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Sample personal essay

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Sample personal essay

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Let's Write a CAE Proposal Together. Essay! Here's a real Cambridge English: Advanced sample proposal task. There are plans to demolish an old and volunteering personal statement, unused building in the town where you are a student. You feel that the personal building should be saved. You decide to write a proposal for the town council explaining why you think the building should be preserved, suggesting what could be done to modernise it and saying how the building could benefit the jane austen paper thesis local people.

Write your proposal . First I should come up with some ideas about why the sample personal building should be saved and some ideas about austen research paper thesis how to modernise it. Sample Essay! My home city in England is full of old buildings that have been turned into offices and flats so it's quite easy for me to come up with ideas. By the way - the scandal essay conclusion 3 parts of the task could be used as 3 paragraphs in my proposal. Essay! Easy, right? historic - someone famous lived there? famous event there? architecture. landmark. Test Strategies For Writing! local pride. Sample Personal Essay! turn into offices, flats, mixed use, creative spaces, green spaces, insulation, solar panels, parking, bike racks. great flats in research paper, local landmark, sense of pride in community, boost property values in area, need jobs in that part of city, connect X street with Y street, reduce crime. This is being written for my local council, so I'm going to be quite formal. I am not going to use bullet points because if you write well they are not needed. I'm going to use at least one passive sentence and at least one inversion (Not only do people love this building but also. ). I'm not going to be a fanatic about this issue - that isn't persuasive. I AM going to mention problems with my plan, and give reasons why the old building SHOULD be demolished. Why?

Because a balanced argument is a persuasive argument - but mostly because that will allow me to use more linking words like 'while, whereas' and some complex sentence structures like 'While there's no doubt the old building something something, I would argue that blah blah.' Enough waffle. Sample Personal! Let's write. Yo, council dudes! You wanna knock down the rec centre on Princess Parkway? No wayz! I like it! Me and me mates used to go there and chuck pebbles at windows! Proposal to Repurpose Ducie Central.

In this proposal I aim to persuade the Council that Ducie Central is a landmark building, that its demolition is not in the public interest, and barack statement, that the building could still have a bright future. Why Ducie Central Should Be Preserved. Ducie Central was the sample first adult education centre in grading research, the city, and it stood as a point of sample pride for hundreds of years before falling into neglect. Even today in of apa format research papers, its shabby, vandalised state, it is warmly regarded - many older people took classes there, and personal essay, even some teenagers can remember the annual fun fair that was held on the grounds. But the building is more than memories - it's a place where education used to happen, and where it can happen again. Ducie is old and volunteering statement, would cost a fortune to heat. There's no doubt it would be expensive to insulate, install triple-glazed windows, and set up solar panels on the roofs. However, local architects and the Engineering College are willing to sample personal essay work on my proposed redevelopment for free. I recommend that one section be converted into office space - that would help offset the research middle school cost of the project. Redevelopment Would Benefit Everyone.

It's not hard to see who would benefit from demolition - property developers who would buy the land cheaply and throw up some copy/paste housing. Modernising the building and re-opening the college would benefit not only the people who would study there but also the whole community. Sample Personal Essay! It would be a focal point and we could hold the fun fair like in the past. I believe that modernising the building is the best choice and strongly urge you to consider it. I do blab on, don't I? So mine was pretty good, but let's look at one a student wrote. This is examples of apa research papers, from the Cambridge CAE handbook so we'll be able to essay see exactly what Cambridge think about it. To: Municipal council.

Subject: Municipal Library. I come through this letter to make an jane appeal for sample the not destruction of the rubric research middle school Municipal Library’s building. One of the reasons why the building should be preserved is because of its touching past. It was built with only imported material of best quality, and it was the second library in the country. It was also, for more than a hundred years, the biggest and more luxuous public building in the whole country.

For its characteristic seventeenth century building and for its importance in the past, it is still studied and visited by sample historians. The building is located right in the middle of the town, so it is accessible for the entire population, and it is also the biggest building in town, and research paper thesis, it can surely support more books than any other building. By destructing the building it would with absolutly no doubt be a huge loss of books and culture. There is no point arguing that the building is sample essay, quite old-fashioned and could use some improvements. It could really use some painting and repairing on the wall and floor, however, the best would be making some technological improvements, such as elevatiors, computers and an electronic “finding books” system. Enron Conclusion! To sum up, there are plenty of reasons why the library should be preserved, it benefits the people, the personal history and the culture, and I would be pleased if you took my letter in consideration. Remember that Cambridge score writing on 4 things: Content, Communicative Achievement, Organisation, and Language.

For content they gave this student a 5 (out of 5). He did everything he was supposed to do. Essay! In the real world, the reader would understand the proposal and be able to make a decision. Sample Personal Essay! I'm going to give myself 5 out of statement 5 for sample my text. Cambridge rated this at only 2. The first problem is that the student said he was writing a letter instead of a proposal.

It's doubly weird because he uses headings like in a proposal. Writing 'letter' is test taking essays, just confusing. The main problem is sample essay, that the text focuses on the past - proposals are about the future. My text might be a bit too past-leaning, too. Rubric Middle! So maybe I wouldn't get full marks.

I should have written more about the future benefits of preserving Ducie Central. Here the sample student scored a 3. Cambridge praised the way he split the text into sections each dealing with a separate aspect of the question. That's good news for my text because I did the same. They also liked that he used cohesive devices - phrases that link sentences and paragraphs together and that he used complex structures to test taking make key points. The problem seems to be that he doesn't have complete control over these sentences and they seem a bit unnatural to a native speaker. I'm going to award myself 5 out of 5 for MY text because my text is almost as high quality as The Old Man And The Sea.

This was another weak point for the candidate - he only scored a 2. There are examples of good language and he tried to use some advanced phrases and grammar. And while there were some mistakes they don't really stop you from sample personal essay understanding the text. So is 2 a bit harsh? I think so - but that just shows the standard that is jane thesis, expected. You have to have good control - not just in a CAE proposal but in whatever you write at this level.

And you have to impress the examiners with your vocabulary and sample personal essay, have minimal mistakes. There's a decent 'how to write a proposal' page on Ruben Valero's website. It includes some key phrases for proposals. Test Taking Strategies For Writing! He uses bullet points in the 'conclusion' part of the personal essay proposal, which is volunteering, a good place to use them.

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ny bar essay grading office (518) 453-5990. fax (518) 452-5729. TTY: Call 711 ( Phone Hours: Monday - Friday 8:45am – 4:45pm Eastern Time. Section 520 of the Rules of the Court of sample personal, Appeals for the Admission of Attorneys and taking strategies for writing, Counselors at personal essay Law (amended, effective April 1, 2012) (a) A person shall be admitted to practice law in the courts of the State of New York only by an order of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court upon compliance with these rules. (a) Application to sit for the New York State bar examination. Volunteering Personal. An applicant who seeks to sit for the New York State bar examination prescribed in section 520.8 of this Part shall furnish to the New York State Board of Law Examiners, in accordance with its rules, proof satisfactory to said Board: (1) that the applicant is at sample essay least 21 years of age; (2) as to the applicant's date of birth; and. (3) that the applicant has complied with section 520.3, 520.4, 520.5, 520.6 or 520.17 of this Part. (b) Transfer of papers, Uniform Bar Examination Score Earned in Another Jurisdiction. Effective October 1, 2016, an applicant who sat for the Uniform Bar Examination in another jurisdiction may transfer the personal essay, score earned on that examination to New York in volunteering statement, lieu of sample personal essay, taking the jane austen paper, Uniform Bar Examination in this State. Essay. The applicant shall pay to obama thesis the New York State Board of Law Examiners the fee prescribed by section 465 of the Judiciary Law and shall file with the sample personal essay, Board, in accordance with its rules, proof satisfactory to said Board that the applicant: (1) has achieved a score on the Uniform Bar Examination, as reported by the National Conference of Bar Examiners, that is equal to or greater than the passing score established by the New York State Board of Law Examiners; (2) has attained educational qualifications that are at least equal to those required by examples format research papers section 520.3, 520.4,520.5, 520.6 or 520.17 of this Part; (3) has completed the personal essay, additional requirements for admission prescribed in section 520.9 of this Part; and.

(4) is at least 21 years of age, as established by proof of the applicant's date of birth. (a) General. An applicant may qualify to take the New York State bar examination by submitting to test strategies essays the New York State Board of Law Examiners satisfactory proof that: (1) the sample essay, applicant attended and research paper, was graduated with a first degree in law from an approved law school; (2) the applicant attended and successfully completed the prescribed course of instruction required for a first degree in law at sample personal an approved law school, but has not been awarded the degree as of the date proof of eligibility to scandal essay sit for the bar examination is required to be filed with the State Board of Law Examiners. The State Board of Law Examiners shall not certify the applicant for admission to the bar pursuant to section 520.7(a) of this Part until the applicant has presented satisfactory proof that the applicant has been awarded a first degree in law; or. (3) the applicant satisfies the requirements of section 520.17 of this Part. (b) Approved law school defined. For purposes of these rules, an approved law school is sample personal essay one: (1) that is approved by the American Bar Association at all times during the period of the test taking strategies for writing, applicant's attendance; and. (2) that is located in the United States or its territories. (c) Instructional requirements. (1) The law school shall require for its first degree in law the successful completion of a program that meets each of the essay, following requirements: (i) a minimum of 83 credit hours must be required for graduation, including substantial instruction in enron scandal essay conclusion, substantive and procedural law and professional skills; (ii) a minimum of 64 of the required 83 credit hours must be earned by attendance in regularly scheduled classroom courses at the law school; and.

(iii) a minimum of sample essay, two credit hours must be earned in barack, a course or courses in sample personal essay, professional responsibility. (2) Clinical courses. Credit may be granted toward the 83 credit hours required for graduation for law school clinical courses. Such credit may be counted toward the 64 classroom credit hours required by paragraph (1)(ii) of this subdivision, provided: (i) the course includes adequate classroom meetings or seminars during the same semester in which the thesis, clinical work is completed in order to essay ensure contemporaneous discussion, review and evaluation of the clinical experience; (ii) the clinical work is conducted under the direct supervision of a member of the law school faculty; and. (iii) the enron conclusion, time and personal, effort required and jane research paper, anticipated educational benefit are commensurate with the credit awarded. (3) Field placement programs or externships. Credit may be granted toward the 83 credit hours required for graduation for field placement programs or externships but such credit may not be counted toward the sample, 64 classroom hours required by paragraph (1)(ii) of this subdivision, except that credit separately awarded for the classroom instructional component of a field placement program or externship taught by volunteering statement a member of the law school faculty may be counted toward the 64 classroom credit hour requirement. (4) There shall be no limit on the total number of credit hours granted for law school clinical courses, field placement programs, externships and other experiential learning courses. (5) Joint degree or other courses taught outside the law school.

The law school may grant credit for up to 12 of the 83 credit hours required for graduation for courses taught by members of the sample personal essay, faculty of any university or college with which the law school is affiliated or offers a joint degree program, or with which the law school has an agreement which allows courses to be taken at such university or college for barack thesis statement credit at the law school. Sample Essay. Credit granted for enron such courses may not be counted toward the 64 classroom credit hours required by paragraph (1)(ii) of this subdivision. (6) Distance education. Distance education is an educational process in which more than one-third of the course instruction is characterized by the separation, in time or place, or both, between instructor and student, and the instruction involves the use of technology to support regular and substantive interaction among students and between students and the faculty member, either synchronously or asynchronously. (i) Up to 15 credit hours for distance education courses may be counted toward both the 83 credit hours required for graduation and the 64 classroom credit hours required by essay paragraph (1)(ii) of this subdivision, provided that: (a) there is opportunity for regular and substantive interaction between the austen research paper, faculty member and student and among students; and. (b) there is regular monitoring of student effort and accomplishment by the faculty member as the course progresses, and the opportunity for sample essay communication regarding the student's work. (ii) No credit shall be allowed for correspondence courses. (iii) No credit shall be allowed for distance education courses until the enron essay, student has completed the personal, equivalent of barack thesis, 28 credit hours toward the first degree in law. (7) The law school certificate of attendance filed with the State Board of Law Examiners must list separately the credit awarded for: (i) professional responsibility courses under subparagraph (c)(1)(iii) of sample, this section; (ii) clinical courses under paragraph (2) of this subdivision; (iii) field placement programs and externships under paragraph (3) of this subdivision and, if credit is separately awarded for a classroom instructional component of enron scandal conclusion, such a program taught by a member of the law school faculty, such credit shall be separately listed; (iv) joint degree or other courses taught outside the law school under paragraph (5) of this subdivision; and.

(v) distance education courses under paragraph (6) of this subdivision. (d) Course of study. Except for credit awarded for law study in a foreign country as provided in subdivision (e) of this section, an approved law school shall meet the following requirements: (1) a minimum of 700 minutes of instruction time, exclusive of examination time, must be required for the granting of one credit hour; and. (2) an personal, approved law school shall require that the program and course of study leading to a first degree in scandal essay conclusion, law be completed no earlier than 24 months and no later than 60 months after a student has commenced law study at the law school or a law school from which the school has accepted transfer credit. Sample Essay. Where credit is granted to a student who has completed law study in a foreign country, only the time commensurate with the amount of credit granted shall be counted toward the length of study requirement of this paragraph. (e) Credit for rubric research school law study in foreign country. An approved law school may, in sample personal essay, its discretion, grant such credit as it may deem appropriate toward the total credits required for a first degree in law, but not exceeding one-third of the total credits required for examples research papers the degree, to an applicant who has studied law in sample personal essay, a law school in a foreign country.

No credit shall be allowed for law study in a foreign country that was undertaken through distance education as defined in barack obama statement, paragraph (c)(6) of this section, nor shall any credit be allowed for sample correspondence courses. (a) General. An applicant may qualify to take the New York State bar examination by scandal essay conclusion submitting to the New York State Board of Law Examiners satisfactory proof that: (a) General. An applicant who has studied law in any law school in any other state or territory of the United States or in sample personal, the District of Columbia, other than a law school that grants credit for examples of apa format correspondence courses, and has received a degree from such law school that qualifies the applicant to practice law in such state, territory or in the District of personal, Columbia, may qualify to take the New York State bar examination by submitting to of apa papers the New York State Board of Law Examiners satisfactory proof that: (a) General. An applicant who has studied in a foreign country may qualify to take the New York State bar examination by sample personal submitting to the New York State Board of Law Examiners satisfactory proof of the legal education required by this section.

(b) Legal education. The applicant must satisfy the educational requirements of either paragraph (1) or (2) of this subdivision. (1) The applicant shall show fulfillment of the educational requirements for admission to the practice of law in a country other than the United States by successful completion of a period of law study in a law school or schools each of which, throughout the period of the applicant's study therein, was approved by the government or an authorized accrediting body in taking for writing essays, such country, or of a political subdivision thereof, to award a first degree in law, and satisfaction of the following requirements: (i)(a) Durational requirements. The program and essay, course of law study successfully completed by the applicant was substantially equivalent in duration to the legal education provided by an American Bar Association approved law school in the United States, and in substantial compliance with the barack, instructional and academic calendar requirements of section 520.3(c)(1)(i) and (ii) and (d)(1) of this Part; and. (b) Substantive requirements. Such other country is one whose jurisprudence is based upon the principles of English Common Law, and that the program and course of law study successfully completed by sample essay the applicant were the substantial equivalent of the legal education provided by an American Bar Association approved law school in the United States.

(ii) Cure provision. An applicant who does not meet the requirements of subparagraph (i)(a) or (i)(b) may cure either the volunteering personal statement, durational or substantive deficiency, but not both, under the following circumstances: (a) Durational deficiency. If the applicant does not meet the durational requirements of subparagraph (i)(a), the applicant may cure the deficiency by providing satisfactory proof that the applicant has at essay least two years of foreign legal education that meets the substantive requirements of subparagraph (i)(b) and that the applicant has graduated from an LL.M. degree program at an American Bar Association approved law school in austen paper thesis, the United States meeting the personal, requirements of barack obama statement, subdivision (b)(3) of this section. (b) Substantive deficiency. If the applicant does not meet the substantive requirements of subparagraph (i)(b), the applicant may cure the deficiency by providing satisfactory proof that the applicant meets the durational requirements of subparagraph (i)(a) and that the sample personal, applicant has graduated from an LL.M. degree program at an American Bar Association approved law school in the United States meeting the requirements of subdivision (b)(3) of this section. (2) The applicant shall show admission to practice law in a country other than the essay, United States whose jurisprudence is based upon principles of English Common Law, where admission was based upon a program of study in a law school and/or law office approved by the government or an authorized accrediting body in such country, or of a political subdivision thereof, and which satisfies the essay, durational requirements of subparagraph (1)(i)(a) but does not satisfy the substantive requirements of examples format research, subparagraph (1)(i)(b) of this subdivision, and that such applicant has successfully completed an LL.M. degree program at an American Bar Association approved law school in personal essay, the United States meeting the requirements of grading research, subdivision (b)(3) of sample personal, this section. (3) An LL.M. degree shall be satisfactory to qualify an applicant otherwise meeting the examples format papers, requirements of personal essay, subsections (b)(1)(ii) or (b)(2) to take the New York State bar examination provided the following requirements are met: (i) the program shall consist of a minimum of 24 credit hours (or the equivalent thereof, if the law school is on an academic schedule other than a conventional semester system) which, except as otherwise permitted herein, shall be in classroom courses at the law school in substantive and procedural law and professional skills; (ii) a minimum of 700 minutes of instruction time, exclusive of examination time, must be required for the granting of one credit hour; (iii) the program shall include a period of instruction consisting of no fewer than two semesters of at least 13 calendar weeks each, or the equivalent thereof, exclusive of reading periods, examinations and breaks, and shall not be completed exclusively during summer semesters, but a maximum of four credit hours may be earned in courses completed during summer semesters; (iv) the program shall be completed within 24 months of matriculation; (v) all coursework for the program shall be completed at the campus of an American Bar Association approved law school in examples of apa, the United States, except as otherwise expressly permitted by subdivision (b)(3)(vii); (vi) the program completed by the applicant shall include: (a) a minimum of two credit hours in a course or courses in professional responsibility; (b) a minimum of two credit hours in legal research, writing and analysis, which may not be satisfied by a research and writing requirement in personal, a substantive law course; (c) a minimum of two credit hours in American legal studies, the American legal system or a similar course designed to introduce students to distinctive aspects and/or fundamental principles of United States law, which may be satisfied by a course in United States constitutional law or United States or state civil procedure; credit earned in such course in excess of the required two credit hours may be applied in of apa format, satisfaction of the requirement of subdivision (b)(3)(vi)(d); and. (d) a minimum of six credit hours in other courses that principally focus on personal, subject matter tested on the New York State bar examination or the New York Law Examination prescribed in section 520.9(a)(3) of barack obama, this Part. (vii) The program completed by the applicant may include: (a) credit hours in clinical courses, field placements, externships and sample personal, other experiential learning courses, and (b) a maximum of six credit hours in other courses related to legal training taught by members of the faculty of the law school or of the volunteering, university with which the law school is personal essay affiliated, or taught by members of the faculty of any university or college with which the law school offers a joint degree program, provided such courses must be completed at obama statement the campus of such university or college in the United States. (viii) No credit shall be allowed for correspondence courses, on-line courses, courses offered on DVD or other media, or other distance learning courses.

(c) Proof required. The applicant shall submit to the State Board of Law Examiners such proof of compliance with the provisions of this section as the Board may require. (d) Effective date for implementation. Except for the requirements of subdivisions (b)(3)(iii), (v) and (viii), which are effective May 18, 2011, the provisions of sample essay, Rule 520.6(b)(3) shall first apply to LL.M. programs commencing during the 2012-13 academic year and to applicants applying to take the July 2013 bar examination, subject to the saving clause of Rule 520.1(b). (a) Except as provided in section 520.10 of this Part, no applicant for admission to volunteering personal statement practice in sample essay, this State shall be admitted unless the taking strategies essays, New York State Board of Law Examiners shall have certified to the Appellate Division of the sample personal, department in which, as shown by the papers filed by grading rubric paper the applicant with the Board, the applicant resides, or if not a resident of the State, in which such papers show that the essay, applicant is employed full-time, or, if the applicant does not reside and is not employed full-time in the State, to the Appellate Division of the Third Department, that the applicant (1) has passed the scandal essay conclusion, New York State bar examination prescribed in section 520.8 of this Part or has satisfied the requirements for transfer of a Uniform Bar Examination score as set forth in subdivision (b) of section 520.2 of this Part, and (2) has demonstrated compliance with the requirements of section 520.9 of this Part. (a) General. The New York State Board of personal essay, Law Examiners shall twice each year administer the papers, New York State bar examination, which, effective for the July 2016 administration of the bar examination, shall consist of the Uniform Bar Examination, developed by the National Conference of Bar Examiners. (b) Preservation of Papers.

Bar examination papers shall be preserved for a period of four months from the date of the sample essay, announcement of the results of the bar examination, and may thereafter be destroyed. (c) Passing score. The New York State Board of Law Examiners shall determine the passing score for the Uniform Bar Examination. (d) Examination Fee. Every applicant for the New York State bar examination shall pay to the New York State Board of Law Examiners the fee prescribed by barack obama thesis statement section 465 of the Judiciary Law. (a) All applicants for admission upon examination, including applicants who sat for the Uniform Bar Examination in another jurisdiction and seek to transfer the score earned on that examination to New York, must satisfy the sample, following requirements. (1) Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam. (i) General. Applicants must achieve a passing score on the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam developed and administered by the National Conference of Bar Examiners. (ii) Timing. An applicant may take the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam prior or subsequent to the Uniform Bar Examination, whether taken in New York or another jurisdiction, subject to the rules of the New York State Board of Law Examiners.

The fee to take the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam shall be fixed by obama thesis statement the National Conference of Bar Examiners. (iii) Passing score. The New York State Board of Law Examiners shall determine the passing score for the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam for applicants seeking admission to practice in this State. (iv) Reexamination. Essay. There shall be no restriction on the right of barack statement, a failing applicant to retake the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam. (2) New York Law Course. (i) General. Applicants must successfully complete the New York Law Course, which shall consist of essay, lectures on New York law. The content and scandal, method of delivery of the New York Law Course shall be determined by the New York State Board of Law Examiners.

(ii) Timing. An applicant may complete the New York Law Course up to sample personal essay one year before or anytime after the date on which the applicant first sits for the Uniform Bar Examination, subject to the application filing deadline of subdivision (d) of section 520.12 of this Part. (3) New York Law Examination. (i) General. Applicants must pass the New York Law Examination, which shall test on New York law. The content and method of examination, and obama, the fee to take the examination, shall be determined by the New York State Board of Law Examiners. (ii) Timing. Provided the New York Law Course has been successfully completed, an applicant may take the essay, New York Law Examination up to one year before or anytime after the test taking for writing, date on which the applicant first sits for the Uniform Bar Examination, subject to the application filing deadline of subdivision (d) of section 520.12 of this Part. (iii) Passing score.

The New York State Board of Law Examiners shall determine the passing score for sample personal essay the New York Law Examination. (iv) Reexamination. There shall be no restriction on the right of jane paper, a failing applicant to personal essay retake the New York Law Examination. (v) Expiration of New York Law Examination passing score. Examples Papers. A passing score on the New York Law Examination is valid for three years from the date the applicant received the passing score.

The New York State Board of sample personal essay, Law Examiners shall not certify an applicant for admission pursuant to section 520.7 of this Part if the New York Law Examination score is paper thesis more than three years old. (b) The requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subdivision (a) of this section shall not apply to applicants who seek admission in New York based on passage of the New York State bar examination administered prior to sample personal July 2016. (a) General. In its discretion, the Appellate Division may admit to practice without examination an applicant who: (1) (i) has been admitted to practice in research school, the highest law court in any other state or territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia; or. (ii) has been admitted to practice as an attorney and counselor-at-law or the equivalent in the highest court in another country whose jurisprudence is based upon the principles of the English Common Law; and. (iii) is currently admitted to the bar in such other jurisdiction or jurisdictions, that at least one such jurisdiction in which the sample personal, attorney is so admitted would similarly admit an attorney or counselor-at-law admitted to practice in New York State to its bar without examination; and. (2) (i) while admitted to practice as specified in paragraph (1) of this subdivision, has actually practiced therein, for at least five of the seven years immediately preceding the application: (a) in its highest law court or highest court of original jurisdiction in enron scandal, the state or territory of the sample, United States, in the District of enron, Columbia or in the common law country where admitted; or. (b) in sample, Federal military or civilian legal service in a position which requires admission to the bar for the appointment thereto or for the performance of the duties thereof, even if the government service, civilian or military, was not in a jurisdiction in which the applicant was admitted to practice; or. (c) in legal service as counsel or assistant counsel to a corporation in the state or territory of the United States where admitted, or in test for writing essays, the District of Columbia if admitted therein; or in personal, the common law country where admitted; or. (ii) has been employed in any other state or territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia as a judge, magistrate, referee or similar official for the local, state or federal government in a tribunal of enron scandal, record, or as a law clerk to such judicial official, provided that such employment requires admission to the bar for sample essay the appointment thereto or for the performance of the enron scandal essay conclusion, duties thereof, for at least five of the seven years immediately preceding the application; or.

(iii) has been employed in this State or in any other state or territory of the United States or in sample essay, the District of Columbia as a full-time member of the law faculty teaching in enron essay, a law school or schools on the approved list of the American Bar Association and has attained the rank of professor or associate professor for at least five of the seven years immediately preceding the sample essay, application; or. (iv) has actually practiced as provided in subparagraph (i) of essay conclusion, this paragraph, or been employed as a judicial official as provided in subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph, or has been teaching at a law school as provided in sample essay, subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph, or has actually practiced while admitted pursuant to personal Rule 520.11(a)(2) of this Part, for a period of up to 18 months, in a combination or cumulation of service among the categories of practice, judicial or legal service or teaching where the Appellate Division determines that such five years of combined or cumulative service is the equivalent of the sample personal, practice required in clause (a) of subparagraph (i); and. (3) has received a first degree from an of apa, approved law school in the United States at the time of applicant's admission to practice in such other state, territory, district or common law country, or at essay the time of rubric middle school, application for sample admission under this section; and. (4) is over 26 years of age. (b) Proof Required. An applicant for admission under this section shall file with the Clerk of the Appellate Division of the research papers, department in which, as shown by the papers filed by personal essay the applicant with the research paper thesis, department, the applicant resides or, if not a resident of the state in personal, which such papers show that the applicant is employed full-time or, if such papers do not show that the applicant resides or is employed full-time in the State, the Appellate Division of the Third Department: (1) a certificate from the clerk of the highest court of the state, territory, district or foreign country in which applicant has been admitted to practice as an attorney and counselor-at-law or the equivalent, certifying to applicant's admission to practice and the date thereof; and.

(2) in the case of an applicant seeking admission relying upon teaching, a certificate from the dean of the law school which employs or employed the applicant, certifying to the nature and extent of applicant's employment and the rank attained; and. (3) a certificate from the volunteering, New York State Board of Law Examiners certifying that the applicant has received a first degree in law from an essay, approved law school as defined in enron scandal essay, section 520.3(b) of this Part; and. (4) any such other satisfactory evidence of character and qualifications as the Appellate Division may require, which may include a report of the sample, National Conference of Bar Examiners. (c) Proof to be Submitted and Fee to be Paid to paper thesis New York State Board of Law Examiners. The applicant shall submit to the New York State Board of personal essay, Law Examiners such proof of grading rubric research, compliance with the provisions of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of this section as the personal, board may require and shall at the same time pay the board the fee prescribed by section 465 of the Judiciary Law by certified check or money order payable to the order of the board. (d) Discretion of Appellate Division.

The Appellate Division may in its discretion impose as a condition to admission such other tests of character and fitness as it may deem proper. (a) General. An attorney and barack thesis statement, counselor-at-law or the equivalent, who is a member in essay, good standing of the bar of another state, territory, district or foreign country may be admitted pro hac vice: (1) in the discretion of any court of record, to participate in any matter in which the attorney is employed; (2) in the discretion of the Appellate Division, provided applicant is a graduate of an approved law school, to barack statement advise and represent clients and participate in personal essay, any matter during the continuance of the applicant's employment or association with an organization described in subdivision 7 of section 495 of the Judiciary Law or during employment with a District Attorney, Corporation Counsel or the Attorney General, but in no event for longer than 18 months. (b) New York Law Students. A graduate student or graduate assistant at an approved law school in New York State may be admitted pro conclusion hac vice in the discretion of the Appellate Division, to advise and represent clients or participate in sample essay, any matter during the continuance of applicant's enrollment in an approved law school in New York State as a graduate student or graduate assistant, or during applicant's employment as a law school teacher in an approved law school in New York State, if applicant is in good standing as an attorney and statement, counselor-at-law or the equivalent of the bar of another state, territory, district or foreign country and is engaged to advise or represent the client through participation in an organization described in subdivision 7 of sample personal, section 495 of the Judiciary Law or during employment with a District Attorney, Corporation Counsel or the Attorney General, but in no event for longer than 18 months. (c) Association of New York Counsel. No attorney may be admitted pro hac vice pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) to participate in pre-trial or trial proceedings unless he or she is austen research paper thesis associated with an attorney who is a member in good standing of the New York bar, who shall be the personal essay, attorney of record in the matter.

(d) Provision of Legal Services Following Determination of Major Disaster. (1) Determination of existence of major disaster. Upon the declaration of a state of disaster or emergency by the governor of New York or of another jurisdiction, for purposes of personal, this subdivision, this Court shall determine whether an emergency exists affecting the justice system. (2) Temporary pro sample personal essay bono practice following the determination of a major disaster. Following a determination by this Court that persons residing in thesis statement, New York are (i) affected by a state of disaster or emergency in essay, the entirety or a part of New York or (ii) displaced by a declared state of disaster or emergency in another jurisdiction, and such persons are in need of pro bono services and the assistance of attorneys from outside of New York is required to help provide such services, an attorney authorized to practice law in another United States jurisdiction may provide legal services in New York on a temporary basis. Such legal services must be provided on a pro bono basis without compensation from the client, or expectation of compensation or other direct or indirect pecuniary gain to the attorney from the client. Such legal services shall be assigned and volunteering statement, supervised through an sample personal, established not-for-profit bar association in New York or an organization described in subdivision 7 of section 495 of the rubric, Judiciary Law. (3) Other temporary practice following the determination of a major disaster.

Following the determination of a major disaster in another United States jurisdiction - after such a declaration of a state of disaster or emergency and its geographical scope have been made by the governor and a determination of the highest court of that jurisdiction that an emergency exists affecting the justice system - an attorney who has been authorized to practice law and is in good standing in that jurisdiction and who principally practices in that affected jurisdiction may provide legal services in New York on a temporary basis in association with an attorney admitted and in good standing in New York. The authority to engage in the temporary practice of law in New York pursuant to this paragraph shall extend only to sample personal attorneys who principally practice in the area of such other jurisdiction determined to research paper thesis have suffered a major disaster causing an emergency affecting the justice system and the provision of legal services. Those legal services shall be limited to: (i) representing clients with respect to matters that the attorney was handling prior to the disaster, and. (ii) new matters in the area affected by the disaster that the attorney could have handled but is unable to do so because. (a) the attorney's ability to practice in the jurisdiction affected by sample personal essay the disaster has been limited by the disaster, and/or.

(b) the client has temporarily relocated from the disaster area to another jurisdiction because of the disaster. (4) Duration of volunteering statement, authority for personal temporary practice. The authority to practice law in New York granted by paragraph (2) of this subdivision shall end when this Court determines that the conditions caused by the major disaster in New York have ended except that an attorney then representing clients in essay, New York pursuant to paragraph (2) is authorized to continue the provision of legal services for such time as is reasonably necessary to complete the sample essay, representation, but the attorney shall not thereafter accept new clients. The authority to volunteering personal practice law in New York granted by paragraph (3) of this subdivision shall end 60 days after either the personal, governor or this Court declares that the conditions caused by the major disaster in the affected jurisdiction have ended. (5) Court appearances. The authority granted by this subdivision does not include appearances in court except pursuant to jane austen paper subdivision (a) of this section. (6) Admission and Registration requirement. An attorney may be admitted pro hac vice in personal essay, the discretion of the Appellate Division, provided the volunteering statement, applicant is a graduate of an approved law school and is not disbarred, suspended from practice or otherwise restricted from practice in personal, any jurisdiction, to provide legal services in New York pursuant to paragraphs (2) or (3) of this subdivision.

Such applicant must file a registration statement with the jane austen research, Office of Court Administration before the sample personal essay, commencement of the provision of enron essay, legal services. The application shall be in a form prescribed by the Appellate Division and the registration statement shall be in a form prescribed by sample the Office of paper thesis, Court Administration. (7) Notification to sample clients. Attorneys authorized to practice law in another United States jurisdiction who provide legal services pursuant to this subdivision shall inform clients in New York of the volunteering personal statement, jurisdiction in which they are authorized to practice law, any limits of that authorization, and sample essay, the limitations on their authorization to rubric research middle practice law in New York as permitted by this subdivision. They shall not state or imply to any person that they are otherwise authorized to practice law in New York. (e) Professional Responsibility Requirements. An attorney admitted pro hac vice pursuant to this section: (1) shall be familiar with and shall comply with the standards of professional conduct imposed upon members of the sample, New York bar, including the rules of court governing the conduct of attorneys and the Rules of Professional Conduct; and.

(2) shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State with respect to any acts occurring during the course of the attorney's participation in the matter. (a) General. Every applicant for admission to practice must file with a committee on character and fitness appointed by research papers the Appellate Division of the sample personal essay, Supreme Court affidavits of reputable persons that the applicant possesses the good moral character and general fitness requisite for an attorney and counselor-at-law as required by section 90 of the Judiciary Law. The number of such affidavits and the qualifications of persons acceptable as affiants shall be determined by the Appellate Division to volunteering statement which the applicant has been certified. (b) Affidavits. The affidavits filed shall state that the applicant is, to the knowledge of the affiant, a person of sample personal essay, good moral character and possesses the general fitness requisite for an attorney and counselor-at-law and shall set forth in detail the facts upon volunteering statement, which such knowledge is based. Such affidavits shall not be conclusive proof as to character and fitness, and the Appellate Division to essay which the applicant has been certified may inquire further through its committee on character and fitness or otherwise.

(c) Discretion of Appellate Division. The Appellate Division in each department may adopt for paper thesis its department such additional procedures for ascertaining the moral character and essay, general fitness of applicants as it may deem proper, which may include submission of volunteering, a report of the National Conference of essay, Bar Examiners. (d) Time to File Admission Application. (1) Every applicant for admission to practice, other than applicants for admission without examination pursuant to section 520.10 of this Part, shall file a complete application for admission, including the affidavits required under subdivision (a) and any additional material required under subdivision (c) of this section, within three years from the date when the applicant sits for the second day of the Uniform Bar Examination, whether taken in New York or in another jurisdiction. Research. The requirements of this subdivision shall not apply to any applicant for admission who has passed the New York State bar examination administered prior to July 2016. (2) Any applicant for admission to practice who has passed the New York State bar examination administered prior to July 2016 shall file a complete application for sample admission, including the personal, affidavits required under subdivision (a) and any additional material required under subdivision (c) of sample personal essay, this section, within three years from the date of the letter sent by the New York State Board of scandal essay, Law Examiners notifying the applicant that the applicant has passed the bar examination. § 520.13 Designation of Agent for sample personal Service of Process. (a) Every applicant for admission to practice who does not reside and is not employed full-time in the State shall be required, as a condition of admission, to execute and file, with the Appellate Division of the scandal, department in which the applicant is being admitted, a duly acknowledged instrument in writing setting forth the applicant's residence or mailing address and designating the sample personal, clerk of such Appellate Division as the applicant's agent upon whom process may be served, with like effect as if served personally upon the applicant, in any action or proceeding thereafter brought against the applicant and arising out of paper, or based upon any legal services rendered or offered to personal be rendered by the applicant within the State. (b) Any such applicant may, at examples of apa format any time after being admitted to practice, revoke a designation filed with the Appellate Division pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section by executing and filing with such Appellate Division an affidavit revoking such designation and showing that, as of the personal essay, date of such affidavit, the applicant resides or is employed full-time in the State or has an office therein for the practice of law; except such revocation shall be effective only with respect to causes of action accruing after the filing thereof.

(c) Service of process on the clerk of the Appellate Division, pursuant to a designation filed pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section, shall be made by personally delivering to and leaving with such clerk, or with a deputy or assistant authorized to receive such service at the clerk's office, duplicate copies of the process together with a fee of volunteering personal, $25. Service of process shall be complete when such clerk has been so served. Such clerk shall promptly send one copy of the process to the person to whom it is essay directed, by volunteering personal certified mail, return receipt requested, addressed to such person at sample the address specified in the designation or at thesis such other address as such person shall have specified in a duly acknowledged supplemental instrument in writing which such person shall have filed in the office of such clerk. The Court of Appeals, upon application, may in sample personal, its discretion vary the application of or waive any provision of volunteering personal, these rules where strict compliance will cause undue hardship to the applicant. Such application shall be in essay, the form of examples of apa format, a verified petition setting forth the applicant's name, age and residence address, the personal essay, facts relied upon and a prayer for relief. The New York State Board of Law Examiners may from time to time adopt, amend or rescind rules, not inconsistent with these Rules, as it shall deem necessary and proper to enable it to discharge its duties as such duties are established by Law and by these rules. Obama. The rules so established by sample personal the Board shall not be adopted, amended or rescinded except by a majority vote of the members thereof. A copy of each rule, adopted, amended or rescinded must, within 30 days of such action, be filed in the office of the Secretary of State.

§ 520.16 Pro Bono Requirement for Bar Admission. (a) Fifty-hour pro bono requirement. Every applicant admitted to the New York State bar on or after January 1, 2015, other than applicants for admission without examination pursuant to section 520.10 of this Part, shall complete at least 50 hours of qualifying pro bono service prior to filing an application for admission with the appropriate Appellate Division department of the Supreme Court. (b) Pro bono service defined. Test Taking Strategies Essays. For purposes of this section, pro bono service is supervised pre-admission law-related work that: (1) assists in sample, the provision of obama thesis, legal services without charge for. (i) persons of limited means; (ii) not-for-profit organizations; or. (iii) individuals, groups or organizations seeking to secure or promote access to justice, including, but not limited to, the protection of civil rights, civil liberties or public rights; (2) assists in the provision of legal assistance in public service for a judicial, legislative, executive or other governmental entity; or.

(3) provides legal services pursuant to subdivisions two and sample personal, three of section 484 of the Judiciary Law, or pursuant to paper school equivalent legal authority in the jurisdiction where the personal, services are performed. (c) Supervision required. All qualifying pre-admission pro conclusion bono work must be performed under the supervision of: (1) a member of sample essay, a law school faculty, including adjunct faculty, or an instructor employed by a law school; (2) an attorney admitted to practice and in good standing in the jurisdiction where the work is performed; or. (3) in the case of a clerkship or externship in a court system, by a judge or attorney employed by the court system. (d) Location of pro bono service. The 50 hours of pro bono service, or any portion thereof, may be completed in any state or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any foreign country. (e) Timing of pro bono service. The 50 hours of pro bono service must be performed on or after May 1, 2012 and after the commencement of the applicant’s legal studies, and prior to filing an application for jane austen research paper thesis admission to the New York State bar. However, if the sample essay, applicant attended an approved law school as defined in section 520.3(b) of this Part and will be admitted on or before December 31, 2015, eligible pro bono work may have been performed before May 1, 2012, provided it was performed after the commencement of the applicant’s legal studies. (f) Proof required.

Every applicant for admission shall file with the personal statement, appropriate Appellate Division department an Affidavit of sample essay, Compliance with the Pro Bono Requirement, describing the nature and examples of apa research, dates of pro bono service and the number of hours completed. Sample Personal Essay. The Affidavit of Compliance shall include a certification by the supervising attorney or judge confirming the applicant's pro bono activities. For each position used to satisfy the 50-hour requirement, the applicant shall file a separate Affidavit of Compliance. (g) Prohibition on political activities. An applicant may not satisfy any part of the 50-hour requirement by participating in partisan political activities. § 520.17 Pro Bono Scholars Program.

(a) General. Jane Paper. The Pro Bono Scholars Program is a voluntary component of legal education that provides law student participants in their final semester of study with an opportunity to assist in improving access to justice for persons of limited means while acquiring practical legal skills training. The program is administered by the Chief Administrator of the Courts or a designee and provided through approved law schools in the United States. (b) Eligibility. Sample Personal Essay. A student may participate in the Pro Bono Scholars Program upon proof that: (1) the barack statement, student is enrolled in sample, the final semester of law school study in a first degree in law program at an approved law school in volunteering, the United States, as that term is defined in section 520.3 of this Part, and satisfies any eligibility requirements set by the student's law school; and. (2) upon successful completion of the Pro Bono Scholars Program the student will have satisfied: (i) the instructional and academic calendar requirements of section 520.3(c) and essay, (d) of this Part; and. (ii) the necessary requirements for graduation at the student's law school, and will be awarded a first degree in law.

(c) Program requirements. A student enrolled in thesis statement, the Pro Bono Scholars Program must complete: (1) the New York State bar examination administered during the final semester of the student's law school study; (2) at least 12 weeks of sample personal, full-time pro bono work at a placement approved by the student's law school and the Chief Administrator or a designee, where such work will be supervised by an attorney admitted to practice in the jurisdiction where the work is performed and by a faculty member of the obama, student's law school; and. (3) a concomitant academic component at an approved law school in sample, the United States, and any other academic requirements set by the student's law school. (d) Law school credit. A student who completes the Pro Bono Scholars Program must receive at least 12 academic credits for participation in the program. (e) Pro bono service defined. For purposes of this section, pro bono service is full-time supervised law-related work that assists in the provision of legal services for: (1) persons who are financially unable to pay for legal representation; (2) not-for-profit legal service providers that predominantly address the of apa papers, legal needs of indigent clients where the work performed is for such clients; or.

(3) governmental entities, so long as the work performed is on behalf of identifiable individuals who are financially unable to afford representation or whose unmet legal needs prevent their access to justice. (f) Bar examination and accelerated admission to the bar. A student who participates in the Pro Bono Scholars Program must complete the personal essay, New York State bar examination during the student's final semester of enron, law study, provided the student's law school submits certification to the New York State Board of essay, Law Examiners that the student, upon successful completion of the Pro Bono Scholars Program, will meet the requirements of section 520.3(c) and (d) of this Part and will be awarded a first degree in law. Jane Research Paper. The State Board of Law Examiners shall not certify the student for admission to the bar pursuant to section520.7(a) of this Part until the student has presented proof that the student has successfully completed the Pro Bono Scholars Program and has been awarded a first degree in law. (g) Noncompliance. A student enrolled in sample, the Pro Bono Scholars Program must complete all program requirements by the date established by volunteering statement the Chief Administrator or a designee and by the student's law school. The deadline for sample program compliance may be extended only in exceptional circumstances and upon a written request by the student's law school, submitted to the Chief Administrator or a designee, setting forth the specific reasons for the student's inability to timely complete the program. The determination whether to extend the deadline is within the discretion of the Chief Administrator or a designee. Absent a showing of austen research paper thesis, exceptional circumstances, the failure to complete the program requirements by sample personal essay the deadline will result in the student's bar examination results being voided. (h) Delegation of authority. The administrative power for the implementation and oversight of the Pro Bono Scholars Program, including, without limitation, the power to set forth requirements for the program's operation not inconsistent with any provision of enron essay, this section, is vested in the Chief Judge or the Chief Administrator.

§520.18 Skills Competency Requirement for Admission. (a) General. Every applicant for admission to practice, other than applicants for admission without examination pursuant to section 520.10 of this Part, or applicants who qualify for the bar examination under section 520.4 or 520.5 of this Part, shall demonstrate that the applicant possesses the personal, skills and values necessary to provide effective, ethical and responsible legal services in this State. An applicant may satisfy this requirement by submitting proof of rubric paper, compliance with one of the following five subdivisions. (1) Law school certification of competence in skills and professional values. (ii) For purposes of this subdivision, a school may certify that an applicant has attained the required skill level if the graduate received a grade that the sample personal essay, school considers sufficient to barack demonstrate competence in sample personal, courses the school has designated as teaching the skills and professional values needed for basic competence and ethical participation in the legal profession.

(iii) A law school may adopt such other means of assessing its students' achievement of the required skills for purposes of enron, this subdivision, provided the personal, school receives the prior approval of the Court of Appeals. (2) Law school certification of credit acquisition. An applicant may submit a certification from the applicant's approved law school confirming that the applicant enrolled in and successfully completed 15 credit hours, as defined by American Bar Association Standards for the Approval of Law Schools, of practice-based experiential coursework designed to foster the development of research middle school, professional competencies. The 15 credits may be earned in whole or half credits. 6000.2 Admission Upon Examination. (a) The New York State Bar Examination consists of the Uniform Bar Examination, developed by the National Conference of Bar Examiners. (c) Applicants for admission upon sample personal essay, examination may take the UBE in New York in accordance with Section 6000.4 or, effective October 1, 2016, may transfer a score achieved on the UBE taken in another jurisdiction to New York, in accordance with Section 6000.5.

(d) Except as provided in subsection (e), applicants seeking admission upon volunteering personal, examination are required to successfully complete the NYLC and achieve passing scores on the UBE, NYLE and MPRE prior to being certified to the Appellate Division for admission. 6000.4 Application to Sit for the New York State Bar Examination (UBE) and sample, Proof Required of Applicants. (a) First-time Application to research paper Sit for the New York State Bar Examination. Each applicant seeking to sample personal sit for the New York State Bar Examination for the first time shall file an application on a form provided by the Board and shall pay the fee prescribed by Section 465 of the Judiciary Law during the test taking strategies, application filing period. Personal. For purposes of this Section, an application is considered filed when it is filed electronically online at the Board’s website or otherwise received in the Board’s office together with the prescribed fee during the following application filing period: (a) NYLC. An applicant seeking to statement take the personal, NYLC must register electronically online at jane austen research paper the Board's website. (a) Each applicant admitted to a February or July bar examination shall be assigned to a test center in one of the four judicial departments located in the State. Assignment shall be based on the applicant’s residence address contained in the applicant’s application, subject to space limitations. 6000.9 Attendance and Withdrawal.

(a) Transfer of Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) Score. 6000.11 Automatic Regrading of Certain Examination Answers. 6000.12 Publication and Release of Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) and Multistate Performance Test (MPT) Questions, Failed Candidate Answers and Selected Answers of Passing Applicants. 6000.13 Fraud, Dishonesty and Other Misconduct. the Board shall issue a written determination of its decision in which one or more of the following penalties, and any other penalty which the Board may deem appropriate, may be imposed: 6000.15 Application for personal Waiver of Rules.

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Personal Essay Examples, Samples

Philip Roth - How to Deal with Postmodern Reality, or, Changes in Fiction Writing. Term Paper 1998 30 Pages. 2. Postmodernism – a Term. 3. Sample! Narrativity, Moral and a Writer’s Responsibility. 4. Philip Roth - Writer and obama thesis statement, Reality. 5. Changes in Fiction Writing: Identity and Priority.

“By now you are a walking text“ (FACTS, 162), Zuckerman writes back to Philip Roth, having been asked whether or not Roth should publish his autobiography The Facts (1988). Zuckerman is one of the personal essay, characters from Roth’s books, the hero of the trilogy Zuckerman Bound (1985) and some short stories. He is a fictional character whom Roth addresses in obama, the prologue to The Facts , asking for advice concerning the sample personal, publication of what Roth calls the result of. “. writing a book absolutely backward, taking what I have already imagined and, as it were, desiccating it, so as to restore my experience to the original, prefictionalized factuality.“ (FACTS, 3) Reading Philip Roth in examples format research, a context of postmodern literature in America I have come to wonder what it actually is he himself is trying to essay, do with his writing. Comparing Roth’s early narratives to more recent works I am tempted to say that a development can be observed towards an incorporation of narrative features which can be described as ‘postmodern’, i.e. that there are strong influences of a ‘postmodern reality’ in the work of Philip Roth, although he himself can probably not be called a postmodern writer in the strict meaning of the term. Here, of course, already appears a major problem for my assumption: What is ‘postmodern writing’ at grading research all? Are there common features shared by (all) the representatives of sample personal, postmodernism which could justify the rubric research paper school, application of such a classification? And if so, what precisely are these features and how can they be described? In order to clarify these issues, I shall refer both to theoretical texts on that subject as well as to works of sample personal essay, art, in this case fiction writing.

In my analysis I want to focus on the relation between writer and reality, which will lead me to volunteering personal, a discussion of the distinction between reality and fiction. I have chosen these aspects for obvious reasons: Because at the very heart of fiction writing we find that the relation of a writer, or narrator, towards his [1] reality is what constitutes ‘fiction’ as such. This problem is especially relevant for an analysis of contemporary literature since the difference between fiction and reality has been explored, questioned and blurred at least since a modernist movement has come into existence. The literary achievements of the 20th century express themselves largely through an experimentation with the personal, distinction between fiction and reality, a playing with narrative forms, trying to examples research, meet rapidly changing social experiences. One of the most dominant features acknowledged to postmodernism is a shift of the position of the writer towards his audience, his work and his reality – maybe even a shift in the understanding of the priority of an author over his work.

It is that shift in the perception of reality which I claim has influenced Philip Roth in his writing, both in personal, structure as well as in contents. I will try to trace these influences in the development of Roth’s work, at the same time being aware that I cannot deliver a full-scale reading of Philip Roth in barack obama thesis, this paper. It is understood that such a development, or change, cannot be described as a linear temporal sequence throughout the essay, years, rather always depending, as it is, on the particular subject, background and test taking for writing essays, purpose a work occupies. However, I maintain that Philip Roth, this critic of postmodern writing, the “enfant terrible“ of American literature for more than thirty years now, can be shown to have adopted certain ‘postmodern’ characteristics in his writing corresponding to the literary discourse of his time. I want to sample essay, start out by trying to outline some of the examples, more manifest features of postmodern writing, guided by personal essay, Ihab Hassan’s essay Toward a Concept of Postmodernism (1987) and referring to Hayden White’s considerations of the aspect of austen research paper thesis, ‘moral’ in narrative texts in the essay The Value of Narrativity in the Representation of Reality (1989). For an outline of the sample personal, history of postmodernism and its discourse I am indebted to Andreas Huyssen’s Mapping the Postmodern (1986). Another basis for my argument will be Philip Roth’s essay Writing American Fiction (1961), originally a speech delivered at Stanford University for a symposium on “Writing in America Today“ in 1960.

This essay is especially interesting because it deals with the problem of fictionalizing while at the same time confronting a reality where . “ . the actuality is personal, continually outdoing our talents, and the culture tosses up figures daily that are the sample personal, envy of any novelist.“ (WAF, 120) My idea is to re-read Roth’s fiction with regard to volunteering personal statement, what he proclaims for fiction writing in his essay and throughout his work. For his earlier work I will concentrate on his first novella, Goodbye Columbus (1959) and the short-story Defender of the Faith (1952), then go on to the trilogy Zuckerman Bound (1985) and his autobiographical novel The Facts (1988) from which I have quoted earlier, concluding with one of his latest novels Operation Shylock (1993) where he explores the essay, issues of authorship, priority and a writer’s responsibility. I do realize that what I am trying to do is a fairly complex attempt: Trying to austen research thesis, analyze a voluminous work of an astonishing author with regard to characteristics of a literary (and not only literary) movement which has not been clearly defined so far – and may just as likely never be describable as a more or less coherent phenomenon. Therefore, my claim is merely to track down at least a few similarities in the work of Philip Roth to sample, features associated with postmodernism.

For that purpose I will first have to set out to give – if not a definition – then at least a rough outline of test taking, how postmodern writing might be characterized. “. Essay! we have created in barack statement, our mind a model of postmodernism, a particular typology of sample personal essay, culture and paper, imagination, and have proceeded to ‘rediscover’ the affinities of various authors and different moments with that model.“ (HASSAN, 589) Hassan points out here the basic approach to all literary theory: Treating it not as a category literary works are implicitely formed by but rather as a pattern we are trying to personal essay, find in the various works of art. Volunteering Personal! A literary movement in that sense is personal, not a normative but merely a descriptive term, applicable only to the singular specific work of literature, not to the work of an author in general. If, despite this difficulty, I will now try to austen thesis, give an account of postmodernism as such, this can only be understood as an attempt to combine different approaches towards postmodernism into a selection of features relevant for my later analysis of personal essay, Roth’s fiction writing. Andreas Huyssen in his essay Mapping the Postmodern (1986) gives a survey of what he sees as the different stages of postmodernism from the late 1950s to the 1980s. His account aims at austen research paper thesis showing the critical potential that differentiates postmodernism from its predecessors modernism and avantgarde: “As I hope this essay will show, postmodernism’s critical potential lies precisely in its radical questioning of those presuppositions which linked modernism and avantgarde to the mindset of sample essay, modernization.“ (HUYSSEN, 183) What are those presuppositions which are said to be questioned? To begin with, it was high-modernist’s notion of ‘high art’ as opposed to ‘mass culture’, the autonomy of the art work with its primary concern for form and meaning, and consequently the canonization and institutionalization of what used to be a culture of resistance against dominant power structures at the time it came into being, that was strongly criticized and opposed during the 1960s.

Huyssen, however, admits that the 1960s’ pop art culture bears more the features of an (American) avantgarde than of a genuinely postmodern conception, though these two have seemed to intermingle at times in their opposition to modernist traditions. As a more general feature of postmodern representation, Huyssen observes a shift away from what he calls modernist’s „myth of grading paper school, modernization“ (HUYSSEN, 186) to a set of. “. questions of ornament and metaphor in personal essay, architecture, of figuration and realism in painting, of story and representation in literature, of the body in music and theatre.“ (HUYSSEN, 188) Postmodernism, Huyssen argues, has adopted a view which “. avoids the volunteering personal statement, false dichotomy of personal essay, choosing either continuity or discontinuity“ (HUYSSEN, 189), resulting in a specific incorporation of enron essay, contradictions going hand in hand with a growing discomfort with the perception of reality in the traditional terms. “. it may be precisely one of the characteristics of the sample, postmodern that the relationship between progress and destruction of cultural forms, between tradition and modernity can no longer be understood today the same way Marx understood it at the dawn of modernist culture“ (HUYSSEN, 200), i.e. as a dialectical entity analyzable in terms of both progress and thesis, destruction, but rather that postmodernism might „. harbor productive contradictions, perhaps even a critical and oppositional potential.“ (HUYSSEN, 200)

Whatever this ‘critical and sample essay, oppositional potential’ consists of might be a result of a later analysis. Undoubtedly, however, we will come across the problem of the author as a subject, and examples research, the subjective as such, in sample personal, probably any postmodern piece of literature. To be sure, this is no newly discovered ground: The rise of modernism was marked by a desperate search for the identity of the subject in a world where the mere existence of jane thesis, such an sample personal identity seemed to have become questionable. About this point all my observations about the specific characteristics of postmodern literature agree with Huyssen: “ They [the postmoderns, M.O.] counter the test strategies for writing, modernist litany of the death of the subject by working toward new theories and practices of speaking, writing and acting subjects. The question of how codes, texts, images, and personal, other cultural artefacts constitute subjectivity is increasingly being raised. “. (HUYSSEN, 213) This problem seems to be one of the most manifest issues in postmodern literature, suggesting that it results from some shift in the social reality the writers/artists have to react to, a shift I will attempt to rubric middle school, retrace in Roth’s writing.

This shift may have something to do with a phenomenon Huyssen characterizes as “ . the dilemma of sample personal essay, being locked into examples of apa format research our own culture and traditions while simultaneously recognizing their limitations.“ (HUYSSEN, 220) What then can we make out as the specific features of postmodern representation of reality in arts following from such a shift in personal essay, paradigms? In 1987, Ihab Hassan undertook the essay conclusion, daring attempt to formulate certain narrative and artistic features and personal essay, paradigms by means of which to rubric research paper, differentiate postmodernism from modernism in his essay Toward a Concept of Postmodernism (1987). Essay! After having elaborated at length as to format, whether there is a phenomenon that needs to be distinguished from modernism at all, he claims that „. postmodernism may appear as a significant revision, if not original ‘episteme’, of twentieth-century Western societies. “ (HASSAN, 586), arguing as follows: “I wanted to explore the impulse of self-unmaking which is part of the literary tradition of sample, silence.

Pop and silence, or mass culture and deconstructing, or Superman and Godot – or as I shall later argue, immanence and indeterminacy – may all be aspects of the postmodern universe.“ (HASSAN, 587) As a conjunction of those two concepts Hassan coins the new term “indetermanence“, meaning the tendency in postmodernism to incorporate the different, though not dialectical, features of ‘indeterminacy’ and format papers, ‘immanence’. By indeterminacy Hassan means a tendency towards. “. Sample! ambiguity, discontinuity, heterodoxy, pluralism, randomness, revolt, perversion, deformation. The latter alone subsumes a dozen current terms of unmaking: decreation, disintegration, deconstruction, decenterment, displacement, difference, discontinuity, disjunction, disappearance, decomposition, de-definition, demystification, detotalization, delegitimization – let alone more technical terms referring to the rhetoric of irony, rupture, silence.” (HASSAN, 592) By immanence , or rather immanences, Hassan describes.

“. the capacity of essays, mind to generalize itself in symbols, [. ] act upon itself through its own abstractions and so become, increasingly, im-mediately, its own environment. This noetic tendency may be evoked by such sundry concepts as diffusion, dissemination, pulsion, interplay, communication, interdependence, which all derive from the emergence of human beings as language animals. [. ] . everywhere we encounter that immanence called Language. Sample Personal Essay! ” (HASSAN, 593) The conjunction of these two different tendencies to a characteristic of postmodern understanding leads to examples of apa format, a major theme postmodernism is concerned with, and essay, which we will find in rubric paper middle school, Roth’s work as well, the playing with the processes of constructing and deconstructing identities and realities. In order to give a definition of postmodernism, Hassan proposes a “ . fourfold vision of complementarities, embracing continuity and discontinuity, diachronie and synchronie.“ (HASSAN, 589) He comes to personal, analyze ideas and concepts in many fields – “. rhetoric, linguistics, literary theory, philosophy, anthropology, psychanalysis, political science, even theology. ” (HASSAN, 592) in terms of oppositional tendencies of modernism and postmodernism. I will take up only a few of those concepts, which I think bear some significance for the literary works we later want to jane austen research paper, have a look at. Sample Essay! Postmodern writing is largely characterized by “. Antiform (disjunctive, open) . Play . Chance . Exhaustion . Conclusion! Participation [of the author as a subject in his writing, M.O.] . Deconstruction . Antithesis . Rhetoric . Scriptible (Writerly) . Sample Personal! Anti-narrative . Schizophrenia . Irony . ” (HASSAN, 591/592) Many of the features just named can be analyzed in Roth’s later work, as will be shown in jane research paper, later chapters. [1] I am perfectly aware that there are female writers as well and that political correctness would require the use of both female and male forms.

However, for the sake of readability I will exclusively use the personal essay, ‘traditional’ male form of pronouns whenever it occurs.

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City , Ecology , Population 957 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Marketing. Advantages and Disadvantages of Marketing By Adrian “Marketing” is defined by Wikipedia as “the process by which companies . create customer interest in goods or services… through which companies build strong customer relationships and creates value for their customers and for themselves.” Start with a marketing plan – identifying the customer and their needs and wants. Grading Rubric School? Since the essence of business is fulfilling a need it is an important to sample personal essay know which need you are trying to fulfil. Then you need. Advertising , Broadcasting , Business 1417 Words | 5 Pages. Social Networks: Advantages and Disadvantages. Social Network Sites: Advantages and Disadvantages I. Introduction a. Attention Getter: Imagine being stripped of . your privileges to have access to social network sites such as facebook, twitter, myspace, and/or instagram…How would you reach out to family and friends you don’t get a chance to communicate with often? b. Name: Hello my name is Kenyatta Stephens c. Topic: Social Network Sites: Advantages and Disadvantages (SLIDE) d. Relevance: Social network sites. , Facebook , MySpace 554 Words | 3 Pages.

Seminar Advantage and Disadvantage. Examples Papers? ADVANTAGE OF HAVING TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO YOUR SEMINAR * The advantage in preparing your seminar in two months prior to your . seminar is that you can prepare everything with excellence because you have a lot of time to essay prepare. * You have a lot of time to locate a good venue, decide a design so that can capture the audience interest by seeing the grading rubric middle school, area so relaxing and refreshing. Sample Personal? * Whatever food you plan to fix, try to barack obama thesis keep to the middle of the personal essay, road in your selections of barack obama statement, what to fix. Think. Sample Personal? Audience , List , Performance 754 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of test strategies for writing essays, Fuels. Personal Essay? ? Advantages and strategies for writing essays, Disadvantages of Renewable Fuels Solar Energy: Advantages : -Energy is free although . there is a building cost. Sample? -Causes no pollution, however, energy may go into machines that produce pollution. -Solar energy can be used in remote areas where it is too expensive to extend the enron conclusion, electricity power grid. -Estimated that the sample essay, worlds oil reserves will last for strategies for writing essays, 30-40 years whereas solar energy is sample infinite. Disadvantages : -Solar energy can only be harnessed when it is of apa format papers daytime. Coal , Electrical generator , Fossil fuel 617 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Essay? The disadvantages and advantages of pesticides.

PESTICIDES IN OUR ECONOMY INTRODUCTION A pesticide is a material used to kill or reject a pest. Pesticides have disadvantages and . advantages . They are able to restrain pests, but it can also kill other organisms as well. Not only do they affect animals but they can effect us, as humans. Grading Research Paper School? A pesticide is a biological, physical, or chemical agent used to kill plants or animals that are harmful to people. The name pesticide is personal generally applied only to chemical agents. Examples of different. Environmental effects of pesticides , Human , Malaria 521 Words | 4 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Television.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Entertainment. Advantages and disadvantages of entertainment to society? Present day entertainments are either good or bad or ugly. . Advantages : good ones with pure fun, frolic, knowledge dissemination through various media keep us in grading rubric school good moods, healthy thoughts and entertained. Bad ones can be ignored by matured audience or readers but nonetheless, they leave a bad impression on our minds. Sample Essay? The ugly ones are those that border on vulgarism like hard core porno entertainments, horror movies or badly worded books. History of the Internet , Internet , Online chat 2415 Words | 7 Pages.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Plea Bargains. Austen Research Paper Thesis? Advantages and personal essay, Disadvantages of Plea Bargaining Cherese Murphy CJA/224 May 17, 2012 Maxine Craig Advantages . and research paper, Disadvantages of Plea Bargaining The history of plea bargaining go back to the 19th century; by the second half of the 19th century plea bargaining was somewhat a common practice. (Siegel, Schmalleger, Worrall 2011, 320) However, plea bargaining became more common in the early and mid-1900’s. Sample Essay? From 1916 to 1921 the thesis, Georgia Department of Public Welfare advised that guilty plea rates. Crime , Criminal law , Judge 708 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Informa. ? Advantages and sample personal, Disadvantages of information technology in Business Advantages : Increases production and saves . time: Business use technology to grading paper school automate tasks. Sample Essay? A good example is a bakery which uses automated temperature censors to detect any drop or increase in room temperature in a bakery. These censors will send information directly to the operator and report any temperature change. This saves the bakery time and it also results into quality products. Improves communication through communication.

Business , Internet 1476 Words | 5 Pages. 3D Printing Advantages And Disadvantages. there are always some disadvantages . 3D printing is one of the greatest inventions anyone has ever made. 3D printers allow you to print any . three dimensional object from your computer. Original printers work by putting ink on paper. 3D printers don’t work like that. They work with materials like metal, plastic, and personal statement, ceramic. The printers put down these materials, thin layer after thin layer from the bottom to the top, to make the desired object. 3D printing has many advantages . 3D printers can help. 3D printing , Inkjet printer 940 Words | 4 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Disciplining Children.

Abstract This essay will provide a discussion on sample personal essay, the advantages and personal statement, the disadvantages of disciplining children. The first part . of the essay begins by elaborating on the disadvantages of disciplining children. Essay? These disadvantages include establishment of volunteering personal, anxiety and fear, emotional fallout and rebellious behavior. Personal? The second part of the essay provides arguments on the advantages of disciplining children. Justification includes the advantages of, development of a child’s character, learning from the. Behavior , Child discipline , Childhood 1254 Words | 4 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Tall. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Tall There are certain advantages and disadvantages of . Volunteering Personal Statement? being tall but let us look them from different aspects. Essay? The first aspect is the physical advantages and disadvantages of being tall.

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Actually, there’s a lot more to the Internet than E-mail, search engines, celebrity web sites, up-to-the-second sports scores, and chat rooms full of discussions. Rubric Research Paper? The Net also ranks. History of the Internet , Hyperlink , Hypertext 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Advantage and Disadvantage of Unemploym. ? Advantage and Disadvantage of Unemployment. To anyone who suffers from unemployment, this would be a hard time for personal essay, them in . order to support their living. However, an economist is looking at unemployment is a necessity to maintain a balance economy. Therefore there are advantages and enron essay, disadvantages of unemployment in a country. The disadvantages of essay, unemployment are as clear as water to most people in the society even if they did not study economy. Deprived of a job meaning lacking of obama statement, income, if the. Business cycle , Economics , Inflation 833 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Biometrics.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Biometrics Let us now examine the advantages and disadvantages of . biometrics in two groups of applications: the commercial positive recognition applications that may work either in sample essay the verification or the identification modes, and the government and forensic negative recognition applications that require identification. Research School? Advantages and Disadvantages of DNA Testing in Biometrics Solutions The ongoing project to map the human genome affects all of us in several. DNA , DNA profiling , Ethics 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and sample, Disadvantages of Networks. Advantages and disadvantages of networks I’ll start by saying that setting up a network is a serious job and should be done . only by a person that is already familiar with the barack obama thesis, process of networking. The variety of options for sample, setting up a home network can influence on volunteering, a decision regarding the equipment needed to be purchase. Before deciding what hardware to essay buy you must first find out test strategies for writing, which type of network technology to use (by 'type of network technology' I mean the way computers connect to the. Client-server , Computer network , Internet 1433 Words | 4 Pages. |Entry Mode | Advantages | Disadvantages . | |Joint Venture |Gain immediate access to personal local partner’s knowledge, |Coordination between partners may not be smooth | | |expertise, networks, and market share |Political risk exposure is high | | |Development. Brand , Economics , Free trade 612 Words | 3 Pages. The advantages and disadvantages of jane austen research thesis, social networking. The advantages and disadvantage of social networking Nowadays, social networking is a part of everyday life and it . Sample Essay? brings revolutionary changes in communication between people.

Social networking has a lot of volunteering personal statement, advantages and sample personal, disadvantages . Obama Statement? Some advantages are allow us to communicate with our family, friends and personal, relatives, obtain the jane paper, latest news and help us to do our work easily. However, some disadvantages are teenagers may become addicted to social networking and a lot of unreliable information. MySpace , Orkut , Social network service 735 Words | 2 Pages. Personal? Advantages and Disadvantages of the Caste System. ?Question 3a. What were the jane austen research thesis, advantages and disadvantages of the caste system? How did the sample essay, caste system reflect Indian society. Format Research? . A caste system was used by the ancient Indian society to separate themselves into categories.

There are advantages and disadvantages with the use of this system but they all reflected Indian society in different ways. Personal? The term Caste and Varna meant “heredity” and “color”. Grading Research? The caste system was originally created to separate the early Aryans from the native Indians. Caste , Caste system in India , Dalit 929 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Cad.

Advantages and disadvantages of using CAD Advantages * Can be more accurate than hand-drawn designs - it . reduces human error. * You can save and edit ideas, which makes it easier and cheaper to modify your design as you go along. * You can modify existing ideas, which saves time. Disadvantages * The software itself can be expensive so initial costs are high. There are free software packages though. * Staff need to be trained how to use the software, which also adds to costs. Computer , Computer graphics , Computer-aided design 649 Words | 3 Pages. Macroeconomics Advantages And Disadvantages To Outsourcing. Advantages and Disadvantages to Outsourcing Michael Tuohey Misericordia University Abstract Outsourcing is when . Essay? producers use different companies for research paper middle school, certain parts of the production process. The work can be sent to other companies or to different countries.

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co directed thesis By Laura Ann Kamienski. That's how I like to see all women; on their knees. A well-known kickboxing champion made this comment during a seminar that he was giving to a large group of sample essay male and female martial artists. Grading Research School! It was the catalyst to finding a new approach to my martial arts training, and to my role as a women's self-defense instructor. I was fairly new black belt in Tae Kwon Do when I attended that seminar with a friend who is a high ranking (third degree) female black belt. Despite our physical training, neither one of us had the capacity or the skills to stop the assault, which continued from that first comment. It was through that experience I realized that something was missing from my training and I began to look for answers.

The following document is an accumulation of my research, personal discussions with martial arts colleagues, and personal essay, training with my Chimera mentor. It also includes my experience training in domestic violence advocacy and taking strategies for writing essays, teaching women's self-defense courses over sample essay the past few years. Many of the following comments were guided by the direct interaction I've had with my students and with survivors of sexual assault. In the past twenty years, there has been an explosion of available information and test, data about violence against women. In reviewing both this data and the content of martial arts based women's self-defense courses, I discovered an personal essay, alarming disconnection between what is barack obama statement being taught and the reality of assaults women and girls experience. Survivors of sexual assault are stepping up more than ever to tell their stories. Most self-defense courses for women I reviewed did not reflect the data or the actual experiences of these women and girls.

This included those courses that claimed to sample personal, consider current statistics and information about violence against women. Characteristics of Effective Self Defense for Women. Based on Knowledge of Actual Attacks. To be most effective, women's self-defense programs should be based on several things. The first of test taking strategies for writing essays these is knowledge of actual attacks.

1 Women take self-defense courses for a variety of personal essay reasons, but underlying all of them is the reality of specific kinds of violence. Enron Conclusion! Sexual assault and domestic violence are, by far, the most common types of violence women experience. According to a 1995 study on violence against women conducted by the United States Department of Justice: Women age 12 or older annually sustained almost 5 million violent victimizations in 1992 and 1993. About three-quarters of all lone-offender violence against women and 45% of violence involving multiple-offenders was perpetrated by offenders whom the personal essay, victim knew. In 29% of enron scandal essay conclusion all violence against women by a lone offender, the perpetrator was an intimate (husband, ex-husband, boyfriend or ex-boyfriend). Women were about 6 times more likely than men to experience violence committed by an intimate. Women annually reported about 500,000 rapes and sexual assaults to interviewers. Friends or acquaintances of the victims committed over half of these rapes or sexual assaults.

Strangers were responsible for about 1 in 5. 2. Our culture promulgates and perpetuates massive and sample, completely unnecessary ignorance about the violence women face. From advertising to news reporting, movies to television, violence against women (and how women respond to that violence) is flagrantly misrepresented. Rapists are most often portrayed as dirty, smelly, psychotic strangers who jump, unannounced, from behind bushes. Their physical features are sometimes exaggerated to the point of becoming huge ape like monsters with big teeth and hairy bodies. Very rarely are attackers depicted as friends or family members of their victims.

In many instances it is barack obama either directly or indirectly implied that the victim secretly wanted to personal, be raped. 3 Women are rarely seen fighting back against their attacker and when they do they are usually ineffectual and are ultimately rescued by another male character. Sometimes the rapist himself turns out to be the hero.* While stranger attacks do happen, the effects of which are nothing short of devastating and traumatic, the overwhelming majority of taking for writing sexual assaults do not happen on sample personal essay the street or in an alley. Furthermore, assailants are usually not strangers. The overwhelming majority of assailants know their victims -84% of all sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows. Jane Austen! 4 Furthermore, victims of sample personal sexual assault are very often young girls as indicated by a study reported in Body Politics by Nancy Henley: Florence Rush, a social worker who has worked for paper the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, has been concerned with sexual abuse in children, and has written papers on this topic. In one, presenting a survey of studies covering 2,152 cases of sexual offenses against children, she observes that the overwhelming majority of sexual offenses involving children (about 90%) are those committed by older males on young girls, and about 75 percent of these offenses are committed not by strangers, but by persons known to the victims-by fathers and other relatives, or by visitors and family friends. The pattern of such abuses, she concludes, shows an early manifestation of male power and oppression on the female. Essay! 5.

According to the American Medical Association (AMA), over rubric research paper school 61 percent of female victims of assault are under age 18. 6 The AMA also reports that three-quarters of sexual assaults are committed by a friend, acquaintance, intimate partner or family member of the victim. Violence against women is primarily partner violence: 76 percent of the personal, women who were raped and/or physically assaulted since age 18 were assaulted by a current or former husband, cohabiting partner, or date. 7. Domestic violence is the format research, leading cause of injuries to women ages 15 - 44, more common than automobile accidents, muggings, and cancer deaths combined (Surgeon General, US. Public Health Services, (Journal of the American Medical Association, 276:23, 31-32, June 17, 1992). Essay! 22-35% of women who visit emergency rooms are there for injuries related to ongoing abuse (Journal of American Medical Association, 1990).

Although more than one million women seek medical treatment each year for injuries caused by their husbands or partners, doctors correctly identify the injuries as resulting from jane austen paper, battering only 4% of the sample essay, time (E. Stark A. Flitcraft, Medical Therapy as Repression: The Case of the Battered Woman, 1982). 8. The picture drawn by these statistics is examples of apa format one in which there is typically some sort of emotional connection between the personal essay, victim and jane, the assailant. It thereby suggests that sexual assault is a much more complicated issue than can be confronted merely by learning physical technique. Yet, in sample personal most cases, courses in self-defense for women focus almost exclusively on enron essay conclusion physical technique. The reality that women are usually assaulted by a known assailant means that self-defense skills for women should primarily include learning skills to recognize and defend against assaults committed by a trusted friend, neighbor or intimate partner. In other words, classes should begin to account for the emotional and sample personal, psychological dynamics of the common relationships between victim and barack obama thesis, perpetrator. Some martial artists teaching self-defense for women, even while acknowledging that assailants are typically not strangers, tend to ignore the relationships and emotional dynamics that exist between victim and essay, perpetrator. Second, in order to be most effective, self-defense classes for jane austen paper thesis women should promote a woman's self-worth and self-esteem.

9. Most forms of oppression have a corresponding form of violence. For women, that violence has historically been manifested as rape. Patriarchal culture defines women as second-class, having less value than men. Sexual assault and rape have been an accepted part of our culture for centuries. For example, the Bible endorses the rape of haughty women in the following passage found in the book of Isaiah: Moreover the LORD saith, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and wonton eyes, walking and mincing as they to, and making a tinkling with their feet: Therefore the sample essay, Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the examples format papers, daughters of Zion and the LORD will discover their secret parts. 10. During the sample personal, middle ages sexual property rights reduced women to chattel. The 'droit du seigneur,' the right of the first night, gave each medieval lord the right to take first sexual access to any female serf who married on his land holdings.

11 These laws made raping new brides legal during the middle ages. Our own legal system still favors the barack obama statement, perpetrator in many instances. One of the most telling examples of sample our culture's tolerance of sexual assault was the conclusion, episode of sample personal attacks in Central Park, New York City, during and examples of apa format papers, after the annual Puerto Rican Day Parade in June of 2000. The fact that there was, and still is, question about who was to blame and essay, whether or not the victims brought it on themselves reminds us too well that sexual assault is of apa format papers still condoned by our culture and its institutions. As Tavris points out in The Mismeasure of Women : The law expects a raped woman, like a battered wife, to behave like a man when threatened: to try and defend herself even at the risk of death. The law demands that a woman behave like a reasonable man and fight back. Personal! It does not demand that a man behave like a reasonable woman and understand the difference between consent and coercion, between the words yes and no. 12. Even as effective as violence committed against women, is the form of oppressive violence by thesis which women learn to devalue themselves.

Patriarchal culture defines the female role as one of passivity, gentleness, weakness, compliance, concern for others, and dependency. Women are socialized through every institution to live up to these roles which make them vulnerable. Sample! Tavris illustrates: The person who has these problems is familiar, all right; she is… the stereotypic woman. The qualities of the codependent person are most of the hallmarks of the female role, writ large. They represent a blueprint of the examples of apa papers, obligations a good woman is taught to value and enjoy, the most basic of which is caring for others. They consist of expectations for personal essay proper female behavior that form the basis of test taking essays most women's self-esteem. 13. In a male-dominated society, women are not encouraged to value their own unique qualities.

Instead we are defined as good or bad according to male norms and standards. Of course, the habit of seeing women's behavior as something to be explained in relation to the male norm makes sense in a world that takes the male norm for granted. 14 These norms divide women into essay good and bad. So it becomes an accepted idea that only bad women are assaulted. Grading Paper Middle School! Not only is this an outright example of victim-blaming, but it also makes women feel that they are somehow to blame for sample personal being assaulted because they are bad. It should be recognized that some behaviors are riskier than others, but assault is assault no matter where a woman is or what she was doing at the time of her attack. 15 Socialization happens in many ways, but the end result of this kind of socialization usually includes feelings of low self-worth in test taking for writing essays women. For women, low self-worth often includes self-blame and sample, self-hatred. In order to defend the self, a woman must perceive herself as having value over and beyond that of an jane austen thesis, attacker. This notion goes against personal the very grain of enron essay conclusion women's role in society.

Women's other orientation leaves them vulnerable because it devalues them and leaves them with feelings of low self-esteem and low self-worth. Women must first feel entitled to be safe and essay, respected. This is a pre-requisite for effective self-defense. Volunteering! According to Bart in Stopping Rape: It will be recalled that one of the factors that is personal essay associated with rape avoidance is a feeling of anger by the woman that anyone would try to rape her, to intrude on her space as a person. Thus anything that enhances a woman's self-esteem so that she believes she is worth defending and that no one has the right to attack her should be associated with rape avoidance. Because there is some evidence that taking women's studies and barack obama thesis statement, self-defense courses has this effect, such courses should be available, and women should be encouraged to take them. 16. So self-worth and self-value are integral components of a woman's capacity to defend herself. Self-defense for women should include activities that promote and increase a woman's self-esteem and self-worth.

While overemphasizing physical technique is detrimental to women's self-defense, it is important to sample, interject that learning physical technique should be an integral part of training. A woman must believe that she is capable of defending herself. Learning physical technique is empowering, and is an invaluable tool for increasing women's self-esteem and self-worth. Women are routinely discouraged from of apa papers, any sorts of aggressive behavior. As children we are denied opportunities to essay, learn to use our bodies in ways which are self-protective. In Beauty Bites Beast, Ellen Snortland describes how it would be useful for barack obama statement girls to be raised more like puppies: A dog breeder would be considered insane if they separated puppies by sex, allowing only male puppies to play and learn adult survival techniques as they tumbled around hunting a ball. Sample Personal! We would consider it absurd to train the females not to growl, roll around, get dirty, or fight back if attacked.

Notice how dogs behave when they're playing. Their play is a gentle form of fighting, veritable rehearsal for the real thing should the need ever arise. The female pups do not sit on the sidelines watching or cheering the males; they are just as actively entangled in the pile of fighting dogs. Rubric Paper Middle! A bitch that never used her ability to protect herself wouldn't be good for her litter. Essay! 17. Next, effective programs should be based on what women already do, 18 and provide women with opportunities to practice their skills. Self-defense training programs against rape typically focus on teaching women physical defense skills. 19 By defining self-defense as primarily techniques of physical force, martial arts instructors have historically minimized the successful and test taking strategies for writing, creative actions women already use to sample essay, defend themselves, often ignoring women's own strategies completely.

Anthologies like Her Wits About Her - Self-defense Success Stories by Women (editors Denise Caignon and Gail Groves) document an existing wealth of collective knowledge but are rarely considered a valuable women's self-defense resource by volunteering personal statement martial artists. Tapping into personal essay the resources and skills women already use is an essential part of teaching successful defense strategies. Women have been successfully defending themselves for centuries using combinations of rubric middle verbal and physical strategies. Women's collective experience is one of the most effective teaching resources available to sample, instructors. As a group, women have been forced to become true masters of self-defense.

Experience is the best teacher and jane austen research thesis, women have a surplus of it. Personal Essay! With proper training, development and research paper, research, instructors can begin to help women see that they already know, and sample essay, often use, the most common and effective forms of self-defense. Enron Essay! In Sexual Coercion - A Sourcebook on Its Nature, Grauerholz, and personal essay, Koralewski assert: Building on existing strengths, inclinations, and abilities requires that instructors and students acknowledge the many ways in which women and children already resist sexual coercion and not narrowly define self-defense as physically stopping an attack. 20.

Provides Supportive Environment. Finally, in order to be effective, women's self-defense courses should create an environment of feedback and support. Many survivors of sexual assault feel isolated and ashamed. Taking! An environment of support, encouragement and community can help restore self-esteem and confidence. An [anonymous] woman described the essay, importance of rubric research this support to her: If you had said to me that within 24 hours I would be telling my story of incest and feeling comfortable with 14 total strangers, I would have thought you were crazy.

My class supported me emotionally more than any one person in my life. 21. As a self-defense instructor, I've had a remarkable number of women disclose information about their own experiences with assault. These reports have some significant common elements. None reported that a stranger had jumped them.

The most common scenarios I hear are about cases of personal essay child molestation (usually incestuous), date rape and stories of grading rubric school domestic violence. Many of those who were raped reported that little, if any, physical force was involved. My own sexual assault story is one in essay which fear of disapproval put me at risk and the unspoken threat of violence was enough to compel compliance. As Telsey succinctly points out in her self-defense workbook: We may worry so much about the jane austen research paper, possibility of hurting someone else's feelings that we don't speak or act, even when the sample essay, consequences of that inaction can be serious.

At the same time, we may give the benefit of the doubt to paper, the other person, frequently despite clear indications that they are disrespectful of our needs or wishes or are downright dangerous. Essay! 22. On many occasions, I have had the good fortune to discuss this topic, in scandal conclusion detail, with women who are professional rape crisis advocates. Advocacy workers are one of the best sources of knowledge about the kinds of assault women experience, as well as what kinds of sample essay self-defense strategies are most effective because they work with survivors on a regular basis. All of the information that has been reported to jane austen thesis, me confirms that, when assaulted, women are usually assaulted by men they know. Personal! They are usually very young women or girls and are assaulted by test men who are significantly older than they are. Also, all those who successfully avoided being raped used a combination of both verbal and physical strategies. According to Bart: The fact that it is sample personal essay possible to avoid rape when attacked should be widely disseminated, particularly in the mass media. News magazines and television should report in detail instances of rape avoidance so women can learn what works.

Women should be told about how to maximize the probability of avoiding rape when attacked and about the effectiveness of enron scandal multiple strategies. 23. Factors Resulting in the Combative Model. So, an effective self-defense program for women should include four key elements. Sample Personal! It should be based on the kinds of assault women most experience. It should be developed to research paper school, promote assertiveness, confidence and self-worth. Sample! The curriculum should emphasize the skills women already use and include activities to build new skills based on them. Finally, instructors should be able to provide a caring environment where women feel safe to train. 24 Courses based on stranger danger fail to grading, meet these criteria and are problematic in at sample, least two other important ways. First, they perpetuate the rubric research paper middle, myths and legitimize false information. This only serves to frighten women needlessly.

But more important is sample that combative classes reinforce the notion that it is best to retaliate only when there is no doubt that a threat exists. They give permission only to fight back. In other words, it is only okay to fight when very clear cut lines are drawn and a victim is sure there is going to be a physical confrontation, or after the physical assault has begun-too late to prevent it. But sexual assault is overrun with ambiguity and attempts by an assailant to confuse the victim. By focussing on rubric research paper middle scenarios with clear-cut lines of aggression, combative self-defense also serves to strengthen women's socially prescribed role as victim. These types of scenarios reject learning to rely on one's own sense of endangerment. As Telsey states, Even though the world has been proven to be dangerous for us, we often demand of sample ourselves that we be 100% right before taking an action that will ensure our safety. 25. Many assailants along the enron scandal conclusion, continuum employ tricks to personal essay, gain access to us [the potential victim] and to jane austen research paper, move us to sample personal essay, an isolated location. 26 Assailants use tricks and ploys in many different forms.

From an offer of barack statement help or apologies and reassurances to intimidation and put-downs, a sexual assailant both intentionally and unintentionally tries to sample personal, manipulate his victim. The majority of grading rubric research middle school assaults begin with conversation that is directed by an assailant. This conversation is directed to manipulate, coerce, and confuse the sample personal, targeted victim. It should be noted that these conversations also involve non-violent physical behavior with the same intent.* Classes based on of apa papers stranger assault present students with scenarios that have a clear cut beginning, middle and end. These scenarios take a student from point A (initial contact) to point C (verbal or physical confrontation) in a predictable pattern. The mock situations presented are overwhelmingly ones in which the assailants are strangers meeting their victims for personal the first times. Another factor is ignorance on the part of instructors. Some martial arts instructors are unaware of the statistics about rubric school violence against women. Sample! They develop self-defense classes merely as an extension, or added feature, of their physical skills and school curriculum without any further preparation or research.

These classes offer instruction only in physical techniques, sometimes with no mention of statistics. They usually offer no activities in boundary setting or verbal skills outside of stranger based scenarios. When they do offer verbal skill building activities, they most often construct exercises with the underlying presupposition of combative situations. Barack Obama Thesis Statement! The following description from the EZDefense program, developed by the National Association of Professional Martial Artists, reflects much of the personal, same experiences I have had with many local martial arts studios offering women's self-defense courses. The EZDefense course curriculum, drills and activities are all stranger based, street scenarios in which a student meets up with an assailant woofer and practices a series of combative physical and taking strategies for writing, verbal boundary setting drills and strikes against him. Sample Personal! For example the instructor-training manual details how to handle a timid student in the Portal of Safety Drill.

This student is research paper middle leaning [referring to a photo] away and thus being too passive. The student must be made to realize that their body signalsthe predator and sample essay, thus either encourages or discourages the assailant from continuing his aggressiveness. The student's body language either tells the aggressor I am afraid and a safe victim or stay back, this dog may bite. Here the student discourages the paper middle school, woofer by personal raising a hand up and shouting a clear verbal boundary such as Stop right there! However, the student still does not provoke the woofer through any type of threat or name-calling. 27. This drill, as do all the examples of apa format, others in this program, assumes that the assailant is a stranger and begins his assault at a distance from the intended victim.

Most assailants (who are not strangers) have already achieved close proximity to their victims long before they become aggressive. Denial is also a contributing factor to stranger based self-defense courses. Many martial artists acknowledge and report about the statistics and data but don't believe them. It is in many ways much easier to deny the reality of personal essay how sexual assaults happen, to statement, whom they are happening, and who is committing them. Sample Essay! It's easier for both men and women. For women it's easier because disbelief enables them to believe, THAT wouldn't, won't, couldn't, EVER happen to rubric research paper middle school, me. For men it's easier to accept a psychotic demonized attacker who is unlike him. Telsey gives this example: [W]omen are blamed for assaults against them or for staying in abusive situations; other women then participate in the blaming, partly in an effort to convince themselves that the assaults would not happen to them because they would not behave that way. 28.

For most martial artists, teaching physical technique is much easier. In practical terms, teaching physical technique is attractive because it is what martial artists are most familiar with. Martial artists don't need to do any extensive research or additional training to develop a self-defense course for women based on physical technique. It should be noted that another compelling reason to create a combative course is marketability. Combative courses prey on the fears women have.

These fears are based on the myths of stranger attacks generated by the media and our culture. Combative courses then provide (sell) a product, which addresses those fears. It seems in most cases, however, that well-intentioned martial artists simply do not know how to build a self-defense class for women that integrates this information. Sample Personal Essay! But, for scandal essay conclusion whatever reason, many martial artists teaching self-defense for women do accept the myths of stranger attacks and construct courses around them. Sample Personal! Even those that report about statistics of known assailants offer little in terms of building skills that women need to confront the reality of violence against them. The skills and information necessary for women to test taking essays, learn effective self-defense strategies are not being offered in combative classes. Examination of sample essay Current Combative Class Models. In order to arrive at the best method for building a self-defense course for women, it is useful to look at grading rubric research paper school, some of the existing models. Women's self-defense courses can be found in a variety of locations from community centers, high schools, martial arts studios and hunting clubs to elaborate permanent facilities which provide regular training camps. In all, there are three general types of unarmed self-defense courses aimed at women.

They are padded attacker classes, martial arts programs and fitness oriented classes. Sample Essay! These range in time and financial commitments from free one-hour seminars to several year courses costing hundreds of dollars. 29. Padded Attacker Classes. The padded attacker class was developed by Matt Thomas in 1971 to help train SWAT teams. Some of the more well-known padded-attacker classes include: IMPACT/Model Mugging, Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) and enron essay, Rocky Mountain Combat Applications Training (RMCAT). All of these courses are characterized by students learning striking and verbal boundary setting skills in an established progression. Eventually students graduate to personal, fight with a mock attacker dressed in multiple layers of barack thesis padding designed to protect him/her from full contact strikes. Most (about 90%) of the curriculum of sample essay these courses focuses on austen research learning physical technique.

Like all women's self-defense courses, they vary in time and financial commitment as well as philosophy and approach. Traditional Martial Arts. Many women interested in self-defense enter some sort of martial arts program. These programs vary widely in style, philosophy and personal, approach. For the scandal essay, purposes of this paper a discussion of sample martial art styles and their subsequent strengths and weaknesses in relationship to women's self defense would be an jane research paper, inordinate undertaking. However, a brief discussion of sexism in martial arts is warranted.

Women have been excluded from martial arts education either directly or indirectly for most of its history. Exclusively female educational institutions have a long and proud tradition. Some research on women's colleges includes findings that these colleges encourage leadership skills in women, provide women with more female role models, and that they encourage women to focus on traditionally male-dominated fields of study. However, other research finds that factors such as the level of selectivity of the college may play a part in the institution's positive effects on students. 30 One of the responses to female exclusion and sexism in martial arts is the emergence of all-female schools and a general discussion among female martial artists about sample personal essay how to statement, deal with sexism in co-ed schools. Personal Essay! Organizations like the National Women's Martial Arts Federation and schools like Brooklyn Women's Martial Arts and Valley Women's Martial Arts, Inc. offer women the opportunity to train in an all female environment devoted exclusively to women's self-defense issues and physical attributes. According to barack obama thesis statement, Gelene Fontaine, an instructor at Brooklyn Women's Martial Arts: A women's school has offered me as a student the opportunity to sample personal, grow in a supportive, feminist atmosphere.

I've taught self-defense to men and women together in other spaces and the men always try to dominate the forum, and the women always fade into the background. (This is still something that we deal with in our children's program which is co-ed-- and it can be hard.) It's really great to not have to deal with that dynamic. Having a women's training experience also facilitates dealing with survivor issues that come up on and off the floor. We are a lesbian-positive space as well. Our dojo was started by women who are very political and community activism is still part of training. 31. The martial arts fitness craze, spearheaded by Billy Blanks' Tae Bo program, has created a new fad in women's self-defense classes. One of the most important features of statement a cardio type class is that it draws a lot of women who would otherwise never enter a martial arts school or self-defense class. Cardio kickboxing classes offer instruction in basic martial arts skills. Essay! Many women feel empowered by these classes.

I've had several women begin in my CardioKick! class and then report that they have gained enough confidence from taking it, to move on to other self-defense programs. Typically aerobic kickboxing classes are run by grading research either aerobic instructors with no martial arts training, or by martial artists with no aerobics or fitness backgrounds. Recently, the National Association of Professional Martial Artists and other martial arts organizations have started their own group fitness kickboxing programs. Personal Essay! An instructor who possesses both martial arts and group fitness instructor skills is ideal for a cardio kickboxing type class. There are many other types of women's self-defense courses having no common thread other than that they are self-defense classes marketed exclusively to women. From one-hour seminars at a local high school or fitness club to various classes offered at martial arts studios, these classes and seminars are as diverse and unique in test taking for writing essays approach and content as the instructors who teach them. Examination of Current Multi-Strategy Models. The National Coalition Against Sexual Assault (NCASA) has developed some detailed and well-considered guidelines for personal essay women choosing a self-defense course. One criterion is: A good course covers critical thinking about defense strategies, assertiveness, powerful communication skills, and easy to remember physical techniques.

The instructor respects and responds to your fears and concerns. Instruction is based on the belief that we can act competently, decisively, and take action for our own protection. Examples Research! Essentially, a good course is personal based on research school intelligence and not muscle. It offers tools for sample personal enabling a person to connect with her own strength and strategies for writing, power. Personal Essay! 32. Those instructors willing to of apa research, teach effective self-defense for women have a huge task. They should acquire extensive information about sexual assault, women's socialization and the skills critical for working effectively with women and girls, especially survivors of sexual assault. Furthermore, responsible instructors should seek out opportunities to connect with survivors. One of the best ways to sample essay, learn about the dynamics of sexual assault is by listening to, and learning from, women who have experienced it. This requires no less effort or commitment than earning the equivalent of scandal conclusion a black belt in women's self-defense. Along with research and personal essay, education about sexual assault, one of the paper, best ways to get fundamental information on violence against women is through training offered by personal essay rape crisis and domestic violence agencies.

This sort of free training is typically offered to volunteers. Reading and learning about sexual assault should support all training. Jane Research Thesis! Instructors who are teaching without this information are much like doctors who would use medical information 20 years out of date. There are self-defense courses and instructor certification that meet NCASA's criteria and sample essay, take into account current data on thesis sexual assault. One example is the certification program offered by the National Women's Martial Arts Federation. These courses are based on the experiences women have had and the ways in sample essay which they successfully defend themselves. Personal! One other example is Self-Defense From the Inside Out (SDIO) headquartered in sample personal Eugene, Oregon. SDIO offers unique activities that teach skills to deal with the internalized attacker who can make resistance difficult. By directing attention to the ways in which women are trained (socialized) to examples of apa, be victims, SDIO helps women undo much of the social damage that makes them vulnerable.

SDIO founder Nadia Telsey talks about essay her own experience with the papers, social barriers women face when learning self-defense: As I acquired more and sample, more physical skills [as a martial artist], and confidence, I was struck by the persistent difficulty I had dealing with ambiguous situations which called for trusting my intuition. I gained the ability to scandal essay conclusion, deal with many of he more obvious harassments and sample personal essay, even assaults. However, given any possibility that I might be wrong, hurt someone's feelings or be seen as rude, my old reactions (and inactions) surfaced. Conclusion! After years of training I still had to sample essay, work ceaselessly to change parts of behavior which were not serving me well. 33.

Chimera is grading rubric middle school another organization that trains instructors to develop and sample personal essay, teach courses based on the real experiences of women and the challenges they face in dealing with sexual assault. Chimera teaches a concept of self-defense which gives women the of apa format research, means to defend themselves. Chimera provides women with mental strategies developed through practice, role playing, and discussion, as well as physical techniques. The Chimera style of sample essay self-defense was developed by test taking for writing essays women who wanted effective skills that are easy to learn and remember and do not rely on essay physical strength. A woman's most effective response to a situation may be psychological or physical, or contain elements of both. In Chimera training you will learn about factors that make women vulnerable (such as socialization to be polite, quiet, nice; body language, eye contact, etc.), as well as awareness and assertiveness skills. Chimera students also learn how to block, kick, strike effectively, and to break holds. You will learn the warning signals of an impending attack and the typical rhythm, plans and tactics of an attacker. 34.

In order to construct and teach effectively, women's self-defense instructors should be trained in four areas. They should have a solid knowledge about the reality of assaults against austen research thesis women and not teach based on the myth of stranger danger. Instructors should be able to develop and include activities designed to advance women's self-esteem and self worth instead of primarily focusing on physical techniques. They should focus on the skills women already use as a foundation for building and expanding new skills. Finally, instructors should be trained to provide an sample, environment of support and feedback. The primary target of a woman's body is her heart.

Like a sharpshooter, those who commit violence against personal statement women choose the most vulnerable area of their victims to attack. A woman's emotions and self-image are typically at the center of the bull's eye. How successful a woman is at defending herself directly depends on her own sense of self worth. The success of most assaults against women is sample essay determined long before the of apa format, physical act of rape. Personal! In fact, physical force or restraint is often unnecessary for an assailant to succeed.

Skills to protect the heart, mind and integrity surpass all others as the primary skills instructors need to test for writing, focus on teaching. These skills are missing from conventional, combative women's self-defense classes. Instructors should teach, and students should be given the opportunity to learn, women's self-defense from the inside out.

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la dissertation La dissertation obit des types de plans qu'on peut ramener quatre : Si le plan dialectique canonique est un plan en trois parties, les jurys préfèrent deux parties solidement charpentées à des troisièmes parties répétitives ou privées de justification. Sample Essay? On aura intérêt pour cela à réfléchir à ce qu'est une véritable synthèse ou à envisager parfois un plan concessif , aux ambitions plus rduites, mais qui présente l'avantage, en deux parties, de développer un raisonnement cohérent. Attention, ce plan doit nanmoins inclure une pese critique des termes et des notions convoqus par la citation-sujet, l'intrieur des parties du dveloppement. Voici plusieurs sujets de dissertations. Quel type de plan choisiriez-vous pour les traiter ? (Remplissez les cases vides du tableau ci-dessous avec les numros des sujets qui vous semblent pertinents.) Que reprsentent pour vous les hros ? Vous vous demanderez ce que signifie ce besoin d'admirer des tres rels ou de fiction, de les aimer ou de les imiter, et vous appuierez votre rflexion sur des exemples pris dans vos lectures et dans votre exprience personnelle. Qu'est-ce qu'une #156;uvre engage? « Nous n'avons pas besoin de connatre l'auteur pour comprendre et aimer son #156;uvre. Rubric Research Paper Middle School? On peut lgitimement se passer de tout recours ce que l'on sait de l'auteur en dehors de son #156;uvre pour examiner celle-ci. Sample Personal Essay? » (F. Taking Strategies? Van Rossum-Guyon, Critique du roman ).

Vous direz ce que vous pensez de ce jugement en vous appuyant sur des exemples prcis tirs de vos lectures. Un personnage mdiocre peut-il tre un hros de roman ? Que veut-on dire lorsque l'on parle du « style » d'un crivain ? « Il n'y a pas de vrai sens d'un texte. Sample Personal? Pas d'autorit de l'auteur. Examples Of Apa Papers? Quoi qu'il ait voulu dire, il a crit ce qu'il a crit. Sample Personal? Une fois publi, un texte est comme un appareil dont chacun peut se servir sa guise et selon ses moyens.»

Comment comprenez-vous cette opinion de Paul Valry ? A La Rochefoucauld qui dclare : «Il est plus ncessaire d'tudier les hommes que les livres», George Sand semble rpliquer lorsque, dans son roman Mauprat , elle recommande comme moyen de formation «l'tude des lettres, qui n'est autre que l'tude des hommes.» Quelles rflexions vous suggrent ces prises de position ? Il vous est sans doute arriv de prfrer au «hros» vertueux d'un roman, d'un conte ou d'un film le personnage odieux (le méchant) dont il finit par triompher. Quelles sont, selon vous, les raisons qui expliquent l'attrait qu'exercent ces personnages odieux ? Dans une enqute sur le livre et la lecture en France, on school, peut lire cette rflexion sur le roman : «Sujet permanent de discussions entre ceux qui professent que le roman doit exprimer ou reprsenter la vie et ceux qui, l'inverse, estiment qu'il doit l'inventer. Sample Personal? » Dans un dveloppement compos, vous direz si les romans que vous connaissez vous paraissent reprsenter la vie ou l'inventer. Un diteur contemporain prsente ainsi une collection d'ouvrages littraires : « La modernit n'a rien voir avec la date de parution. Volunteering Personal Statement? Des textes crits il y a plusieurs sicles sont rsolument modernes. Personal? Ils rpondent parfois mieux que des ?uvres plus rcentes nos proccupations et notre soif de beaut. Examples Of Apa Research Papers? » Partagez-vous cette opinion ? Vous appuierez votre rponse sur des analyses tires de vos lectures. Un auteur contemporain crit : «Apporter un message aux hommes et vouloir diriger le cours du monde ou le sauver, c'est l'affaire des fondateurs de religions, des moralistes, des hommes politiques. Personal Essay? Une ?uvre d'art n'a rien voir avec les doctrines.»

En vous rfrant des #156;uvres que vous connaissez, vous direz ce que vous pensez de cette conception de l'art et de l'artiste. Pour la phase essentielle de prparation, nous vous proposons quatre exemples d'une dmarche progressive sur les sujets marqus plus haut du signe : mise en place du sujet et recherche ordonne des principaux arguments et exemples pour le plan dialectique, puis pour les plans thmatique, analytique et comparatif (page suivante). Le plan dialectique demande d'examiner un jugement, d'en montrer les limites, voire de le rfuter, avant d'noncer une position personnelle. Un personnage mdiocre peut-il tre un hros de roman ? Les termes du sujet : prciser dans l'introduction le sens du mot mdiocre (latin medius , qui est au milieu.) Ainsi mdiocre dsigne ici ce qui est sans clat. Enron Essay Conclusion? Le sujet prsuppose donc que le roman n'admet pas de hros « moyens », ce qui s'oppose la conception classique (« Des hros de roman fuyez les petitesses », conseille Boileau aux potes dans son Art Potique .)

La position de la problmatique : elle pourra partir de l'une des constantes du romanesque qui repose souvent sur l'exceptionnel et se demander si la mdiocrit peut y avoir sa place. Le libell du sujet : La question pose sous cette forme rhtorique semble rpondre par la ngative. Essay? Implicitement, une thse s'exprime ici, qui nie que le roman puisse admettre des personnages mdiocres. Le domaine d'application : le genre romanesque. La recherche du plan : Il convient donc de suivre ici un plan dialectique o vous valuerez la thse implicitement propose (thse /antithse/ synthse). I - LE ROMAN A BESOIN DE HROS : de destins exceptionnels (Julien Sorel dans Le Rouge et le Noir de Stendhal) de personnalits hors du commun (Mme de Merteuil dans Les Liaisons dangereuses de Laclos) de passions absolues (Des Grieux dans Manon Lescaut de Prvost) le rythme romanesque et la ncessit de susciter l'intrt obligent rendre exemplaire le destin de personnages pourtant mdiocres (Gervaise dans L'Assommoir de Zola). II - POURTANT CERTAINS PERSONNAGES SONT DES MDIOCRES : c'est le cas des personnages des romans ralistes qui ont choisi une peinture objective des milieux et des tres : Georges Duroy dans Bel-Ami , Jeanne dans Une vie de Maupassant, les hros de Zola, pour qui « le premier homme qui passe est un hros suffisant » ( Deux dfinitions du roman ). Enron Essay Conclusion? le personnage peut tre destin illustrer la contingence, l'absurde (Meursault dans L'tranger de Camus, Roquentin dans La Nause de Sartre, Bardamu dans Voyage au bout de la nuit de Cline). Sample Personal Essay? le Nouveau Roman a choisi d'abolir le hros et de confier la reprsentation d'un monde nigmatique des individualits transparentes (L'poque actuelle est plutt celle du numro matricule crit Robbe-Grillet). III - LE ROMAN N'ADMET LA MDIOCRIT QU'A CERTAINES CONDITIONS : si le personnage peut tre un mdiocre, il convient de faire la part de l'poque : cette esthtique n'est que celle du XX° sicle et certains thoriciens du nouveau roman l'ont abandonne (romans de Le Clzio). Strategies? il ne faut pas ignorer le got lgitime du public pour des #156;uvres o la cration artistique lui vite de rencontrer des voisins de palier (Meursault lui-mme accde peu peu un destin exceptionnel). « Eh ! bon Dieu, nous ne voyons que trop autour de nous la triste et dsenchanteresse ralit : la tideur insupportable des demi-caractres, des bauches de vertus et de vices, des amours irrsolus, des haines mitiges, des amitis tremblotantes, des doctrines variables, des fidlits qui ont leur hausse et leur baisse, des opinions qui s'vaporent ; laissez-nous rver que parfois ont paru des hommes plus forts et plus grands, qui furent des bons ou des mchants plus rsolus ; cela fait du bien.» (Vigny, Rflexions sur la vrit dans l'art ). Sample Personal Essay? de toutes faons, le roman a pour privilge de rendre la mdiocrit unique et certains mdiocres de la littrature sont devenus de vritables mythes (Emma dans Madame Bovary de Flaubert). Un diteur contemporain prsente ainsi une collection d'ouvrages littraires : « La modernit n'a rien voir avec la date de parution.

Des textes crits il y a plusieurs sicles sont rsolument modernes. Volunteering? Ils rpondent parfois mieux que des #156;uvres plus rcentes nos proccupations et notre soif de beaut.» Partagez-vous cette opinion ? Vous appuierez votre rponse sur des analyses tires de vos lectures. Les termes du sujet : le terme de modernit , sans poser de problme particulier, peut tre utilement rapproch de celui qu'utilisait Baudelaire : il n'est pas synonyme d' actualit , mais signale un accord, dans l'intemporel, avec le temps prsent, ce que confirme la dernire phrase : seront juges modernes les #156;uvres, mme anciennes, qui savent correspondre aux centres d'intrt de notre poque et nos tempraments. Personal? Une acception plus simple du mot moderne pouvait fournir quelques arguments opposer l'auteur. La position de la problmatique : en quoi consiste la modernit d'une ?uvre littraire ? Est-elle lie sa date de parution ou l'cho qu'elle est capable de susciter auprs de toutes les gnrations ? Le domaine d'application : la critique littraire, le got, le rle du lecteur dans la postrit de l'?uvre. La recherche du plan : le libell est ici sans ambigut. Barack Obama? Il s'agit bel et bien d'observer un plan dialectique.

I - DES TEXTES ANCIENS PEUVENT TRE RSOLUMENT MODERNES : ceux qui mettent en scne les sentiments ternels : l'amour, la mort, l'interrogation mtaphysique (voir la persistance des crivains classiques, des tragiques grecs); restent aussi modernes les #156;uvres qui se signalent par la beaut de leur forme (l'alexandrin de Racine, la phrase de Bossuet n'ont pas vieilli). II - MAIS BEAUCOUP D'#140;UVRES SONT MARQUES PAR LEUR TEMPS : les proccupations des auteurs anciens sont-elles encore les ntres ? Bien des allusions socioculturelles accusent le vieillissement des #156;uvres (voir par exemple les textes engags de Sartre); au contraire, des #156;uvres rcentes sont sur ce plan plus proches de nous; les critres de beaut, eux aussi, peuvent varier : la tragdie nous parat aujourd'hui un genre plutt ennuyeux et nous lui prfrons le drame, comme nous prfrons les formes libres en posie. III - LES #140;UVRES RESTENT MODERNES PAR LEUR PART D'INTEMPORALIT : les chefs-d'#156;uvre savent encore nous parler et nous mouvoir par leur universalit. Sample Essay? Ils ont su parler de l'Homme dans une forme pure et simple que l'art classique a codifie : sans souci des modes, il s'agit de formuler avec justesse ce que chacun aurait pu dire; au contraire, les #156;uvres qui cdent aujourd'hui aux gots du temps sont condamnes vieillir vite. Volunteering Personal? Est ainsi moderne l'artiste qui a su rejoindre l'intemporel par le recul esthtique qu'il a manifest par rapport son poque (Stendhal). Il est frquent dans le plan dialectique de commencer la confrontation des thses par l’examen de celle qui est propose par le sujet (souvent l’opinion d’un auteur enferme dans une citation). Sample? Mais cela n’est nullement obligatoire.

Il convient plutt de construire la premire partie du devoir autour de l'opinion la plus simple et la plus rpandue (ce qu'on appelle la doxa ), ce qui n’est pas toujours le cas, loin s’en faut, des opinions que l’on soumet votre rflexion ! Ainsi la dissertation ira vraiment du plus simple au plus complexe en examinant d’abord les reprsentations plus ou moins convenues qui ont amen l’auteur s’en dmarquer. > Par exemple, dans le sujet suivant : « La lecture que l'on fait soi-mme d'une ?uvre est prfrable l'audition de la mme ?uvre enregistre.» Partagez-vous cette opinion ? on aura intrt observer la progression suivante : Thse : la connaissance d'une ?uvre littraire est meilleure par la lecture personnelle (thse implicite dans le sujet; c'est aussi la doxa). Austen Research Paper? Antithse : une ?uvre bien lue ou mise en scne pallie les carences ventuelles d'une lecture personnelle. > Mais dans ce sujet : « La laideur est une source d'inspiration pour le pote, au mme titre que la beaut. Sample? » Dans quelle mesure peut-on souscrire ce jugement ? on commencera plutt par la thse la plus souvent admise, qui n'est pas celle que prsente le sujet : Thse : le pote est m avant tout par la recherche du Beau. Antithse : la posie est aussi voue la peinture de ralits repoussantes, capables de soulever le lecteur. Ainsi, dans le traitement des sujets suivants, quelle thse examineriez-vous d’abord ? A propos de l'criture de sa vie, Jean-Claude Carrire crit: « On peut dire [. Test Taking Strategies? ] que la description d'une vie n'a d'intrt que si cette vie est commune, que si d'autres peuvent s'y reconnatre ou deviner, selon les gnrations, ce que furent les sentiments, les sensations de leurs parents et grands-parents ».

Dans quelle mesure cette affirmation dfinit-elle l'intrt des ?uvres biographiques et autobiographiques ? Vous tayerez votre rflexion par des exemples puiss dans le corpus, dans les textes tudis en classe et dans vos lectures personnelles. « La posie [. Sample Personal Essay? ] n'a pas d'autre but qu' Elle-mme », crit Baudelaire. Austen Thesis? En prenant appui sur les textes du corpus, sur les pomes que vous avez lus et tudis et sur votre culture personnelle, vous vous interrogerez sur cette dclaration et vous vous demanderez si elle correspond votre dfinition de la posie. Dans le Dictionnaire goste de la littrature franaise , Charles Dantzig affirme : « La posie ne se trouve pas que dans les vers ». Sample Essay? Vous direz si vous partagez son point de vue dans un dveloppement argument, en vous appuyant sur les textes du corpus, sur ceux que vous avez tudis en classe ou lus personnellement. Le texte littraire doit-il tre srieux pour dnoncer une injustice ou dfendre une cause ? Eh bien moi, je suis amoureux de ces divisions et de ces rassemblements, qui me rendent capable de parler et de penser. Jane Austen Paper? Et si je pense que quelque autre est apte, par sa nature, à porter son regard en direction d'une unité qui soit l'unité naturelle d'une multiplicité, je m'en vais à sa poursuite, derrière lui, suivant sa trace comme celle d'un dieu.

Et remarque bien que ceux qui en sont capables, je les appelle jusqu'à présent (à juste titre ou non, seul un dieu le sait) dialecticiens. Sample Personal Essay? (Socrate dans Phdre de Platon). > cas n° 1 ( ex : « La lecture que l'on fait soi-mme d'une ?uvre est prfrable l'audition de la mme ?uvre enregistre.») le conflit n'est qu'apparent; les deux thses sont complmentaires . Thse : la connaissance d'une ?uvre littraire est meilleure par la lecture personnelle (thse implicite dans le sujet; c'est aussi la doxa). Antithse : une ?uvre bien lue ou mise en scne pallie les carences ventuelles d'une lecture personnelle. Synthse : il n'y a pas d'incompatibilit entre les deux dmarches, mais plutt complmentarit, l'audition de l'?uvre amenant ensuite une lecture plus profitable. > cas n° 2 ( ex : « La laideur est une source d'inspiration pour le pote, au mme titre que la beaut. Thesis? ») . Essay? dpassement : (le cas le plus frquent) quelles conditions dsormais peut-on admettre une des deux thses confrontes ? Thse : le pote est m avant tout par la recherche du Beau. Antithse : la posie est aussi voue la peinture de ralits repoussantes, capables de soulever le lecteur. Synthse : le pote veille un nouveau regard sur les choses et extrait la beaut des choses laides. En aucun cas la synthse n'est la conclusion du devoir.

Elle en est la dernire tape, la phase de rsolution. La conclusion, quant elle, fait le bilan de cette rsolution, formule nettement la position laquelle on rubric research, est arriv et propose une ouverture. © Tous les textes et documents disponibles sur ce site, sont protgs par une licence Creative Common.