in Sociology, University of Melbourne. Ashley Barnwell does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from creative writing lecturer, any company or organisation that would benefit from yale, this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above. University of Melbourne provides funding as a founding partner of creative writing, The Conversation AU. Victoria State Government provides funding as a strategic partner of The Conversation AU. The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. The television premiere of Benjamin Law’s adapted memoirs The Family Law may have had us laughing last night, but a foray into the recent past of the family memoir genre reveals an ethical minefield of sibling conflicts, clashing memories, and unwanted exposes.
Benjamin Law’s memoir The Family Law (2010) has been adapted for TV. Black Inc. In response to research be paid, biographies scrutinizing his marriage to Sylvia Plath, the poet Ted Hughes said, “I hope each of us owns the facts of his or her own life”. In family memoir such hopes are dashed. When writers tell the story of their lives they also divulge the experiences of siblings, parents, and lovers. Writing? They make the for the private public, often with a unique spin on events and not always with the creative writing consent of those involved. Given the intimate nature of family life these tangles are perhaps unavoidable.
The facts of yale application, our lives are always shared. But life writing still raises important ethical questions. The memoirist’s candid account of family struggles can destigmatise taboo topics – such as divorce, sexuality, and writing, suicide – but at animal research paper what cost to those whose lives are laid bare? What should come first for a writer, loyalty to the truth of their own experience or respect for the privacy of others? These questions have troubled a series of high-profile memoirs and autobiographical novels. Writers such as Karl Ove Knausgaard, Hanif Kureishi, Lily Brett, and David Sedaris have upset family members by using personal details in creative lecturer their literary works. These cases alert us to the difficulty of narrating shared life stories. How do we get to the truth when people remember the past differently and have conflicting investments in essay on celebrities and media how the creative writing story is research outline on should athletes be paid told? But we might also see the potential social benefit of tell-all family memoirs.
By representing the conflicts and silences that families live with writers can introduce more diverse and honest accounts of creative writing lecturer, family life into for the revolution, public culture. By the time literary sensation Karl Ove Knausgaard published the first volume in his six part autobiographical series, My Struggle (2009), several members of his family were no longer speaking to him. Karl Ove Knausgaard’s memoir Min Kamp (My Struggle) (2009) caused serious family conflict. Creative Writing Lecturer? Forlaget okober. The Norwegian writer’s aim was to describe the banality and on business, drama of his daily life in raw detail. Critics have hailed the result as Proust for writing the 21st century.
Readers have said they feel as though he has written their innermost secrets onto the page. Thesis On Business Plan? For Knausgaard’s family this is more than just a feeling. It is their reality. Knausgaard doesn’t pull any punches. Creative Writing? While much of the series is devoted to paper outline athletes be paid, vivid descriptions of ordinary life, like brewing a cup of tea or going for a run, there are also details that most of us would shudder to creative writing, have on persuasive essay and media the record. Gossipy, post-dinner party conversations that he and his wife have about writing, their guests are recounted verbatim. The rancid excrement that stains his incontinent grandmother’s couch, his father’s descent into squalor and alcoholism, the spoken and unspoken insults of his marital rows, the on business fumbling sexual encounters of his youth, his second wife’s struggle with bipolar, his feelings of frustration and boredom as a parent: it’s all there on the page. Not surprisingly, when Knausgaard sent copies of the first manuscript to his family, they were unhappy. His paternal uncle tried to halt publication, threatened to sue, and attacked the creative book in thesis on business continuity plan the Norwegian press. Tonje Aursland, Knausgaard’s ex-wife, recorded a radio program about the experience of having her private life exposed in the novel, and then again in all of the media scrutiny that followed.
Knausgaard admits that the writing lecturer series also took a toll on his current marriage. The relentless attention caused his wife, Linda Bostrom, to have a breakdown, which Knausgaard details in the final episode of My Struggle. Knausgaard made a decision to publish a tell-all book. He exposes his own struggles to be a good husband, father, writer, brother, and son with disarming candour, sometimes even to the point of self-humiliation. But the people who share his life did not make this decision. Plan? They didn’t know that their words and actions, sometimes at very vulnerable moments, would be published let alone read by millions of people, almost half a million in Norway alone. In a country of creative lecturer, five million, that’s roughly one in ten people who know the intimate details of your private life.
The author is well aware of essay on celebrities and media, his indiscretion and what it costs him and his family. Creative Writing Lecturer? “I do feel guilty,” he has said, “I do. Thesis On Business Continuity? Especially about my family, my children. I write about them and I know that this will haunt them as well through their lives”. Knausgaard also understands his father’s family’s response to the novels: I wish this could have been done without hurting anyone. They say they never want to creative lecturer, see or talk to me again.
I accept that. Paper College Athletes Be Paid? I have offended them, humiliated them just by writing lecturer writing about this. British novelist and screenwriter Hanif Kureishi is less remorseful about essay and media, using his family as source material. In 2008 his sister published a letter in the Independent titled Keep Me Out of your Novels. Hanif Kureishi’s ex-wife accused him of writing about their marriage in Intimacy (1998). Creative Writing? Faber and Faber. She claims that most of his works use family members as characters. These include his parents in The Buddha of Suburbia (1991), his uncle in My Beautiful Laundrette (1985), his ex-girlfriend in the film Sammy and yale, Rosie Get Laid (1987), and creative writing lecturer, an account of leaving his wife and children for a younger woman in thesis on business his novel Intimacy (1998). Yasmin Kureishi is creative writing most upset about her brother’s portrayal of her in and media the 2003 film The Mother. Writing Lecturer? “It made excruciating viewing,” she says, “It was like he’d swallowed some of my life, then spat it back out.” After reading Intimacy, Tracy Schoffield, Kureishi’s ex-wife, criticised him for essay questions thinly veiling the break-up of their marriage as fiction:
He says it’s a novel. But that’s an absolute abdication of creative, responsibility. You may as well call it a fish. In defence, Kureishi argues that by writing candidly about thesis on business continuity, his life he gives voice to lecturer, a collective experience: Why would you vilify me?
I’m just the persuasive essay on celebrities and media messenger. I’m writing a book about divorce – an experience that many people have had - or separation, children, all that. … That book was a record of creative, that experience. I don’t see why I should be vilified for writing an account of reasons for the essays, it. … If you’re an artist your job is to writing, represent the world as you see it – that’s what you do. The same has been said of Knausgaard’s work. He disregards the privacy of his family.
But he also challenges the rules of what we can and cannot say. Wilberforce Contributed Quarterly Review? He drags the darkness of our everyday thoughts into the light. In doing so, he de-shames social taboos, or at least offers the truth of what he thinks rather than what he should think. He sees the role of an writing, artist as that of a social truth-teller. But the tension around family memoirs brings into question the idea that an artist is simply documenting the truth. In some cases families are not upset that their lives are being represented so much as that the french revolution essays representation is, to them, inaccurate. Can the memory of one person capture the creative writing true complexity of social events? What happens when people recall things differently? Kureishi’s sister and mother insist that he is not simply a messenger.
His descriptions of his roots support the identity he desires in the present. Yasmin Kureishi, for example, recollects a very different image of her father than the one her brother paints in wilberforce review The Buddha of Suburbia. Doris Brett wrote Eating the Underworld (2001) to tell her own version of her childhood. Creative Lecturer? Vintage. In the radio documentary Knausgaard’s ex-wife recorded in research outline on should college athletes 2010, Tonje’s Version, she says what annoys her is that her memories will always be secondary to his work of creative lecturer, art.
People assume they know the research outline athletes truth of what happened in her life because they have read My Struggle. Doris Brett was so opposed to her sister Lily Brett’s autobiographical renderings of their childhood that she published her own counter-story. Lily Brett has written novels and essays based on her experience of growing up in Melbourne as the daughter of Holocaust survivors. In Eating the Underworld (2001), Doris claims that her sister wrongly depicts their mother as depressed and sometimes cruel. Writing? Doris doesn’t recall her mother screaming in the night. The two sisters seem to remember their mother as two very different women. When Lily Brett and her father received copies of Eating the Underworld, Lily issued a statement:
There are some things not worth replying to. This book is one of them. Her father, 85-year-old Max Brett said: This book by rights my daughter Doris, is a book of madness. … I recognise very little of our family life in this book. Doris Brett chalked their public response up as further evidence of the bullying and favouritism she describes in writing her book.
For Yasmin Kureishi, Tonje Aursland, and Doris Brett the issue is not simply about privacy. They are all willing to tell their own stories in the public eye. Rather they want their life represented accurately, as they remember it. They insist that there is more to the shared story of their family than what is seen through the quixotic eyes of the memoirist. But of course the same question of memory’s unreliability also applies to them. With tongue in cheek, David Sedaris addresses the blurring of memory and imagination by describing his family memoirs as “realish”.
Sedaris has forged a successful career by recounting the foibles of his family life in best-selling collections such as Dress Your Family in thesis continuity Corduroy and Denim (2004). David Sedaris’ book Dress Your Family in Corduroy and Denim (2004) was the first his sister Tiffany allowed him to include her in. Little Brown Co. Along the way, his sister, Tiffany, requested to writing lecturer, be left out of his stories. In a 2004 interview with the essay Boston Globe, she said “I was the only [sibling] who told him not to put me in his books. I don’t trust David to have boundaries”. Like Aursland, she became upset by creative writing lecturer the consequences of the stories. People read them as fact, and an invitation to discuss her private life.
In 2014, Sedaris came under fire for an essay he published in the New Yorker, Now We Are Five. The essay describes the Sedaris family’s attempt to research outline athletes, deal with their grief over Tiffany’s suicide. A friend of Tiffany, Michael Knoblach, published a letter in writing lecturer the Somerville Journal accusing Sedaris of research outline on should college, ignoring her request not to be a subject in his stories and exploiting her death for artistic and monetary gain. (The letter has since been taken down, but a similar version is creative writing reposted in the comments here). Should Sedaris have published Now We Are Five after his sister’s death? Some may argue that he should have respected her request not to be represented in on business continuity plan his stories. On the other hand, the story is also about her parents, and her siblings. Writing? It speaks candidly about animal vs animal paper, grief, guilt, and the way death jolts us into reality.
Even when faced with estrangement and creative writing, loss, the life of the family remains intertwined. Australia’s own David Sedaris, Benjamin Law, has written a memoir about growing up in a large Chinese-Australian family in 1990s Queensland. Yale Questions? The Family Law (2010) was adapted for television and creative writing lecturer, premiered on SBS yesterday. Research Paper Outline College Athletes? Law’s memoir offers a funny take on the everyday quirks of writing lecturer, family life, but it also deals with sensitive issues such as his parents’ divorce. The Family Law is unlikely to draw the kind of scandal that greeted Kureishi or Knausgaard. In a recent keynote at reasons for the french the Asia Pacific Auto/Biography Association’s Conference, Law noted that when he gave his family the manuscript to read before publication, they were mostly concerned with correcting his grammar.
Law’s father insisted that audiences are smart enough to know the story is told from only one point of view, and with comedic license. Law may win our hearts with the help of his siblings. They weren’t to know their teenage travails would be re-staged on national television. It might also be strange for his parents to hear the public weighing in on their divorce. But Law’s story will be a welcome addition to a television landscape that currently doesn’t come close to writing, representing the diversity and richness of Australian families. In her research about family secrets, sociologist Carol Smart talks about two kinds of families: families “we live with” and persuasive essay and media, families “we live by”. Families we live with are our actual families, which may be ridden with tensions. Families we live by are the ideal versions of happy, cohesive families that Smart says we draw from popular culture. We tell family secrets, Smart thinks, to bring the reality closer to the ideal. We edit certain experiences from the public eye so our family fits with dominant ideas about what a family should be.
In this context, to reveal a family secret might be to creative writing, refuse pressures to pretend. To disclose conflicts within families can open up a space to talk honestly about reasons french revolution, family life, to question social norms, and acknowledge different kinds of writing, relationships. It can be a way of bringing the ideal closer to the reality. Revealing family secrets can be insensitive and ethically dubious when the teller is not the only one who has to live with the yale application essay questions repercussions. But it can also be a way to creative writing, rethink the reasons why we keep certain things secret in thesis the first place. For family memoirists, where is the line between rattling social proprieties and respecting others’ privacy?
This is not an easy question to answer. And the answer would be different in each case. But it is worth remembering that the true stories that enrich our public sphere are often drawn from the intimate and shared lives of their authors. It is not only Law who gives generously of his life to bring a new story to writing lecturer, Australian viewers this week, but also the supporting cast, his family.