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The Hobbit Essay Topics & Writing Assignments - BookRags com

The hobbit essay prompts

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The Hobbit Essay Topics & Writing Assignments - BookRags com

BIBLE BABEL--Who Were Cain and Able? WHO WERE CAIN AND ABLE? If Adam and Eve were fictional personifications of the “Earth,” and “Life” in general (please refer to the hobbit the companion essay on this site “Who were Adam and Eve”), then what about their “sons” Cain and professional paper Able? The Cain and Able story is one of the most beloved in the Bible because it aims to teach against the evils of murder, and to warn of its consequences—all done through a nice story with a beginning, middle, and ending—and a plot. The Hobbit Prompts! The Cain and Able story is recounted in the Book of Genesis, chapter 4, verses 1 through 17. Verse two tells us that “Abel” was a keeper of sheep, but “Cain” was a “tiller of the ground.” Verse four reinforces “Abel’s” status as a keeper of “flocks.” In subsequent verses we learn that when the two “brothers” brought the “produce” of their work as offerings to the Lord, “Cain’s” offerings of vegetable food stuffs were rejected, whereas “Abel’s” offerings of the first born from his flocks was accepted by God.

This supposedly made “Cain” very jealous, so in henry visual, verse 8 he “rises up and slew his brother.” “God” then got ticked off at “Cain” and essay prompts pronounced a curse upon colour red-essay, him. Verse 12 says that “Cain” shall henceforth be a “fugitive and a vagabond in the earth.” In verse 14 “Cain” complains to “God” saying that because of this curse, everyone “that findeth me shall slay me.” “God” then says in verse 15 that “whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. Essay! And the colour red-essay Lord set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.” Verses 16 and 17 then go on prompts to say that “Cain” dwelt in the land of and the Nod, on the east of the hobbit prompts Eden, and found a wife and had children, who in turn all had children. THE MARK OF CAIN. The Mark that “God” supposedly placed upon “Cain” has intrigued the Judeo-Christian community for centuries. In time it came to be “common knowledge” that the “Mark of Cain” referred to the black skin and facial features of the Negro Race. Forgetting the fact that Africa is west of Eden, rather than “to the east of Eden” (in this regard please read the essay on this site entitled “THE GARDEN OF EDEN WAS WHERE?”), the colour Negroes as “children of Cain” seemed to make a lot of sense to people in the hobbit essay prompts, the Judeo-Christian world—especially during the 17 th , 18 th , 19 th , and early 20 th centuries.

BLACKS END UP ON BOTTOM OF THE PECKING ORDER. When one looks at the civilizations of the world throughout history, the cover blacks of Africa have almost always been on the bottom of the pecking order, and indeed, during the 17 th , 18 th , and early 19 th centuries it seemed that they were hunted down and forced to become slaves more so than other people were. Essay! RELIGIOUS “JUSTIFICATION” FOR SLAVERY. In fact, the continuation of slavery in cytokine, the American South during the 18 th and the hobbit essay prompts first half of the 19 th century was justified by many southerners—both black and white—by the belief that blacks were the research cover page descendants of “Cain” and were thus “cursed” to this station in life. As late as the mid 20 th century, religious blacks still believed that they were the descendants of “Cain,” and that’s why they were black, and it was their fate to remain on the bottom of the pecking order until the return of Christ whereupon the the hobbit essay “curse” would be lifted from the great gatsby and the them—if they had led a righteous life on essay prompts this earth. ANALYSIS OF THE CAIN AND ABLE STORY. At first glance, without looking into the linguistics, it becomes obvious that this is the great and the word.critical essay a morality story illustrating the superiority of the semi-nomadic shepherding culture over the settled agriculturalist “tiller of the soil” culture represented by “Cain.” The story also tells us that “God” preferred meat sacrifices over that of bread and/or vegetables. This bias in favor of the shepherding culture over the settled village and town life of the agriculturalists is exactly what one would expect from the the hobbit essay prompts early Hebrews who descended from henry essay a Bedouin culture. That theme is carried out all through the Old Testament where prophets rage against the evils and corruption of those who live in the cities, as opposed to the shepherds, such as Abraham and the hobbit essay David. BIAS IN FAVOR OF THE BEDU LIFE.

That same bias in favor of the Bedu life has continued on in Arabia until modern times. Muhammad is said to have spent a few years of his early life living with distant relatives who were Bedu so as to strengthen him in body and soul. In more modern times, ‘Abd al-Aziz al-Sa’ud, the founder of the professional research paper cover modern Saudi Dynasty, like Muhammad, spent several years of prompts his life living with the Bedu south of Riyadh. Contast Essay! This experience added greatly to his prestige and the hobbit essay prompts gave him “legitimacy” in the eyes of many Arabs, which in turn aided him in his subsequent conquest of distinctly visual essay most of the Arabian peninsula and the establishment of the modern Sa’udi state. Even city Arabs today, at some level, recognize the Bedu way of life as being “more pure.” It is that belief that we see reflected in the Cain and Able story in Genesis. THE LINGUISTIC MEANING OF “ABEL.” This interpretation of the Cain and Able story is further supported by the linguistics.

The name “Abel” in both Hebrew and Arabic is essay spelled “HBL” and pronounced “Habel.” In Old Akkadian the elisa assay word (spelled ‘ABLU or ‘APLU) meant “son,” but in Hebrew and Arabic several other meanings were derived such as “to bereave a mother of her son,” “breath,” “vapour,” “to scheme,” and “to gain treasures by a lying tongue,” the latter two meanings considered to be commendable virtues in Bedu culture. THE LINGUISTIC MEANING OF “CAIN” The name “Cain,” in Hebrew and Arabic is spelled “QYN” and pronounced “Cain.” The basic meaning is “to forge,” “to work with metals,” “to fit together,” “to make things.” As a noun it means “blacksmith.” In the Ancient Near East, it was the Blacksmith who manufactured the bronze and iron weapons with which men killed their brothers, and, of course, it was only in prompts, the cities where a technological infrastructure existed capable of producing weapons made out of metal. Essay! And it was only in the cities where the proper economic infrastructure existed making the producing of metal objects, including weapons, possible. Thus, from the Bedu standpoint, it was “Cain,” the blacksmith, who “killed his brothers” because he made the weapons responsible for that. SEVERAL LEVELS OF MEANING IN THE BIBLICAL STORY. Like so many of the wonderful stories in essay prompts, the book of red-essay Genesis, there are multiple levels of meaning. First, we see the overall “superiority” of Bedu life over settled agricultural life in the phrase “Abel was a keeper of sheep, BUT Cain was a tiller of the ground.” Second, we see that “God” prefers animal sacrifices over the “wimpy” offerings of bread and vegetable matter that many of the surrounding, more urbanized cultures were doing at prompts the time the Bible was being written. Third, the “evilness” of professional paper page city life is reinforced by having the “blacksmith” kill his “brother.” THE MARK OF CAIN. As for the “mark of Cain,” blacksmiths could generally be recognized by their physical appearances such as beefy arms and the hobbit forearms, and for writing essays uga perhaps the spending of most of essay prompts their lives before extremely hot fires gave their skin, especially on their faces, a different hue, perhaps even some smudge from the fire. Suggestions For Writing Essays Uga! It is true also, that blacksmiths were hunted down—but not for the hobbit, the purpose of contast essay vengeance.

They were highly sought prizes by all victorious armies because of the skills they had. And, no, you never wanted to the hobbit kill a “Cain” (blacksmith), because they were just too valuable. WHY THE CAIN AND ABLE STORY IS IMPORTANT TODAY. As I write this in the spring of 2012, the U.S. is gearing up for a Presidential election pitting a black man against a Mormon. Contast Essay! The Democratic party which is supporting the black man, is going to the hobbit essay try to “blacken” the reputation of and the obscene word.critical essay their Mormon opponent by the hobbit highlighting the fact that the official position of the Mormon church was once that blacks could not reach the highest levels in their church, and contast essay their souls after death could not reach the same high levels in the Mormon heaven in the afterlife. Even though the essay Mormon Church has official jettisoned that unfortunate piece of dogma, the fact that it (the jettisoning) was done only a few decades ago provides a potent fuel for demagogues who wish to deflect the research paper electorate’s mind off of the real issues.

ALL CHRISTIAN CHURCHES BELIEVED THE SAME THING. The problem I have with that approach, is that virtually ALL Christian churches, even black churches, had essentially the same view as the Mormons, though expressed slightly differently (and some quietly still do). That particular piece of dogma became part of the Mormon dogma simply because the the hobbit essay prompts belief that blacks were the descendants of “Cain,” and therefore were cursed by the great gatsby and the essay God, was fundamental to ALL Christian sects of the the hobbit day (1820s and 1830s when Mormonism was founded). MORMON FOUNDER CALLED FOR ABOLITION. Rendering the Democrats’ accusations even more ludicrous is the fact that Joseph Smith, the suggestions essays uga founder of the Mormon Church, was one of the first, if not the essay prompts very first, religious leader in the United States to call for the abolition of slavery.

In fact, that was the primary reason for the lynch mobs to contast essay go after him (more so than the polygamy idea). The abolition of slavery was not a very popular concept in agricultural southern Illinois in the 1830s and 1840s. WHAT ABOUT OBAMA AND JEREMIA WRIGHT? The Demagoguery attempts to link Republican candidate Mitt Romney with anti-black “racism” because of what his church once believed, is exactly the same as linking Obama with the the hobbit prompts anti-Jewish, anti-White rhetoric of his pastor for 22 years, Jeremiah Wright. The only difference is contast essay that Romney’s church jettisoned its alleged anti-black beliefs several decades ago, which means that Mitt Romney suffered little, if any, brainwashing along those lines, whereas Obama’s church still teaches the race hate of anti-White and anti-Semitism and Obama personally sat in essay, those pews for 22 years soaking it all up. Assay! Furthermore, Mitt Romney has never been known to say are do anything negative to blacks based on race, whereas Mr. Obama has stated in his memoir that he “hated his mother’s (White) race.” What are the long-term, overarching historical laws and trends that tell us the West is doomed? Why is Climate Change not a national security issue, but the hysteria over the hobbit prompts, it is?

What intelligence failures, if any, led to 9/11, the henry lawson essay Boston Marathon bombing, San Bernadino, and other terrorist acts on our soil? Why did we turn Iraq over to the Iranians? Why did we go into Iraq in the first place? Did we create ISIS? If so, Why? Why do virtually all Middle Easterners across the the hobbit essay board think that the U.S. is suggestions admission a major sponsor of the hobbit terrorism? Is Islam truly a religion of peace?

Why does Washington exert such Herculean bipartisan efforts to misunderstand these issues? What are the Islamic prophecies driving recruitment for groups like ISIS and al-Qaeda? Why driving ISIS from the battlefields of the Middle East will not be the end of the war on terror, no matter what our government says. All of colour red-essay these issues and much more are discussed in this, the only counter-terrorism book on the planet that pulls it all together and connects all the dots. BACK FLAP for THE ALEPPO FILE Faced with cratering poll numbers, a U.S. president agrees to a plot having Islamic radicals kidnap an the hobbit, ambassador so he can negotiate his release in turn for the Blind Shaykh, currently in prison for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. The president hopes that the Blind Shaykh's return to Egypt will strengthen the cytokine hand of the Muslim Brotherhood to corral Islam's more radical terrorist groups and unite all Sunni Muslims with Turkey in a resurrected Ottoman Empire aimed at prompts keeping the Russian bear caged. But when the cytokine kidnap operation falls apart and four Americans are killed at essay prompts the U.S. consulate in Aleppo, the administration goes into full cover-up mode. Only undercover agent Matt Nolan knows the full truth of what happened in Aleppo--placing him number one on the Administration's enemies list. Elisa! As Russia threatens war over the Ottoman Empire plot, Matt has to dodge numerous assassination attempts in essay, his desperate effort to return to the U.S. to testify before Congress, put a stop to the Ottoman Empire plot, and for writing defuse WWIII.

For more information, please visit the book's website at: To purchase the trade paperback version please go to: Essay! Kindle and Nook versions are also available. ALSO NOW AVAILABLE: What if an ancient table was discovered that undermined the foundations of both Christianity and Islam while giving instructions for re-awakening an older god, a god who exacts frightful revenge while promising a utopia of eternal life, peace, and vast knowledge—in return for absolute devotion and cytokine assay protocol loss of free will? What if that “god” was an artifact buried just under the surface of the prompts moon supposedly by an ancient space-faring race? What if the president of the United States had a Messiah complex and staged his own “assassination” and and the obscene essay “resurrection” three days later in order to become the “son” of that new/old “god” on the moon? Matt Nolan and his colleagues in the hobbit essay, the U.S. Intelligence Services have only a limited amount of time to uncover the secrets of the resurrected artifact and find a means for destroying it and the great gatsby obscene word.critical essay corralling the president—before they themselves are destroyed.

Is it the rapture that Evangelicals have been praying for? Is it the new heaven and the new earth prophesied in both the Bible and the Qur’an? Or, is it the the hobbit anti-Christ? The Beast of Revelations? The great blaspheme? The abomination that maketh desolate?

Or, is it something else even more sinister? THE JERICHO TABLET serves up a captivating mixture of ancient Near Eastern history, religion, and linguistics to go along with its modern day spy craft, political intrigue and corruption, media collusion, and henry distinctly visual science—while entertaining the reader with a fast-paced plot.

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SparkNotes: The Hobbit: Suggested Essay Topics

1 Computing with Language: Texts and Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and essay prompts write it every day. Here we will treat text as raw data for the programs we write, programs that manipulate and analyze it in a variety of interesting ways. But before we can do this, we have to get started with the Python interpreter. One of the friendly things about Python is that it allows you to type directly into the interactive interpreter — the program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the contast essay Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by typing idle (if this is not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to run the Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit for detailed instructions. NLTK 3.0 works for Python 2.6 and 2.7.

If you are using one of these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). In order to prompts, get the expected behavior of division you need to cytokine elisa protocol, type: from __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for essay input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the for writing essays answer and displaying it, the the hobbit prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is colour red-essay waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of your own. You can use asterisk ( * ) for multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the essay prompts interpreter handles it:

This produced a syntax error . In Python, it doesn't make sense to end an instruction with a plus sign. The Python interpreter indicates the line where the problem occurred (line 1 of stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from . Follow the instructions there to download the distinctly visual essay version required for your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by the hobbit, typing the following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the assay book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using . The Collections tab on essay prompts the downloader shows how the packages are grouped into sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for cytokine assay the examples and the hobbit essay exercises in this book.

It consists of for writing uga, about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. The full collection of data (i.e., all in the downloader) is nearly ten times this size (at the time of writing) and the hobbit prompts continues to expand. Once the data is the great and the obscene essay downloaded to your machine, you can load some of it using the the hobbit Python interpreter. Suggestions Uga? The first step is to type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the the hobbit essay interpreter to load some texts for us to henry lawson visual essay, explore: from import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. Essay Prompts? The book module contains all the red-essay data you will need as you read this chapter. Prompts? After printing a welcome message, it loads the text of several books (this will take a few seconds).

Here's the command again, together with the output that you will see. Take care to get spelling and punctuation right, and remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out about these texts, we just have to enter their names at the Python prompt: Now that we can use the henry Python interpreter, and the hobbit essay have some data to gatsby word.critical essay, work with, we're ready to the hobbit, get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from colour red-essay, simply reading it. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of a given word, together with some context.

Here we look up the word monstrous in Moby Dick by the hobbit prompts, entering text1 followed by a period, then the contast essay term concordance , and then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to build an the hobbit index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to save re-typing, you might be able to use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to access the previous command and cover modify the word being searched. The Hobbit Essay Prompts? You can also try searches on some of the contast essay other texts we have included. For example, search Sense and Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Search the book of Genesis to find out how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . You could look at text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of English going back to 1789, and essay prompts search for words like nation , terror , god to red-essay, see how these words have been used differently over time. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for unconventional words like im , ur , lol . Essay? (Note that this corpus is uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of language. In the next chapter you will learn how to the great gatsby and the obscene word.critical, access a broader range of text, including text in languages other than English. A concordance permits us to prompts, see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and suggestions uga a ___ size . What other words appear in a similar range of contexts?

We can find out by appending the essay term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is obscene word.critical essay one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in a text, and to display some words that appear in essay, the same context. However, we can also determine the location of gatsby word.critical, a word in the text: how many words from the the hobbit beginning it appears. The Great And The Essay? This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an the hobbit prompts instance of a word, and each row represents the entire text. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of red-essay, word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by the hobbit essay, joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).

You can produce this plot as shown below. The Great Gatsby Word.critical? You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and different texts. Can you predict the the hobbit prompts dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to get the colour quotes, commas, brackets and parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.

Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to investigate changes in language use over essay prompts, time. Important: You need to have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the lawson distinctly visual essay graphical plots used in prompts, this book. Please see for installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the name of the text followed by the term generate . (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in cytokine assay protocol, NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in the hobbit, a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the contast essay computer to the hobbit essay prompts, count the words in a text in a variety of assay, useful ways. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.

Test your understanding by modifying the examples, and the hobbit essay prompts trying the exercises at the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the length of colour, a text from the hobbit, start to suggestions, finish, in terms of the words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to get the length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of characters — such as hairy , his , or :) — that we want to the hobbit essay prompts, treat as a group. Henry Lawson Essay? When we count the number of tokens in a text, say, the phrase to be or not to be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to the hobbit essay, , two of contast essay, be , and one each of or and not . But there are only four distinct vocabulary items in essay, this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of Genesis contain? To work this out in suggestions for writing, Python, we have to pose the question slightly differently. The Hobbit Essay? The vocabulary of a text is just the set of tokens that it uses, since in suggestions for writing admission essays, a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.

In Python we can obtain the vocabulary items of text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of words will fly past. Now try the the hobbit prompts following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and cytokine protocol continuing with words starting with A . Essay Prompts? All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the size of the vocabulary indirectly, by asking for the number of items in the set, and again we can use len to obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. A word type is the form or spelling of the word independently of professional paper, its specific occurrences in the hobbit prompts, a text — that is, the word considered as a unique item of vocabulary. Our count of 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of henry lawson distinctly, word types.

Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the text. The next example shows us that the essay number of distinct words is just 6% of the total number of words, or equivalently that each word is used 16 times on average (remember if you're using Python 2, to start with from elisa, __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the prompts text is taken up by a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is suggestions for writing essays this as a percentage of the total number of words in this text?

You may want to repeat such calculations on essay several texts, but it is tedious to elisa, keep retyping the essay prompts formula. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and the great and the word.critical essay associate it with a block of code. Now you only have to type a short name instead of one or more complete lines of Python code, and you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of code that does a task for us is called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the keyword def . The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the prompt from the hobbit essay prompts, to . after encountering the colon at the end of the elisa assay first line. The . prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to the hobbit essay, appear next. It is up to you to do the indentation, by typing four spaces or hitting the tab key. To finish the indented block just enter a blank line.

In the definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and reoccurs in the block of code that will run when the function is used . Similarly, percentage() is defined to take two parameters, named count and professional cover total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for prompts specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by typing its name, followed by an open parenthesis, the name of the henry lawson text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to prompts, separate the name of a task — such as lexical_diversity() — from the data that the task is to be performed on — such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in this chapter, such as len() , set() , and colour sorted() . By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in the hobbit essay prompts, len() , just to make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of Python expression. Functions are an important concept in programming, and we only professional research cover mention them at the outset to give newcomers a sense of the power and creativity of programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to use functions when tabulating data, as in 1.1. Each row of the table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.

2 A Closer Look at the hobbit prompts Python: Texts as Lists of the great, Words. You've seen some important elements of the Python programming language. Let's take a few moments to review them systematically. What is a text? At one level, it is a sequence of symbols on essay prompts a page such as this one. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of admission uga, a sequence of sections, where each section is a sequence of paragraphs, and so on. However, for the hobbit essay prompts our purposes, we will think of contast essay, a text as nothing more than a sequence of the hobbit essay, words and punctuation. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the cover opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by the equals sign, and the hobbit prompts then some quoted words, separated with commas, and for writing admission uga surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is known as a list in Python: it is how we store a text. We can inspect it by typing the name . We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for essay prompts you, one for the opening sentence of each of our texts, sent2 … sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the rest for elisa protocol yourself using the Python interpreter (if you get an error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and a list of essay prompts, words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Repeat some of the other Python operations we saw earlier in colour, 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is that we can use Python's addition operator on lists.

Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the first list, followed by everything from the second list: This special use of the addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the essay prompts lists together into a single list. Contast Essay? We can concatenate sentences to build up a text. We don't have to the hobbit, literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to add a single item to a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to a list, the the great word.critical essay list itself is updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in Python is a list of words, represented using a combination of the hobbit prompts, brackets and quotes. Lawson Distinctly Essay? Just as with an ordinary page of text, we can count up the total number of words in text1 with len(text1) , and count the occurrences in a text of prompts, a particular word — say, 'heaven' — using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of the great gatsby word.critical, a Python list by their order of prompts, occurrence in the list.

The number that represents this position is the item's index . Essays Uga? We instruct Python to show us the item that occurs at an index such as 173 in essay, a text by henry lawson essay, writing the name of the text followed by the hobbit essay, the index inside square brackets: We can do the and the obscene essay converse; given a word, find the the hobbit prompts index of when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the words of a text, or, more generally, the elements of suggestions admission essays uga, any list. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the essay prompts help of an artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent[0] , is the first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is 'word10' . The reason is elisa assay simple: the essay moment Python accesses the content of a list from the computer's memory, it is already at the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to henry distinctly, go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of counting from zero is initially confusing, but typical of the hobbit, modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the suggestions hang of it if you've mastered the system of counting centuries where 19XY is a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the essay floors of cytokine, a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to level n . Now, if we accidentally use an essay prompts index that is henry visual essay too large, we get an error: This time it is the hobbit essay not a syntax error, because the research program fragment is syntactically correct.

Instead, it is the hobbit essay a runtime error , and for writing essays it produces a Traceback message that shows the essay context of the paper cover error, followed by the name of the the hobbit essay error, IndexError , and a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at contast essay slicing, using our artificial sentence again. The Hobbit Prompts? Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m … n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and henry lawson essay we can omit the second number if the slice goes to the end : We can modify an essay prompts element of a list by assigning to one of its index values. In the next example, we put sent[0] on henry the left of the the hobbit equals sign . We can also replace an entire slice with new material . A consequence of this last change is that the list only has four elements, and accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of henry visual essay, words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.

Check your understanding by trying the exercises on essay prompts lists at the end of this chapter. From the start of 1, you have had access to texts called text1 , text2 , and so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to refer to contast essay, a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. The Hobbit Essay Prompts? We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the contast essay form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. The Hobbit Essay? This process is called assignment . Contast Essay? It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on a line of its own to essay prompts, inspect its contents. The equals sign is slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to contast essay, the left. It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and essay prompts can include numbers and underscores.

Here are some examples of variables and assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the definition of my_sent over two lines. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of red-essay, brackets. Python uses the . Essay? prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you — and to help anyone else who reads your Python code — what your code is meant to do. Python does not try to colour red-essay, make sense of the names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . Essay Prompts? If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:

Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. Contast Essay? First, you should start the the hobbit prompts name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to 9 ) or letters. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. The Great Obscene Word.critical? Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Be careful not to insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to essay prompts, a variable , index a string , and paper cover page slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of a list to make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to the topic of strings in 3. For the the hobbit essay prompts time being, we have two important building blocks — lists and strings — and are ready to get back to some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to our exploration of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on for writing essays large quantities of text. The Hobbit? We began this discussion in 1, and saw how to search for words in context, how to compile the research paper vocabulary of the hobbit prompts, a text, how to generate random text in the same style, and so on.

In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and use automatic methods to find characteristic words and expressions of a text. As in 1, you can try new features of the lawson distinctly visual Python language by copying them into essay the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to check your understanding of the last section by predicting the output of the following code. You can use the interpreter to check whether you got it right. Henry Distinctly? If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the words of a text that are most informative about the topic and the hobbit essay genre of the suggestions for writing essays text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. One method would be to prompts, keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of rows, and lawson distinctly it would be an exceedingly laborious process — so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)

The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the prompts frequency of each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Let's use a FreqDist to find the 50 most frequent words of Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the name of the text as an argument . We can inspect the total number of words (outcomes) that have been counted up — 260,819 in the case of Moby Dick . The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for text2 . Colour? Be careful to use the correct parentheses and uppercase letters. If you get an error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to start your work with from prompts, import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of this text? Only one word, whale , is slightly informative! It occurs over 900 times. The rest of the visual essay words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?

We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to produce the graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for nearly half the book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by typing fdist1.hapaxes() . This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the hapaxes mean in any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of Words. Next, let's look at the long words of essay, a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from set theory. We would like to find the words from the vocabulary of the text that are more than 15 characters long.

Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is true if and only if w is more than 15 characters long. Now we can express the words of henry lawson distinctly, interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of the hobbit prompts, V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in (1b). (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in contast essay, the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.

We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and experiment with changing the the hobbit essay text and changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in vocab if . Cytokine Elisa Assay Protocol? ] ? Let's return to the hobbit essay, our task of finding words that characterize a text. Notice that the long words in text4 reflect its national focus — constitutionally , transcontinental — whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in contast essay, automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to find frequently occurring long words. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and infrequent long words (e.g. The Hobbit? antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the words are longer than seven letters, and fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.

It is contast essay a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of the hobbit essay prompts, thousands of words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of colour red-essay, words that occur together unusually often. Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the wine is not. A characteristic of collocations is that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . The Hobbit Essay? This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . Red-essay? ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . The Hobbit Prompts? This is Python's way of protocol, saying that it is ready to compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. For now, you just need to know to tell Python to the hobbit essay prompts, convert it into research a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of words than-done is a bigram, and essay we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to pay more attention to the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. The collocations() function does this for us.

We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to the genre of the texts. In order to find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at the distribution of word lengths in a text, by research page, creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the lengths of essay, words in cytokine elisa assay protocol, text1 , and the FreqDist then counts the number of times each of essay, these occurs . The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of which is a number corresponding to a word token in the text. But there are at most only 20 distinct items being counted, the numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.

One might wonder how frequent the different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in the text, are there more words of length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of length 3 account for roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and we will look at professional research cover them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the ability to work with language, and the potential to save human effort through automation.

A key feature of programming is the ability of machines to prompts, make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is for writing essays satisfied. This feature is known as control , and is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of operators, such as and = , for testing the relationship between values. The full set of the hobbit prompts, these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from lawson, a sentence of news text.

Here are some examples — only the operator is changed from one line to the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is undefined, you need to first type: from import * There is a common pattern to all of these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is a Python test that yields either true or false. In the cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is always a numerical comparison. However, we can also test various properties of words, using the functions listed in 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of essay, these operators being used to select words from our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an initial capital; and the great obscene word.critical essay words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. The Hobbit? If c is admission uga a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the following examples and try to explain what is going on in each one.

Next, try to make up some conditions of the hobbit essay, your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Colour? Let's take a closer look at the hobbit prompts the notation we used: These expressions have the contast essay form [f(w) for . ] or [w.f() for . ] , where f is a function that operates on a word to compute its length, or to convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on every element of a list.

In the the hobbit preceding examples, it goes through each word in cytokine elisa assay, text1 , assigning each one in essay prompts, turn to the variable w and performing the specified operation on the variable. The notation just described is professional called a list comprehension. Essay? This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an colour red-essay important part of the hobbit prompts, becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to the great word.critical essay, the question of vocabulary size, and apply the same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to the hobbit, count the lowercase-only items, but this gives the wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to execute a block of code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.

We already saw examples of conditional tests in cytokine elisa assay protocol, code like [w for w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . Essay Prompts? The if statement checks whether the test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is executed, displaying a message to contast essay, the user. Remember to indent the print statement by typing four spaces. When we use the Python interpreter we have to prompts, add an the great word.critical extra blank line in order for it to detect that the nested block is complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the conditional test to len(word) = 5 , to check that the length of word is greater than or equal to 5 , then the test will no longer be true. This time, the body of the if statement will not be executed, and no message is shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the code in the indented block will be run.

Another control structure is the for loop. Try the following, and remember to the hobbit, include the colon and the four spaces: This is colour called a loop because Python executes the code in circular fashion. It starts by performing the the hobbit essay assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to name the first item of the list. Then, it displays the value of word to the user. Next, it goes back to the for statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. It continues in this fashion until every item of the list has been processed. Now we can combine the suggestions uga if and for statements. We will loop over every item of the list, and print the item only if it ends with the letter l . The Hobbit Essay? We'll pick another name for the variable to demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for contast essay statements have a colon at the end of the line, before the indentation begins.

In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. Essay Prompts? The colon indicates that the current statement relates to the indented block that follows. We can also specify an action to contast essay, be taken if the condition of the if statement is not met. Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Notice that these also have colons before the indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of Python knowledge, you can start to build multiline Python programs. It's important to develop such programs in pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. This is the hobbit prompts why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and why you should get comfortable using it.

Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over each item and colour print it. Notice the the hobbit extra information given in for writing admission, the print statement: end=' ' . This tells Python to print a space (not the essay prompts default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the help of texts and the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in contast essay, exploiting our knowledge of language and computation by building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the essay prompts nitty-gritty of the great gatsby and the essay, code in order to essay, paint a bigger picture of natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to navigate the universe of word.critical, information locked up in text on the Web. Search engines have been crucial to the growth and popularity of the Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and some luck, to extract answers to such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?

What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in the past week? Getting a computer to answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on a scale and with a level of robustness that is still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to essay, build intelligent machines, and a major part of intelligent behaviour is uga understanding language. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to give you a sense of the the hobbit prompts interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of a word was intended in colour red-essay, a given context. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the the hobbit essay prompts dish , you can detect that both serve and red-essay dish are being used with their food meanings. It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from sports to crockery in the space of three words.

This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out the hobbit, beside the court. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. As another example of this contextual effect, consider the red-essay word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the book by Chesterton (agentive — Chesterton was the author of the book); the cup by the stove (locative — the prompts stove is where the cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal — Friday is the time of the submitting). Contast Essay? Observe in (3c) that the meaning of the essay prompts italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by . A deeper kind of language understanding is to work out who did what to for writing admission essays uga, whom — i.e., to the hobbit essay prompts, detect the assay protocol subjects and objects of verbs. You learnt to do this in elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. In the sentence the thieves stole the paintings it is easy to tell who performed the the hobbit essay stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in (4c), and try to determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for tackling this problem include anaphora resolution — identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to — and semantic role labeling — identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to move on red-essay to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and machine translation . In the first case, a machine should be able to answer a user's questions relating to collection of texts:

The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out that they refers to paintings and not to thieves. In the second case, the machine should be able to translate the text into another language, accurately conveying the meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into French, we are forced to choose the gender of the pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the thieves are found, and essay elles (feminine) if the paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on contast essay correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of the hobbit essay prompts, these examples, working out the sense of a word, the colour red-essay subject of the hobbit essay, a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to henry essay, be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of languages. Its roots go back to the early days of the Cold War, when the promise of automatic translation led to substantial government sponsorship, and the hobbit prompts with it, the assay genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for particular pairs of languages, and prompts some are integrated into uga web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by translating a sentence back and forth between a pair of prompts, languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:

Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from elisa assay protocol, English to German (in the line starting 1 ), but on the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). Essay Prompts? After line 5 the sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by the commas, and research page the change from the hobbit essay prompts, jump to leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using Machine translation is difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on its meaning), and henry lawson essay because word order must be changed in keeping with the grammatical structure of the target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by the hobbit essay, collecting massive quantities of parallel texts from news and government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Given a document in German and English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the cytokine sentences, a process called text alignment . The Hobbit Essay? Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.

In the history of artificial intelligence, the chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to admission, a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to provide driving instructions or details of nearby restaurants unless the required information had already been stored and suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to understand the user's goals: the essay user asks when a movie is showing and the system correctly determines from this that the user wants to see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in order to interact naturally. Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . However, the developers of contast essay, commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and business logic to prompts, ensure that the different ways in which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in paper cover page, a way that makes sense for the particular application. So, if you type When is . , or I want to prompts, know when . Professional Research Cover? , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is the hobbit essay prompts enough for the system to provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and interpreted in context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to spoken output; different types of linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the process.

Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the the great gatsby and the essay commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. The Hobbit? 5.1 shows the architecture of a simple dialogue system. Colour? Along the top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is a pipeline of some language understanding components . These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to some kind of the hobbit essay prompts, meaning representation. Along the middle, moving from right to left, is the reverse pipeline of components for converting concepts to speech. These components make up the dynamic aspects of the system.

At the bottom of the diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of language-related data that the processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an example of a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an NLTK chatbot. To see the available chatbots, run . (Remember to research paper, import nltk first.) The challenge of essay prompts, language understanding has been brought into focus in recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.

Suppose you want to find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Max Purnell , and that you have another short text that seems to be relevant, for example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to Parliament in the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of Coromandel by defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into third place . Does the text provide enough evidence for you to accept the hypothesis? In this particular case, the answer will be No. Contast Essay? You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is very hard to come up with automated methods for making the right decision. The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Consequently, some linguistic analysis is crucial. In the previous example, it is essay important for the system to note that Sandra Goudie names the gatsby person being defeated in the hypothesis, not the person doing the defeating in the text. As another illustration of the difficulty of the task, consider the prompts following text-hypothesis pair: In order to determine whether the hypothesis is supported by the text, the system needs the following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an suggestions essays uga editor of a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of prompts, eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is author of eighteen books. Despite the research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in a general and robust manner. We can wait for these difficult artificial intelligence problems to be solved, but in the meantime it is necessary to live with some severe limitations on the reasoning and knowledge capabilities of natural language systems. Accordingly, right from the distinctly essay beginning, an important goal of NLP research has been to make progress on the difficult task of building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of unrestricted knowledge and reasoning capabilities.

Indeed, this is prompts one of the goals of this book, and we hope to professional paper, equip you with the knowledge and skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . We can use indexing, slicing, and prompts the len() function on lists. A word token is a particular appearance of a given word in a text; a word type is the unique form of the word as a particular sequence of letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the vocabulary of a text t using sorted(set(t)) . Contast Essay? We operate on each item of the hobbit prompts, a text using [f(x) for x in text] . To derive the vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and henry distinctly essay ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for essay prompts w in research paper cover page, text if w.isalpha()) . The Hobbit Prompts? We process each word in a text using a for suggestions admission uga statement, such as for w in t: or for word in text: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed each time through the loop. We test a condition using an if statement: if len(word) 5: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of the hobbit, code, to be executed only if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the henry distinctly visual words of a text and their frequency of appearance). A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and can be reused. Functions are defined using the def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and prompts y are parameters of the function, and act as placeholders for actual data values. The Great Obscene Word.critical? A function is called by specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in programming, natural language processing, and linguistics, all mixed in together. Many of them are consolidated in the following chapters. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at ), including links to the hobbit essay prompts, additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.

You may also like to read up on some linguistics and NLP-related concepts in Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the essays uga type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at , including the many tutorials and comprehensive reference materials linked there. Essay Prompts? A Beginner's Guide to Python is suggestions for writing admission essays available at . Miscellaneous questions about Python might be answered in the hobbit essay, the FAQ at . As you delve into NLTK, you might want to subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the toolkit are announced. There is cytokine elisa assay protocol also an NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to essay, use Python and NLTK for language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at . For more information on the topics covered in 5, and on admission NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. 2010. (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . The Hobbit? Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for red-essay Computational Linguistics is the the hobbit essay prompts international organization that represents the the great gatsby and the obscene field of NLP.

The ACL website ( ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about international and regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to hundreds of useful resources; and the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the NLP research literature from the past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. That works out to 141167095653376 . How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.

How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for the hobbit essay prompts humor and romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the different roles played by the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the couples? #9788; Find the collocations in contast essay, text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the purpose of this expression. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on lists and the hobbit essay strings.

Define a string and assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in the string). Print the contents of this variable in two ways, first by simply typing the variable name and pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Research Paper? Notice that the strings are joined together without any spaces. How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of words, using the syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to convert this into a string. Use split() to prompts, split the contast essay string back into the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Essay? Join them together in visual essay, various combinations (using the plus operator) to essay prompts, form whole sentences.

What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to henry lawson distinctly visual, represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is a sequence of characters. What does sent1[2][2] do? Why?

Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of text3 is provided to you in the variable sent3 . The index of the in sent3 is 1, because sent3[1] gives us 'the' . Prompts? What are the indexes of the two other occurrences of this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the discussion of conditionals in 4. Red-essay? Find all words in the hobbit prompts, the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of uses for lawson visual essay this built-in function in prompts, later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to distinctly visual essay, find the index of the word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an argument between the parentheses. By a process of trial and error, find the slice for the hobbit prompts the complete sentence that contains this word.

#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the contast essay vocabulary of the the hobbit prompts sentences sent1 . Cytokine Assay Protocol? sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the case for other texts? #9681; What is the difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of the hobbit essay prompts, text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in colour, the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in decreasing order of frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of looping with conditions in 4. Use a combination of for and if statements to loop over the words of the movie script for the hobbit prompts Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and red-essay print all the uppercase words, one per line. #9681; Write expressions for finding all words in the hobbit essay prompts, text6 that meet the conditions listed below.

The result should be in the form of a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the colour red-essay sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for the hobbit prompts an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of research cover, words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to perform the essay prompts following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the following Python code do? sum(len(w) for red-essay w in text1) Can you use it to essay prompts, work out the average word length of a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for cytokine assay protocol the text, and which returns the vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the essay following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?

Can you think of essay, a practical application for essay prompts this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. This is a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and henry lawson distinctly visual essay Edward Loper, Copyright © 2014 the authors. It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the essay Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [].

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The Books: A Collection of Essays , ‘Charles Dickens’, by George Orwell. Orwell’s essay on Dickens is the hobbit essay, a monster. Distinctly Visual Essay. It could be a small book. Dickens is one of the hobbit, my favorite authors, and red-essay, Orwell’s essay is the hobbit, essential reading, one of the best things ever written about Dickens. It includes observations such as this, which I think is just so right on: No one, at any rate no English writer, has written better about childhood than Dickens.

In spite of colour, all the knowledge that has accumulated since, in spite of the the hobbit, fact that children are now comparatively sanely treated, no novelist has shown the same power of entering into the child’s point of view. I must have been about nine years old when I first read David Copperfield . The mental atmosphere of the opening chapters was so immediately intelligible to me that I vaguely imagined they had been written by a child . And yet when one re-reads the book as an adult and sees the Murdstones, for instance, dwindle from gigantic figures of doom into colour red-essay semi-comic monsters, these passages lose nothing. Dickens has been able to stand both inside and outside the child’s mind, in such a way that the same scene can be wild burlesque or sinister reality, according to the age at which one reads it. That has been exactly my experience but I certainly couldn’t put it into words like that. Because this is Orwell we are talking about it, his essay on Dickens also has a political component.

Dickens wrote a lot about the poor, obviously, and essay, the plight of those with no power in society: women, children, the destitute. Suggestions Uga. Because of this, socialists (of which Orwell was one) tried to the hobbit “claim” him as one of their own. Orwell’s response is: “Not so fast …” The essay opens with an anecdote about Lenin seeing a production of Dickens’ The Cricket on the Hearth and cytokine protocol, walking out in disgust, finding the “middle-class sentimentality” intolerable. Lenin actually understood Dickens better than the socialists in Orwell’s day who wanted to turn him into some kind of class revolutionary. Orwell looks at the issue from all sides. Essay Prompts. It is a fascinating critical and political/social analysis. For example: In Oliver Twist, Hard Times, Bleak House, Little Dorritt , Dickens attacked English institutions with a ferocity that has never since been approached.

Yet he managed to do it without making himself hated, and, more than this, the very people he attacked have swallowed him so completely that he has become a national institution himself. Orwell breaks down how that occurred. Henry Visual. He observes that Dickens did not write about the famous “proletariat”. He did not write about agricultural laborers or factory workers, the heroes of Socialist thinking. He wrote about bourgeois people: shopkeepers, bar owners, lawyers, innkeepers, servants: These are middle-class people, albeit with a grotesque edge. Dickens obviously had a social critique in his work, but unlike more proselytizing writers, he did not offer solutions, so much as present the problem. How is Oliver Twist saved? By one of those coincidental plot-points that operates so often in Dickens, where he is removed from the the hobbit, squalor of the streets into the glory of a wealthy neighborhood.

This is written by a man who sees the issues but doesn’t really propose what we all should DO about colour red-essay them (besides notice that there are issues and sometimes the mere act of noticing is the most important step). Additionally, if you look closely at Dickens, as Orwell points out, “there is no clear sign that he wants the prompts, existing order overthrown, or that he believes it would make much difference if it were overthrown.” So why were socialists trying to essays uga claim him then? If Dickens had a solution for the problems of the world, it would be something along the lines of: “Please be more kind and understanding towards one another.” This is not solely a political statement; it is the hobbit, more of a moral one, a Christian one. Dickens was a deeply moral writer. How David Copperfield is treated is abominable. The Great And The Obscene. But the system itself is the hobbit essay prompts, not really called into question, at least not in any way that proposes a solution.

Orwell criticizes Dickens for not proposing solutions, but he also sees him in a context that is revelatory. Orwell does not think a novelist has the same goal as a politician or social activist. Contast Essay. It’s not Dickens’ job to say, “Here is what we should do about the poor.” But it is interesting that the the hobbit, most popular writer in English history (save Shakespeare) would be so easily claim-able by so many diverse groups as a propagandist for the great gatsby word.critical, their cause. You can imagine the the hobbit essay, fun Dickens might have had with these groups, were he alive to know how his work was being utilized. Dickens pointed out the ills in English society, in the same way that William Blake did. And yet he did so in the great gatsby and the obscene word.critical essay, a way that somehow maintained the status quo at the same time. William Blake was far more of a revolutionary than Dickens was. “The whole system STINKS” was basically Blake’s point in the hobbit, his devastating poems about child chimney sweeps. Dickens has other concerns. Orwell is contast essay, fascinating on A Tale of essay prompts, Two Cities , but again, he points out that the scenes of the red-essay, Terror in France only take up a couple of chapters. The rest of the book involves clattering London streets, nice little apartments, shops and inns, and carriages. The Defarge couple hang over that book like a guillotine, reminding us of the horrors of essay, revolution (Madame Defarge is one of Dickens’ most brilliant creations).

By the time Dickens was writing, the romantic idea that the French revolution was about “liberte, egalite, and contast essay, etc.” was long over. The Hobbit. The guillotine got rid of that. For Writing Admission. Napoleon got rid of that. Dickens’ description of the mob violence in the French Revolution is still frightening to read today, because you can see what madness it is. Interestingly enough: the social and essay, political critique that led to the great and the word.critical essay the French Revolution were predictive of 20th century causes that would erupt Russia, China, Africa, etc., into violent revolutions, some which burned out quickly (granted, leaving millions dead in the hobbit prompts, some cases), others which morphed into something even more monstrous and red-essay, long-lasting. But behind those revolutions was the idea that “the way life is set up right now is unfair: why do so few people hold so much wealth?

Let’s spread it around a little bit.” This was in operation with the French Revolution, too. Cathedrals and mansions were commandeered by the people. Wealth was supposed to the hobbit essay change hands, collectively, from the wealthy to the peasant class. It was only fair. It was also a horrible horrible idea. Society’s ills run deeper than money.

Because wealth provides opportunities, the wealthy were often the people who knew how to do shit , and without their expertise, the contast essay, peasants floundered. The Hobbit. We saw this in Russia, in China. Once you cut off the past so violently, once you say to an entire class of people: “You are no longer welcome”, you cut off possibility. This was Edmund Burke’s famous critique of the French Revolution. It horrified him. Yes, there was unfairness in the distribution of and the, wealth, but the solution was not to tear down the institutions themselves. That would be a disastrous decision.

Burke was right, as we saw in France, in Russia, in China, in Iran, and on and on. Dickens understood that element of the French Revolution, and also understood the fearsome underbelly of revolutions which produce terrifying personages such as Robespierre. Once the the hobbit, purges begin, they are nearly impossible to red-essay stop: at one point does a whole culture say, “Okay. We can stop purging now”? Once you cut off the heads of your own monarchs in a public square, all bets are off. Everyone is going to go down eventually. Dickens’ book, especially with the inclusion of Madame Defarge, really gets that. So to the socialists who think Dickens is one of them, Orwell says, “Come again? Have you read Tale of essay, Two Cities ? You think he approves of revolution?

What author have YOU been reading?” Dickens is pretty contemptuous, overall, about the English education system. Contast Essay. Schools suck, in essay, Dickens’ world, which was probably an accurate reflection of what was going on (and something Orwell would clearly relate to, as we saw in his essay about contast essay his experience in the hobbit essay prompts, an English boarding school). Again, though, Dickens proposes no solution. He was not formally educated himself. Schoolmasters and teachers were ridiculous figures to professional research him, pompous, cruel, unfair, and worthy of parody. It’s hard to find a good example of a teacher in the hobbit, Dickens’ work, which speaks volumes. Orwell speaks of Dickens’ refreshing lack of nationalism, another reason why socialists wanted to claim him.

Orwell makes the accurate observation that Dickens does not “exploit” the “other” in his works. His books clamor with people from elisa protocol all different walks of life, Irishmen, Scotsmen, Englishmen … and all emerge as human, albeit often ridiculous. But we’re all ridiculous, to some degree. Essay Prompts. He is henry visual essay, not in the hobbit essay prompts, service to the King, or to England. He is colour, a humanist.

He does not wave a flag. This may not be as easily seen today, or it may not be seen as very important, because questions of prompts, nationalism are not as paramount as they were in the 30s and 40s, when nations were behaving like a bunch of lunatics. I’m not saying we’re out of the woods yet. But the time in contast essay, which Orwell was writing, as well as his socialist Marxist background, informs his analysis in a way that is quite interesting. Orwell finds Dickens’ lack of patriotism refreshing. (It’s also probably one of the reasons why Dickens’ books have traveled so far and lasted so long: they are not rooted in a time and place, they do not read as propaganda for a cause, as so much of the literature done by Dickens’ contemporaries does.

Dickens’ books are about people , not politics.) I absolutely love this section: The fact that Dickens is always thought of as a caricaturist, although he was constantly trying to the hobbit prompts be something else, is perhaps the professional cover page, surest mark of his genius. The monstrosities that he created are still remembered as monstrosities, in essay, spite of getting mixed up in would-be probable melodramas. Their first impact is so vivid that nothing that comes afterwards effaces it. As with the people one knew in childhood, one seems always to remember them in one particular attitude, doing one particular thing. Mrs. Squeers is always ladling out brimstone and treacle, Mrs. Gummidge is always weeping, Mrs. Gargery is always banging her husband’s head against the wall, Mrs. Jellyby is always scribbling tracta while her children fall into the area — and contast essay, there they all are, fixed for ever like little twinkling miniatures painted on snuffbox lids, completely fantastic and essay, incredible, and yet somehow more solid and infinitely more memorable than the efforts of serious novelists.

Even by the standards of his time Dickens was an exceptionally artificial writer. As Ruskin said, he “chose to work in a circle of stage fire”. His characters are even more distorted and simplified than Smolett’s. But there are no rules in novel-writing, and for any work of contast essay, art there is only one test worth bothering about — survival. By this test Dickens’s characters have succeeded, even if the prompts, people who remember them hardly think of them as human beings. They are monsters, but at any rate they exist . While the political critique is fascinating, Orwell also analyzes Dickens on a purely literary level, and it is such a joy to read. Suggestions For Writing Essays. (He is always a joy to read.) As I said, the essay is a multi-piece monster, and should be read in its entirety, but here is a wonderful excerpt.

What is more striking, in a seemingly ‘progressive’ radical, is that he is not mechanically minded. He shows no interest either in the details of machinery or in the hobbit essay prompts, the things machinery can do. As Gissing remarks, Dickens nowhere describes a railway journey with anything like the enthusiasm he shows in describing journeys by stage-coach. In nearly all of his books one has a curious feeling that one is living in the first quarter of the contast essay, nineteenth century, and in fact, he does tend to return to this period. Prompts. Little Dorrit , written in contast essay, the middle fifties, deals with the late twenties; Great Expectations (1861) is not dated, but evidently deals with the twenties and thirties. Several of the inventions and discoveries which have made the modern world possible (the electric telegraph, the breech-loading gun, India-rubber, coal gas, wood-pulp paper) first appeared in prompts, Dickens’s lifetime, but he scarcely notes them in his books. Colour Red-essay. Nothing is queerer than the vagueness with which he speaks of Doyce’s ‘invention’ in Little Dorrit . It is represented as something extremely ingenious and revolutionary, ‘of great importance to his country and his fellow-creatures’, and it is also an essay important minor link in the book; yet we are never told what the ‘invention’ is!

On the other hand, Doyce’s physical appearance is hit off with the typical Dickens touch; he has a peculiar way of moving his thumb, a way characteristic of engineers. After that, Doyce is firmly anchored in one’s memory; but, as usual, Dickens has done it by fastening on something external. There are people (Tennyson is an example) who lack the mechanical faculty but can see the elisa protocol, social possibilities of machinery. Dickens has not this stamp of mind. He shows very little consciousness of the essay, future. Suggestions For Writing Essays Uga. When he speaks of human progress it is essay, usually in terms of contast essay, moral progress — men growing better; probably he would never admit that men are only as good as their technical development allows them to be.

At this point the gap between Dickens and his modern analogue, H.G. Wells, is at the hobbit its widest. Wells wears the future round his neck like a mill-stone, but Dickens’s unscientific cast of mind is research paper cover page, just as damaging in a different way. What it does is to make any positive attitude more difficult for him. He is hostile to the feudal, agricultural past and essay, not in suggestions for writing admission essays uga, real touch with the industrial present.

Well, then, all that remains is the future (meaning Science, ‘progress’, and the hobbit prompts, so forth), which hardly enters into his thoughts. Therefore, while attacking everything in sight, he has no definable standard of comparison. As I have pointed out already, he attacks the current educational system with perfect justice, and yet, after all, he has no remedy to colour red-essay offer except kindlier schoolmasters. Why did he not indicate what a school might have been? Why did he not have his own sons educated according to some plan of his own, instead of sending them to public schools to be stuffed with Greek? Because he lacked that kind of imagination. He has an infallible moral sense, but very little intellectual curiosity. And here one comes upon something which really is an enormous deficiency in Dickens, something, that really does make the essay prompts, nineteenth century seem remote from us — that he has no idea of colour red-essay, work . With the the hobbit, doubtful exception of David Copperfield (merely Dickens himself), one cannot point to a single one of his central characters who is primarily interested in his job.

His heroes work in order to make a living and to contast essay marry the heroine, not because they feel a passionate interest in one particular subject. Martin Chuzzlewit, for instance, is not burning with zeal to be an architect; he might just as well be a doctor or a barrister. In any case, in the typical Dickens novel, the Deus Ex Machina enters with a bag of gold in prompts, the last chapter and the hero is absolved from further struggle. The feeling ‘This is what I came into gatsby and the obscene essay the world to do. Everything else is uninteresting. I will do this even if it means starvation’, which turns men of differing temperaments into scientists, inventors, artists, priests, explorers and revolutionaries — this motif is prompts, almost entirely absent from Dickens’s books.

He himself, as is well known, worked like a slave and word.critical, believed in the hobbit essay, his work as few novelists have ever done. Colour. But there seems to be no calling except novel-writing (and perhaps acting) towards which he can imagine this kind of devotion. And, after all, it is natural enough, considering his rather negative attitude towards society. In the last resort there is nothing he admires except common decency. Science is uninteresting and machinery is cruel and ugly (the heads of the the hobbit prompts, elephants). Business is cytokine elisa, only for ruffians like Bounderby. As for politics — leave that to the Tite Barnacles. Really there is no objective except to marry the heroine, settle down, live solvently and essay prompts, be kind. And you can do that much better in colour, private life.

Here, perhaps, one gets a glimpse of Dickens’s secret imaginative background. What did he think of as the most desirable way to the hobbit live? When Martin Chuzzlewit had made it up with his uncle, when Nicholas Nickleby had married money, when John Harman had been enriched by Boffin what did they do ? The answer evidently is contast essay, that they did nothing. The Hobbit Prompts. Nicholas Nickleby invested his wife’s money with the Cheerybles and ‘became a rich and prosperous merchant’, but as he immediately retired into gatsby and the obscene word.critical Devonshire, we can assume that he did not work very hard. Mr. and Mrs. Snodgrass ‘purchased and cultivated a small farm, more for the hobbit essay, occupation than profit.’ That is the spirit in which most of Dickens’s books end — a sort of radiant idleness. Where he appears to disapprove of young men who do not work (Harthouse, Harry Gowan, Richard Carstone, Wrayburn before his reformation) it is because they are cynical and immoral or because they are a burden on cytokine elisa somebody else; if you are ‘good’, and also self-supporting, there is the hobbit, no reason why you should not spend fifty years in contast essay, simply drawing your dividends. Home life is always enough. And, after all, it was the general assumption of prompts, his age. The ‘genteel sufficiency’, the ‘competence’, the ‘gentleman of independent means’ (or ‘in easy circumstances’)— the very phrases tell one all about the strange, empty dream of the eighteenth-and nineteenth-century middle bourgeoisie.

It was a dream of complete idleness . Charles Reade conveys its spirit perfectly in the ending of Hard Cash . Alfred Hardie, hero of Hard Cash , is the typical nineteenth-century novel-hero (public-school style), with gifts which Reade describes as amounting to ‘genius’. Contast Essay. He is an old Etonian and a scholar of Oxford, he knows most of the Greek and the hobbit essay, Latin classics by heart, he can box with prizefighters and win the Diamond Sculls at Henley. He goes through incredible adventures in which, of course, he behaves with faultless heroism, and suggestions, then, at the age of twenty-five, he inherits a fortune, marries his Julia Dodd and the hobbit essay prompts, settles down in the suburbs of Liverpool, in the same house as his parents-in-law: They all lived together at Albion Villa, thanks to Alfred . . . Colour. Oh, you happy little villa! You were as like Paradise as any mortal dwelling can be. A day came, however, when your walls could no longer hold all the happy inmates. The Hobbit. Julia presented Alfred with a lovely boy; enter two nurses and the villa showed symptoms of bursting. Two months more, and Alfred and professional research paper page, his wife overflowed into the next villa. It was but twenty yards off; and there was a double reason for the hobbit essay prompts, the migration. As often happens after a long separation, Heaven bestowed on admission essays uga Captain and Mrs.

Dodd another infant to play about their knees, etc. etc. etc. This is the type of the Victorian happy ending — a vision of a huge, loving family of three or four generations, all crammed together in the same house and constantly multiplying, like a bed of oysters. Prompts. What is striking about it is the utterly soft, sheltered, effortless life that it implies. It is colour, not even a violent idleness, like Squire Western’s. That is the essay, significance of Dickens’s urban background and his noninterest in the blackguardly-sporting military side of life.

His heroes, once they had come into money and ‘settled down’, would not only do no work; they would not even ride, hunt, shoot, fight duels, elope with actresses or lose money at the races. They would simply live at home in essays uga, feather-bed respectability, and preferably next door to a blood-relation living exactly the same life: The first act of Nicholas, when he became a rich and prosperous merchant, was to essay prompts buy his father’s old house. As time crept on, and there came gradually about him a group of lovely children, it was altered and elisa protocol, enlarged; but none of the old rooms were ever pulled down, no old tree was ever rooted up, nothing with which there was any association of bygone times was ever removed or changed. Within a stone’s-throw was another retreat enlivened by children’s pleasant voices too; and here was Kate . The Hobbit Prompts. . . the same true, gentle creature, the same fond sister, the same in the love of all about for writing admission her, as in her girlish days. It is the the hobbit, same incestuous atmosphere as in the passage quoted from Reade.

And evidently this is Dickens’s ideal ending. It is perfectly attained in Nicholas Nickleby, Martin Chuzzlewit and Pickwick , and cytokine assay protocol, it is approximated to in varying degrees in almost all the others. The Hobbit. The exceptions are Hard Times and cytokine elisa assay, Great Expectations — the latter actually has a ‘happy ending’, but it contradicts the general tendency of the book, and it was put in at the request of the hobbit, Bulwer Lytton. The ideal to gatsby obscene word.critical be striven after, then, appears to be something like this: a hundred thousand pounds, a quaint old house with plenty of ivy on it, a sweetly womanly wife, a horde of children, and no work. Everything is safe, soft, peaceful and, above all, domestic. In the moss-grown churchyard down the road are the graves of the loved ones who passed away before the happy ending happened. The servants are comic and the hobbit, feudal, the protocol, children prattle round your feet, the old friends sit at your fireside, talking of past days, there is the the hobbit essay prompts, endless succession of cytokine protocol, enormous meals, the cold punch and prompts, sherry negus, the feather beds and warming-pans, the Christmas parties with charades and blind man’s buff; but nothing ever happens, except the yearly childbirth. The curious thing is that it is a genuinely happy picture, or so Dickens is able to make it appear. The thought of that kind of existence is the great and the word.critical essay, satisfying to him. Essay. This alone would be enough to tell one that more than a hundred years have passed since Dickens’s first book was written. No modern man could combine such purposelessness with so much vitality.

3 Responses to The Books: A Collection of cytokine elisa, Essays , ‘Charles Dickens’, by the hobbit, George Orwell. I may have to stop reading you Sheila. Colour Red-essay. Now I’m possessed by an overwhelming desire to the hobbit pull down all my Dickens and all my Orwell…and I don’t have the freaking time! (lol) Congrats on the Ebert plug btw. Needless to say, he demonstrates excellent taste. I know – I don’t have the time either. I immediately want to start in on Pickwick Papers or something.

And thanks – yes, it was so exciting that he would link to me! As a writer, I find Dickens endlessly fascinating. Not only did he manage to stay inside and outside a child’s mind; he managed to colour do the the hobbit prompts, same with his own.

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Essay Topics and Study Questions on The Hobbit by J R R Tolkien

Ableism and essay Ability Ethics and Governance. Bibliography work in suggestions for writing admission essays, progress, I hope to have many more in the future. But for now this is the hobbit, a starting point. #8212;- The Media and Culture Journal from Australia has a whole issue on Able. #8212;-Avalos, Hector This Abled Body: Rethinking Disabilities in Biblical Studies (Semeia Studies) (Semeia Studies) (Paperback) by Hector Avalos (Editor), Sarah J. Melcher (Editor), Jeremy Schipper (Editor); here. #8212;- Ayim, Maryann, #8220;Crimes against paper cover page, the Deaf: The Politics of Ableism#8221; in the hobbit prompts, Canadian Journal of Education, v22 n3 p330-35 Sum 1997. #8212;-Badley Graham (2010) Case Notes for the Impeachment of an Ability Traitor: A Textor’s InquiryQualitative Inquiry vol. 17 no. 1 93-98. #8212;- Ball, Natalie and Wolbring, Gregor Portrayals of and professional research paper cover page Arguments around different Eugenic Practices: Past and Present, in the hobbit, International Journal of Disability, Community Rehabilitation; 12(2), article 2. #8212;- Bell, Christopher (2011) Blackness and Disability: Critical Examinations and Cultural Interventions, LIT Verlag Munster see here. #8212;- Billawala, A.; Wolbring, G., Analyzing the discourse surrounding Autism in the New York Times using an ableism lens.

Disability Studies Quarterly 2014, 34 (1), #8212;- Carlson, Licia. Research Paper? #8220;Cognitive Ableism and the hobbit essay prompts Disability Studies: Feminist Reflections on the History of Mental Retardation.#8221; Hypatia 16.4 (2001): 124-46. #8212;- Campbell, Fiona A.K. #8220;Inciting Legal Fictions: #8216;Disability#8217;s#8217; Date with Ontology and the Ableist Body of the Law.#8221; Griffith Law Review 10.1 (2001): 42. Cytokine Elisa? #8212;- Campbell, Fiona A.K. #8220;Exploring internalized ableism using critical race theory#8221; in Disability Society, Volume 23, Issue 2 March 2008 , pages 151 162. The Hobbit Essay Prompts? #8212;-Campbell, Fiona A.K. (2009) Contours of contast essay Ableism: The Production of Disability and Abledness Palgrave Macmillan, 9780230579286. #8212;-Campbell, Fiona A.K. Prompts? (2009) Disability harms: Exploring internalized ableism in red-essay, Disabilities: insights from across fields and around the world, Volume 1 edited by essay prompts, Catherine A. Marshall. #8212;- Chouinard, V. (1997). #8220;Making Space for Disabling Differences: challenging ableist geographies#8221; (guest editorial essay) Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 15(4), 379-386. #8212;- Chouinard, V. (1999). Life at the margins: disabled women#8217;s explorations of cytokine assay protocol ableist spaces. In E. K. Essay? Teather (Ed.), Embodied Geographies: Spaces, bodies and rites of henry lawson visual passage (pp. 142-156). London and New York: Routledge. Essay? #8212;Coenen Schuijff, Smits, Klaassen, Hennen, Rader and Wolbring (2009) Human Enhancement Study for Directorate General for internal policies, Policy Dept. A: Economic and Scientific Policy Science and Technology Options Assessments. This project was carried out by the Institute for Technology Assessment and red-essay Systems Analysis (ITAS), Research Centre Karlsruhe, and the Rathenau Institute, as members of the European Technology Assessment Group (ETAG). It was commissioned under specific contracts IP/A/STOA/FWC/2005-28/SC35, 41 45. #8212;Durgin Patrick F. The Hobbit Essay Prompts? Psychosocial Disability and Post-Ableist Poetics: The #8220;Case#8221; of Hannah Weiner#8217;s Clairvoyant Journals Contemporary Women#8217;s Writing 2008 2(2):131-154;;keytype=ref. Lawson? #8212; Fay, T. G. Essay Prompts? (2005). The Great Gatsby Word.critical? “Racism, Sexism Ableism in Sport”. North American Society for the hobbit prompts, the So- ciology of Sport (NASSS) Annual Conference, Winston-Salem, NC. #8212;Fassett, D (2011) Critical Reflections on a Pedagogy of Ability in The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication By Thomas K. Nakayama, Rona Tamiko Halualani. #8212;-Ferri, Beth A. and Jessica Bacon (2011) Promoting social justice for suggestions essays uga, young children Educating the prompts, Young Child, 2011, Volume 3, Part 4, 137-146, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-0570-8_12. #8212;- Griffin, P. and McClintock, M. (2000).

History of Ableism in Europe and The United States. #8212;- Hehir, Thomas Eliminating Ableism in Education Harvard Educational Review, v72 n1 p1-32 Spr 2002. #8212;- Leopatra, Verlyn , Emily Hutcheon and Jacqueline Noga (2011) guest contribution Able People, Disabling World: Unequal Access to Water to the Equity Matters blog of the Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences covering their Global youth assembly workshop. #8212;- Livingston, K #8220;When architecture disables : Teaching undergraduates to perceive ableism in the built environment#8221;, Teaching sociology, 2000, vol. 28, no3, pp. Colour Red-essay? 182-191. #8212;- MacKenzie, Robin and Cox, Stephen (2006) Transableism, Disability and Paternalism in the hobbit essay, Public Health Ethics: Taxonomies, identity Disorders and Persistent Unexplained Physical Symptoms. International Journal of Law in Context, 2 (4). pp. 363-375. ISSN 1744-5523. #8212;- MacKenzie, Robin (2008) Somatechnics of Medico-legal Taxonomies, Elective Amputation, Transableism and Functional Somatic Syndromes.

Medical Law Review, 16 . pp. 1-23. Colour? #8212; Moss, Jeremy; McMann, Michael; Rae, Jessica; Zipprich, Andrea; Macer, Darryl R.J.; Nyambati, Aori R.; Ngo, Diana; MingMing Cheng; Manohar, N.; Wolbring, Gregor. 2011. Energy equity and environmental security. Bangkok, Regional Unit for Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific (RUSHSAP), UNESCO Bangkok. v + 84 pp.

ISBN 978-92-9223-421-8. #8212;- Overboe, James. #8220;Vitalism: Subjectivity Exceeding Racism, Sexism, and the hobbit prompts (Psychiatric) Ableism.#8221; Wagadu: A Journal of Transnational Women#8217;s and Gender Studies 4 (2007). 25 June 2008 here. #8212;- Overall, Christine #8220;Old Age and Ageism, Impairment and Ableism: Exploring the Conceptual and Material Connections#8221; National Woman#8217;s Studies Association NWSA Journal Volume 18, Number 1, Spring 2006, pp. 126-137. #8212;- Cheryl van Daalen-Smith #8220;My Mom was my left arm: the lived experience of professional ableism for girls with Spina Bifida#8221; 2006, Volume: 23 | Issue: 2 Advances in prompts, Contemporary Community Family Health Care. #8212;-Laura Smith A1, Pamela F. Foley A2, Michael P. Chaney A3 Addressing Classism, Ableism, and Heterosexism in Counselor Education Journal of Counseling and Development Issue: Volume 86, Number 3 / Summer 2008 Pages: 303 309. Henry Lawson Distinctly? #8212;- Patricia O’Brien Martin Sullivan ed Allies in emancipation:Shifting from providing service to being of support Chapter 5 Emancipatory understandings for allies: recognising ableism. The Hobbit Essay Prompts? #8212;- Panesar, S.; Wolbring, G., Analysis of professional cover North American Newspaper Coverage of Bionics Using the Disability Studies Framework. Technologies 2014, 2 (1), 1-30 #8212;- Princen Thomas The Logic of Sufficiency. #8212;Storey, K. (2007). Combating ableism in schools. in prompts, Preventing School Failure, 52(1), 56-58. #8212; Voyer Andrea (2011) Disciplined to diversity: learning the language of suggestions admission multiculturalism Ethnic and Racial Studies in Ethnic and Racial Studies. #8212; Yumakulov, Sophya; Yergens, Dean and Wolbring, Gregor (2012) Imagery of people with disabilities within social robotics research.

In: S.S. Ge et al. (eds.) Proc. ICSR 2012, LNAI, vol. 7621, pp. 168-177. Springer, Berlin. #8212; Wolbring, Gregor (2013) A Culture of Peace through an Ability Studies and Disability Studies Lens Chapter 8 in Springer Briefs in the hobbit essay, Environment, Security, Development and cytokine elisa assay Peace (ESDP), Editor HG.

Brauch. #8212; Wolbring Gregor and Tynedal Jeremy (2013) : Pistorius and the Media: Missed Story Angles Sports Technology published first online October 30th, p.1-7. #8212; Wolbring, G., (2013) Ecohealth through an ability studies and disability studies lens. In Ecological Health: Society, Ecology and Health , Gislason, M. K., Ed. Emerald: London, UK, 2013; Vol. 15, pp 91-107. A version that is less nicely formatted#8230;. is available in my University repository (with permission of the publisher) if you do not have access to the original one at prompts the Publisher. #8212; Wolbring, Gregor (2012) Ethical Theories and Discourses through an Ability Expectations and Ableism Lens: The Case of Enhancement and Global Regulation Asian Bioethics Review Volume 4, Issue 4,pp. 293-309 | DOI: 10.1353/asb.2012.0033. #8212; Wolbring, Gregor, (2012) : Nanotechnology for Democracy versus Democratization of professional research cover Nanotech: An Ableism Analysis , pp. 89-105 in Little by Little: Expansions of Nanoscience and Emerging Technologies, Eds Harro van Lente, Christopher Coenen, Torsten Fleischer, Kornelia Konrad, Lotte Krabbenborg, Colin Milburn, and Francois Thoreau, Dordrecht: AKA-Verlag/IOS Press. #8212; Wolbring, Gregor (2012) Eco-ableism in Anthropology News Sept 14. #8212;Wolbring, G (2012) Ableism and Ability Studies Blog of the Nordic Network on Disability Research. The Hobbit? #8212;Wolbring, Gregor; Leopatra, Verlyn (my student) and Noga Jacqueline (my student) (2012) The sentiment of waste and colour the measure of footprints evaluated through an ableism lens in prompts, Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics EJAIB Vol.

22 (3) page 117- 123. #8212;#8212;Wolbring, G (2012) Paralympians Outperforming Olympians: An Increasing Challenge for Olympism and the Paralympic and Olympic Movement Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 6: 2. 251-266. #8212;Wolbring, Gregor (2011) Water discourse, Ableism and disabled people: What makes one part of contast essay a discourse? in Eubios Journal of the hobbit prompts Asian and elisa assay International Bioethics EJAIB Vol. 21 (6) page 203- 208 November 2011. #8212;Wolbring (2011) Guest contribution Ableism, disability studies and the academy to the Equity Matters blog of the Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences. #8212;-Wolbring (2011) Ableism and Energy Security and Insecurity Studies in the hobbit prompts, Ethics, Law, and Technology: Vol. 5 : Iss. 1, Article 3. DOI: 10.2202/1941-6008.1113 see here. #8212;-Wolbring (2010) Human enhancement through the Ableism lens in admission essays, Dilemata International Journal of Applied Ethics Vol 2 No 3 see here. #8212;-Wolbring (2010) Obsolescence and body technologies Obsolescencia y tecnologias del cuerpo in Dilemata International Journal of Applied Ethics Vol 2 No 4 see here. Essay? #8212;-Burke and Wolbring (2010) Beyond Education for All: Using ableism studies lens and the BIAS FREE framework in Development, 53 (4) December 2010. Henry? #8212;-Wolbring (2010) Chapter 21: Nanotechnology and the hobbit essay the Transhumanization of Health, Medicine, and Rehabilitation Gregor Wolbring Controversies in lawson distinctly visual, Science Technology: Volume 3. Essay Prompts? pp 290-303 From Evolution To Energy Editors: Daniel Lee Kleinman, Jason Delborne, Karen A. Cloud-Hansen, and Jo Handelsman. #8212;-Wolbring (2010) Ableism and Favoritism for Abilities Governance, Ethics and Studies: New Tools for Nanoscale and Nanoscale enabled Science and the great and the word.critical essay Technology Governance pp.

89-104 inThe Yearbook of the hobbit Nanotechnology in Society, vol. The Great Gatsby Essay? II: The Challenges of Equity and prompts Equality (Springer 2010) Susan Cozzens and Jameson M. Wetmore (eds.) #8212;-Wolbring (2010) Transcript of a Podcast live 14th January for contast essay, Intellectual Muscles Series for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic games: Title #8220;Who will be the the hobbit essay, future Olympic and Paralympic Athlete Subtitle Advances in science and technology, bodily assistive devices and suggestions for writing the future face and purpose of Sport see here. #8212;-Wolbring (2009) What next for the human species? Human performance enhancement, ableism and pluralism p. 141-163 in essay, Development Dialogue No 52 August 2009 called What Next Vol II The case for pluralism publisher Dag Hammarskjold Foundation see here. #8212;-Wolbring (2009) Die Konvergenz der Governance von Wissenschaft und Technik mit der Governance des #8220;Ableism#8221; The convergence of science and technology governance with the governance of Ableism in contast essay, TECHNIKFOLGENABSCHATZUNG – Theorie und Praxis Herausgeber: Institut fur Technikfolgenabschatzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS) Technology assessment Theorie and Praxis. Publisher Institute for Technology assessment and system analysis ITAS see here. #8212;- Wolbring (2009) #8216;Therapeutic#8217;, enhancement enabling, assistive devices and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: A missing lens in essay prompts, the enhancement regulation discourse Journal of International Biotechnology Law JIBL Vol. 6 Issue 5 page 193-206. #8212;- Wolbring (2008 ) #8220;Is there an end to out-able? Is there an end to the rat race for abilities?#8221; here for Journal: Media and Culture, Volume 11, Issue 3. #8212;- Wolbring, G. (2007) #8220;NBICS, Other Convergences, Ableism and the Culture of assay protocol Peace.#8221;, 2007.

25 June 2008 here. #8212;- Wolbring, G. #8220;Oscar Pistorius and the Future Nature of essay prompts Olympic, Paralympic and Other Sports.#8221; SCRIPTed — A Journal of the great gatsby and the obscene Law, Technology and Society 5.1 (2008 ): 139-60. 25 June 2008 here. #8212;- Wolbring, G. #8220;Why NBIC? Why Human Performance Enhancement?#8221; Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research 21.1 (2008 ): 25-40. The Hobbit Essay? #8212;- Wolbring (2008 ) Ableism, Enhancement Medicine and contast essay the techno poor disabled in the hobbit essay, Unnatural Selection: Challenges of Radical Life Extension and lawson Enhancement Peter Healey and Steve Rayner Editor Publisher Earthscan. #8212;- Wolbring (2008 ) #8220;One World, One Olympics: Governing Human Ability, Ableism and Disablism in an Era of Bodily Enhancements#8221; for a book titled ‘Human Futures ed. Miah, Liverpool University Press here. #8212;-Wolbring (2008) The Politics of Ableism Proposes the need for a field of ability studies which examines ableism.

Development 51: 252-258; doi:10.1057/dev.2008.17. Wolbring (2006) Peer Reviewed #8220;The triangle of Enhancement Medicine, Disabled people and the concept of the hobbit prompts Health: A new challenge for henry distinctly visual essay, HTA, health research and health policy#8221;a 220 page report. Published by the Health Technology Assessment Unit of the Alberta Heritage Foundation for prompts, medical research here. Campbell, FAK (2003) The great divide: ableism and technologies of red-essay disability production. #8212;-Cherney, James L (2003) Rhetorical norms of ableist culture, Ph.D., Indiana University, 435 pages; AAT 3122676. #8212;- Keller, Travis T (2011) . Ability grouping: The perceptions of the administrators, teachers, and parents, Ph.D., Capella University, 137 pages; AAT 3445239. #8212;- Hutcheon Emily (2011) Undergraduate Honour Thesis Identities amidst social categories of ability difference: Voices of self-identified ‘disabled’ post-secondary students University of Calgary. #8212;- Margaret Mclean Doctor of the hobbit prompts Philosophy, Thesis entitled: Learning and Teaching about Disability: The Possibility of Disestablishing Ableism. Cytokine Assay? Deakin University Australia Faculty of Arts and the hobbit prompts Education. #8212;-Michelle Marie for the degree of Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies in Women Studies, Women Studies, and Philosophy presented on September 18, 2007. Title: A Thematic Feminist Analysis of Best-Selling Children’s Picture Books. #8212;- O#8217;Neil, Sandi (2000) First they killed the #8216;crazies#8217; and #8216;cripples#8217;: The ableist persecution and murders of people with disabilities by assay protocol, Nazi Germany, 19331945: An anthropological perspective. Ph.D., California Institute of Integral Studies, 340 pages; AAT 9988408. #8212;-Schitai, Amit (2008) Ableism and inequality online: Analysis of Web accessibility policymaking and implementation in higher education. , Ed.D., University of California, Irvine and California State University, Long Beach, 2008, 287 pages; AAT 3342956. #8212;- Truchan-Tataryn (2007), Maria (In)visible images: Seeing disability in Canadian literature, 1823-1974, Ph.D., The University of Saskatchewan (Canada), 289 pages; AAT NR57020.

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Charity Essay Essays and Research Papers. I. Title: Seeking the gift of the hobbit essay prompts charity II. Objectives: * To be able to explain the red-essay importance of charity *To be able to . consider the benefits of charity *To be able to apply charity in everyday life III. Materials: * Pictures about charity IV. Procedure: A. Essay Prompts! Motivation Present and let the pupils interpret the pictures about charity . Paper Cover Page! The lecturer/s will give additional information about the pictures and then summarize it all. B. Discussion Charity is giving a heart; it’s a practice. A Good Thing , Alms , Charitable organization 386 Words | 3 Pages. ?Hannah Talcovitz Honors English 10 Bowman 9/30/13 It’s Not Charity , It’s Not Nobility, It’s Generosity! When most people think of the word . generosity, they think of the Red Cross or Goodwill, but it doesn’t have to essay prompts be that complicated. Gatsby Word.critical Essay! Generosity can be as simple as lending a friend a pencil. Generosity used to be a trait inherited by the hobbit prompts, noble families.

But Generosity is a quality that is henry distinctly visual, learned and practiced rather than inherited. Through the years the meaning of generosity has evolved into a trait. Acts of the Apostles , Charity , Giving 757 Words | 3 Pages. middle school in Sheffield. After that, I would travel by car to Manchester to promote a fundraiser to prevent the spread of AIDS in Africa.

Next, I would . meet students and read a speech at the University of Oxford. Later on, I would assist at a charity event for essay, homeless, youth, drug addicts, and the elderly in research, Wembley. Prompts! Last but not least, Charles and research paper I were invited at a Gala Evening in North - London. The visit in the hobbit prompts, the hospital went by too fast. It was very pleasing to encourage patients to carry. Africa , American Red Cross , Charitable organization 994 Words | 3 Pages. purpose in each person, which in turn is translated into colour, charitable deeds and make you reach out and the hobbit essay create a big difference in other people’s lives. That’s . why all of us should do charity work. Charity work can really benefit you, such as gives you skills or change your view and make become a better person.

In charity work, you can help others learn and you can gain yourself new skills. If you are a member of a team organizing fund raising events for a local community organization, you learn to. Charitable organization , Charitable trust , Charity 698 Words | 2 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for contast essay, companies and the hobbit prompts individuals who have . Henry Lawson Visual! pursued social responsibility. Essay Prompts! There is also the question of professional research paper cover whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of the hobbit essay essay is based on philosophical theories on professional paper the necessity of essay prompts social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about cytokine elisa protocol, how giving support to essay disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. What You Would Do to the great gatsby obscene word.critical Help with 10 Million Dollars. Dollar Essay When we think of giving to essay prompts charities today, we’re not sure what to think.

One might imagine going to a building . And The Word.critical Essay! where we can donate money in, or visiting a website where you enter an amount of money and essay your credit card number. Charities haven’t made themselves highly accessible yet. My charity aims to fix that. With nothing but the clothes on gatsby and the obscene word.critical essay my back and the hobbit essay 10 million dollars, I will start the non-profit Charity organization called Charity -ception. Charity -ception is a charity that will. 21st century , Charitable organization , Charitable trust 820 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of professional research cover . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to the hobbit prompts write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. The Great Gatsby And The Essay! Note exactly what.

Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in the hobbit prompts, telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. Professional Research Cover Page! It will follow a logical pattern, to the hobbit prompts include an professional research introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of the hobbit prompts statements and support).

English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an . Henry Lawson Visual! essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the the hobbit essay prompts following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success.

Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in contast essay, MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to the hobbit essay prompts use a particular style of assay protocol essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and the hobbit essay the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and for writing admission uga Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the essay time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Colour Red-essay! Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011).

Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and prompts Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to colour write an essay of 1200-1400 words. Essay Prompts! This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. Elisa Assay Protocol! WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the hobbit the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and cytokine elisa protocol transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by the hobbit prompts, Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the professional page lists, desires, poetry and essay judgmental conversations by Shonagon.

Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. Essays Uga! After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in the hobbit, India. Assay! It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of the hobbit essay writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs.

Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to colour register for classes? Did you fit into the hobbit essay, a subculture because you learned to speak its.

Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and lawson essay especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is the hobbit essay, done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. Colour Red-essay! It is not easy to think of the hobbit prompts how to make someone want to contast essay read an essay about essay prompts, a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. 1113/Comp. 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging . our sentences; raping our vocabulary. Colour! And they must be stopped.” This quote from the hobbit John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of our words.

How people, more specifically the young ones are being lazy with. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Missionaries of page Charity - Mother Teresa Missionaries of Charity is prompts, a Roman Catholic religious congregation established in 1950 . by Blessed Mother Teresa of distinctly Calcutta. It consists of over 4,501 religious sisters and is active in 133 countries. The Hobbit Essay! Members of the cover order designate their affiliation using the essay prompts order's initials, M.C. A member of the suggestions for writing admission uga Congregation must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty ,obedience, and the fourth vow, to give Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor. . Christopher Hitchens , Missionaries of Charity , Mother Teresa 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Did you know that donating just 50 cents could save a person’s life? B. Purpose/Thesis – The purpose of my speech today is to convince you to the hobbit essay prompts all donate to contast essay . The Hobbit! a charity this Christmas instead of giving gifts. C. Credentials – NY Times,, D. Benefits – After hearing my speech, and deciding to donate to a charity of your choice, you will realize that this doesn’t benefit you personally but it benefits others in cytokine assay, need and that’s the whole point of the hobbit essay prompts donating; and red-essay although.

Accountable Fundraising , Charities , Charity 1504 Words | 4 Pages. Explain the points of view of different stakeholders seeking to influence the aims and the hobbit essay objectives of two contrasting organisations. objectives. Owners British Red Cross owners are mainly interested into help the needy, so it’s not really concern to earn profits by this. However, some . charity organisation would want to earn profits, which they could help promote advertisement. This would allow more people, to donate through their contact. Government They would want charities to help build more available spaces for British Red Cross, so more people can join in. This could help people to help gain more experience, which they can. Charities , Employment , Money 875 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding Business Organisations.

Understanding Business Organisations Report RSPCA is a Charity non-profitable organisation from the Tertiary Sector within Services. Colour Red-essay! . History The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to the hobbit Animals was founded in 1824 by a group of professional research paper cover twenty-two reformers led by Richard Martin MP, William Wilberforce MP and the hobbit the Reverend Arthur Broome in a London coffee shop ( in St. Martin's Lane, not far from Piccadilly Circus, stood Old Slaughter's Coffee House) and founded as. Charitable organization , Charitable trust , Charities 1435 Words | 6 Pages. ?Name: Ashishkumar D. Rupani Roll no.: 39 Subject: CIM- assingment Samarpan Charities - An NGO In Surat, Gujarat NGO Name SAMARPAN . CHARITIES Unique Id of VO/NGO GJ/2009/0015022 Chief Functionary Archana Desai Chairman Archana Desai Umbrella/Parent Organization Sonali Mahila Vikas Charitable Trust Registered With Charity Commissioner Type of NGO Trust Registration No E-618/Valsad City of Registration Surat State of Registration Gujarat Date of contast essay Registration . Charitable organization , Charities , Governance 471 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Research Methodology A REVIEW ON THE USE OF DONATIONS AND OTHER SOURCES OF FUNDING BY CHARITY ORGANISATIONS TO IMPROVE EXECUTIVES . SALARIES AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE PRACTICE TABLE OF CONTENTS Title 2 . Charitable organization , Charitable trust , Charity 1625 Words | 3 Pages. animals be on the same moral plane. In September of 1999, Singer published an article in the New York Times Magazine called ‘The Singer Solution to the hobbit prompts Poverty’. . In his article, Singer argues that people who have money to spare should be giving it to for writing admission uga charities , specifically Unicef or Oxfam America. Although he has a valid point, people should donate money to the less fortunate if they can, his argument is weak on several points. Singer begins his article referencing a movie, called Central Station. Animal liberation movement , Average Joe , Charities 1319 Words | 3 Pages. peter singer and helping the global poor.

Lots of people are selfish and lazy and don’t think to help the poor even though some philosophers would claim we are responsible for their poverty. Others . The Hobbit Essay Prompts! believe that if they donate most of cytokine assay protocol their money won’t help so they don’t donate at all. A charity may be raising money for the hobbit, the less fortunate that are half way around the world so some would believe that they are not obligated to colour red-essay help since it is not close. Some people would ask how much money is essay prompts, enough to gatsby and the obscene word.critical essay donate to the hobbit prompts make a difference. Peter Singer. Charities , Consequentialism , Donation 1029 Words | 3 Pages. a little easier. This organization was recognized as a “top-notch charity ” by charity navigator.

Charity . navigator is “America's leading independent charity evaluator, works to essays uga advance a more efficient and responsive philanthropic marketplace by evaluating the Financial Health and Accountability and Transparency of America's largest charities ” ( Charity Navigator, 2011). FBR was one of prompts ten charities to not only earn Charity Navigator's highest 4-star rating for Financial Health, but to also. Charitable organization , Charities , Colorado 889 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Situation Analysis: Stake and red-essay Stakeholders. stakeholder’s, the charities and prompts beneficiaries involved within a cause, and show that what is at stake is the wellbeing of those that require . help. While charities strive to help the underprivileged of the world, they are putting at stake the time, effort, and suggestions uga safety of those involved with the organization, the the hobbit essay prompts livelihood of those that are receiving charity in regards to for writing the social norms of the hobbit essay their geographic locations, and contast essay the hopes and dreams that the mission of each charity brings to essay each of the. Charitable organization , Charity , Dikembe Mutombo 1367 Words | 4 Pages. v. Wounded Warriors Family Support, Inc., 628 F.3d 1032 (8th Cir. 2011) I. Introduction/ Facts of the Case (15 points) This case was . Colour Red-essay! brought to trial in Nebraska by the Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) who sought relief from the charity Wounded Warriors Family Support (WWFS) who may have been receiving funds intended for them. Originally WWFS was named Wounded Warrior, Inc. but then changed its name to essay “Wounded Warrior Family Support” after litigation started. The main source of.

Appeal , Appellate court , Charitable organization 903 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and henry distinctly visual essay a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Relationship between Charitable Donations and Income in the city of essay Karachi. ? Introduction One of the measures of the goodness of a nation, particularly its middle class, is its level of civic engagement. Gatsby Essay! According to the World . Giving Index 2012, a survey of giving behaviors compiled by Charities Aid Foundation using data gathered by Gallup, Pakistan ranks at number 85 out of a total of essay prompts 153 countries.

The World Giving Index measures charitable behaviors in three key areas: donating money, volunteering time and helping a stranger. Cytokine Elisa Assay! Pakistan’s position in the global ranking. Charitable organization , Charities , Donation 1036 Words | 8 Pages. she has taken a lot of the hobbit essay trouble to do charity work which must have benefited a lot of people. Contast Essay! Recently Lady Gaga has launched a . Essay! charity in lawson visual essay, the US to help young people with anti-bullying issues. In her statement she stated that Together we hope to establish a standard of bravery and kindness, as well as a community worldwide that protects and nurtures others in the hobbit essay prompts, the face of bullying and abandonment.(BBC. 2011) She dedicated her song Born This Way to this charity . For Writing Admission! Besides this, Gaga partnered with Virgin. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , Britney Spears , Charitable organization 836 Words | 3 Pages. Explain the Points of View of Different Stakeholders Seeking to Influence the essay Aims and Objectives of Two Contrasting Companies.

those in need of it. Colour Red-essay! Employees Muslim Aid is a charity organisation which is run by fundraisers. There are many stakeholders. One of them is the hobbit essay, . the donors which donate to Muslim Aid’s charity along with other stakeholders like voluntary, people who help and colour red-essay work for free for Muslim Aid’s charity to essay prompts raise money for the less fortunate. Also their staff which is another stakeholder that the people who are employed and get paid working for cover, the charity . Prompts! The employees help the henry lawson distinctly visual organisation raise money for.

Charitable organization , Charitable trust , Charity 1318 Words | 4 Pages. problems with landlord, housing and arrears 3 threat of homelessness Have 20 community advice centres Run with 5 different charities LHF is . registered charity and coordinates 5 smaller charities – deliver actual advice and support service to community Charities is known as member and registered with LHF – agree to the hobbit essay work within LHF framework Campaigns and individual charities ????? unfair policies ??????????????changes ??????????????? New policies ??? Londoners ???????? Government and London council. Charitable organization , Charitable trust , Charity 653 Words | 3 Pages. days, you can find ideas to make a positive impact in contast essay, your community. Prompts! Why not volunteer your time to a local charity close to your heart? . offers us some ways to do so: You can clean out your closets, your basement and your garage and donate used clothing, toys, and books to a local charity . You can donate your old eyeglasses to your local Lions Club. If there isn’t a charity for colour red-essay, your stuff, you could sell it on eBay and donate your profits. You can simply exercise! You can participate.

Blood donation , Charitable organization , Charity 1510 Words | 4 Pages. Princess Diana Introductory Speech. Good, evening ladies and gentlemen, and welcome to this year’s charity gala for the hobbit prompts, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Distinctly! Before starting I . just want to take a moment to give a tremendous thanks to all of you for coming out tonight, and for all of the amazing support we’ve received from you. This audience has done more for the hobbit, the victims of land mines than we could have ever hoped for, and we are eternally grateful. Professional Paper Cover! This year the ICBL campaign has reached an essay prompts outstanding new record, and for that you. Charitable organization , Charity , Charles, Prince of henry distinctly visual Wales 1153 Words | 3 Pages. Outline and illustrate two ways in which an action may be both self-interested and altruistic. self interested is aided by the concept that altruism may lead others to the hobbit prompts think more highly of you, which is in beneficial for you and suggestions essays makes you feel better . about the hobbit prompts, yourself, so is therefore also in your self interest. An example of this is giving to page charity . This may give you positive feelings as you enjoy helping others and seeing that your own actions can benefit people other than yourself. Therefore you’re being altruistic and the hobbit still acting in your self interest.

This then illustrates that being altruistic. Altruism , Charity , Game theory 896 Words | 3 Pages. is a way to penetrate the glass ceiling. We have women celebrities who are promoting and performing charity work all around the work. Their . hard work should not be unnoticed. These women are prominent figures in the great word.critical, their field of work but at the same time their charitable work is gotten them world renounced positive reaction. One of such celebrities is essay, Angelina Jolie. She had promoted her charity work and led women organizations in counties where women have no one to red-essay help them or hear their problems. Charismatic authority , Charity , Indira Gandhi 1001 Words | 3 Pages. ? Charities Charities are non-profit organizations with very specialized aims. They exist to the hobbit raise funds for good causes and draw . attention to the needs of disadvantaged groups in the great gatsby word.critical, society.

Charities rely on donations to earn revenue. Essay! They aim to minimize cost by raising funds through events such as fetes, raffles and sponsored activities. Benefits Public recognition Charities are generally recognised as a positive organization. A lock on Assets Charitable organizations are prevented from. British Heart Foundation , Charitable organization , Charitable trust 551 Words | 2 Pages. Problems with Agape Love - Nietzsche and research paper cover page Lewis. a paradoxical circle of experiences that cannot be fulfilled without the other. The Hobbit! In this way, there is no true Agape love, just a mixture of Agape and the great and the obscene essay Eros, . which Lewis called “ Charity ”. Essay! Lewis describes the first real motivation for all actions as being to love and to be loved in various means. This is what propels Charity however unlike Eros, it is regulated by reason.

Lewis also states that there is intense suffering attached to human loves. He illustrated this with the tragic story of St. Colour Red-essay! Augustine. Agape , Charity , Greek words for love 1181 Words | 4 Pages. Authors sometimes use the concept of the hobbit love as a theme for their work, logically, and methodically using it as a tool in their writing. The different forms of . love are often used by authors as a catalyst for for writing admission essays, positive character development. In this essay , works by different authors will be used to demonstrate some of the forms of essay prompts love used in colour red-essay, literature. In Simon May’s “Love: A History”, May mentions agape love, defining it, stating that “This love is the hobbit essay, compassionate and giving: the love of neighbor. Agape , Charity , Greek words for suggestions for writing, love 2470 Words | 7 Pages. ideologies, opinions, and the hobbit prompts necessities.

Philanthropy consists of charitable gifts, but what exactly is a charitable gift? It should be understood to mean . the following: “A gift made by an individual or an organization to suggestions uga a nonprofit organization, charity or private foundation (Charitable Donations).” Charitable gifts or donations are most often in the form of cash, but they also can be real estate, vehicles, securities, clothing, and other assets or services. It should be noted at this point that. Charitable organization , Charity , Gift 1165 Words | 4 Pages. focal point for the vision of his company. His transference from traditional philanthropy to essay a strategic philanthropy of charitable organizations shows the cytokine elisa assay . The Hobbit Essay Prompts! stakeholders that profitability benefits many other sources. From the onset, the focus on charity could be seen as a strategic philanthropy and suggestions uga was never cause-related (Thorne, 2010, p 249). Essay Prompts! Publix donates to the Special Olympics by hosting golf tournaments to the great and the obscene raise funds (Special Olympics, 2012). Essay Prompts! Athletes also participate in run’s raising funds. Charitable organization , Charity , George W. Jenkins 1037 Words | 3 Pages.

at Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Get Access to - Complete Your Registration Now. StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and for writing admission essays Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the prompts organ of sight. It is used in almost everything we do, from playing sport to reading. Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages. normal working hours to undertake activities such as framing, insulation, window and contast essay door installation, painting, tiling, landscaping and other . constructionrelated tasks on the new single-family homes. For the four of us this was our first hands on essay charity work to red-essay the community. Deep inside me I had decided to use this opportunity to gauge myself and the hobbit prompts see how well I can be of use to the community and the society at cytokine assay protocol large.

Throughout the day I had a very enjoyable day and enjoyed all the tasks that I. Charitable organization , Charitable trust , Charity 1067 Words | 3 Pages. Pay It Forward Service, altruism, charity ; these are all terms used to describe giving of one’s self to another with no expectation of . repayment. For the purpose of this assignment the author of this essay would like to share her experience of being altruistic not just on one occasion but on a regular basis. Often the author has baked food for individuals, carried groceries for older or disabled individuals, opened doors for people, and on occasion has delivered meals to people in need. These instances. Altruism , Charity , Core issues in ethics 1284 Words | 4 Pages. Sewa Day 2013 Celebrated by Helping Hands.

30 pm @ ETA MBM Labour Camp, Dubai. The Hobbit Essay Prompts! Event Organizer Helping Hands is professional paper page, a Social Community which has been created with a . main theme of distributing happiness towards the the hobbit Society through volunteering ourselves in essay, Charity Giving Why Can't You Make A Change By Giving a Single Penny That Will Save Hundreds Of Life. “ Give Thanks. The Hobbit Prompts! Give Life “ Chief Guests : Mr.Osama Al Badani (UAE Armed Force) Mr. Henry Essay! P.M. Shahul Hameed (Snr. Charity , Drug addiction , Helping Hand 514 Words | 3 Pages. is distributes to its members, director or officers. There are more than fifteen million non-profit organizations registered in the United States that . embrace and essay support poverty by donating food and henry lawson essay money. They include churches public schools, charities , research institutes, government agencies, and prompts many other organizations.

One organization for example, is the Hope for Children. Which help disable, poor, orphaned and exploited children by providing them with education and health care. There are. Africa , Charitable organization , Charities 948 Words | 3 Pages. Joan of Arc and the Canterbury Tails. volunteer work and charity . 5) What unusual experiences or events made her life important historically? God came to contast essay Bridget in dreams . and told her to be holy and do charity . She started a holy order that was for monks and nuns. Prompts! It was called The Order of the Holy Savior but more popularly known as bridgetness.

6) How did society respond to your historical figure? Society accepted and contast essay applauded Bridget’s works. Her holy order was wildly popular in Europe and her charity work was appreciated. Bridget of Sweden , Charity , Eli Stone 1358 Words | 4 Pages. medical expense - Hospital was a charitable organization Legal Issues in the Case - Does charity grant the hospital immunity from such . cases? - What was lost during the extra time spent in essay prompts, the hospital? - Was the extra harm caused by neglect? Judgment - It was found that the hospital was responsible for the injury that occurred under the care of the hospital Holding - According to common law, charity does grant the hospital immunity from many such cases. - Mrs. Flagiello not only lost money.

Charitable organization , Charitable trust , Charity 738 Words | 3 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. | | | |* Content includes excellent details. | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. Buscemi Essay #3 Rough Draft An essay is a creative written piece in which the author uses different styles such as . diction, tone, pathos, ethos or logos to communicate a message to the reader using either a personal experience, filled with morals and parables, or a informative text filled with educational terms. Educational terms could mean the cytokine assay protocol usage of complicated and elevated words or simply information you would get in schools. Some authors, such as Cynthia Ozick, claim that an essay essay has no. Essay , Essays , Rhetoric 1439 Words | 4 Pages. ?Practice Essay This writing exercise will help your instructor discover who you are as a writer. The essay will be used to . The Great Gatsby Word.critical Essay! help you identify your strengths and weaknesses as a writer, and it wil allow the instructor the opportunity to the hobbit identify grammatical, stylistic, and mechanical problems specific to each student.

Do not fret over the idea that grammar, style, and mechanics will be evaluated in this assignment. This writing exercise is merely one way to take a look at contast essay any particular patterns. Academia , Composition studies , Essay 1153 Words | 4 Pages. There will be two long (30-minute) essays on the College Board AP Art History Exam. Essay! In each case, you will have to compare two works of art of professional cover page . The Hobbit Essay Prompts! your own choosing. One essay will require that you include an artwork from outside the European tradition in your selection. Choosing Works to Compare. It is important to select appropriate works that will allow for thoughtful comparison and contrast.

You might want to for writing admission essays uga take note of works that relate to some of the themes discussed earlier so that you have. Art , Art critic , Essay 1976 Words | 6 Pages. Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . The Hobbit! Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and satire, and uses tone and language that can draw the lawson essay reader in. Essay! “Narration is obscene word.critical, storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages. An Inspector Calls - Dramatic Tension. lifestyle giving her place to essay stay. Suggestions For Writing Admission Essays Uga! She then became his mistress. Mrs Birling is next in the hobbit essay, the line of fire and it is revealed that a now pregnant Eva Smith . came to Mrs Birling's charity committee for help.

The inspector begins questioning Mrs Birling. Mrs Birling, you're a member ? a prominent member ? of the Brumley Women's Charity Organization, aren't you? The Inspector is quite polite to her, even complimenting, by calling her a Prominent member. Henry Lawson Essay! This feeds into Mrs Birling's craving of status. An Inspector Calls , Audience theory , Charitable organization 1547 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example Essay 81 - 100 . Essay Prompts! /descriptive-writing-afro-asian- essay -example-pa. ? * 20+ items - Free Essay about Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example . question you essay may require -starting point transistor and ending condition . time, and a cup of coffee you should have no problem. And The Obscene! There are many . 2. Afro-Asian Literature - Essay - Warriorjamboy1 - › Essays › Military ? * . Afro-Asian , Essay , Expository writing 1436 Words | 6 Pages.

result of essay introspection into past experiences or memorable events in our lives. Contast Essay! We introspect into the hobbit essay prompts, these memorable events and the great gatsby obscene reflect over them with . Essay! regards the emotions and the great and the obscene word.critical influences they have left in our lives. Essay! In simple words a reflective essay is a piece of ‘you’ being presented in words. What is Reflection? In a reflective composition you really need to think about yourself and how a particular personal experience changed you. It is not merely a recollection of your experience but. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1498 Words | 5 Pages.

Edith Cowan University Academic essay Academic Tip Sheet This academic tip sheet: What is an academic essay ? • explains the . academic essay as an cytokine elisa assay academic style of writing; • looks at the hobbit prompts the structure of an academic essay ; • looks at the main types of academic essays ; • explains how to write an elisa academic essay ; and the hobbit prompts • provides you with a quick checklist that covers most aspects of writing an colour red-essay academic essay . For our purposes, we can define an academic essay as a document that has a defined structure.