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Pessimistic essay

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Boston University Arts Sciences Writing Program. Oscar Wilde prefaces his novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, with a reflection on art, the artist, and the utility of both. After careful scrutiny, he concludes: “All art is quite useless” (Wilde 4). In this one sentence, Wilde encapsulates the pessimistic essay complete principles of the Aesthetic Movement popular in Victorian England. That is to say, real art takes no part in molding the social or moral identities of society, nor should it. Ap Essay Paper! Art should be beautiful and pessimistic, pleasure its observer, but to imply further-reaching influence would be a mistake. The explosion of aesthetic philosophy in fin-de-siecle English society, as exemplified by Oscar Wilde, was not confined to merely art, however. Rather, the proponents of methodology proposal this philosophy extended it to life itself.

Here, aestheticism advocated whatever behavior was likely to maximize the beauty and pessimistic, happiness in one’s life, in the tradition of hedonism. To the aesthete, the ideal life mimics art; it is beautiful, but quite useless beyond its beauty, concerned only with the individual living it. Influences on others, if existent, are trivial at best. Many have read The Picture of Dorian Gray as a novelized sponsor for just this sort of build business aesthetic lifestyle. However, this story of the rise and fall of Dorian Gray might instead represent an allegory about morality meant to pessimistic essay critique, rather than endorse, the obeying of one’s impulses as thoughtlessly and dutifully as aestheticism dictates.

In the over and driving novel, Lord Henry Wotton trumpets the aesthetic philosophy with an elegance and bravado that persuade Dorian to trust in the principles he espouses; the reader is pessimistic essay often similarly captivated. It would be a mistake, however, to interpret the novel as a patent recommendation of aestheticism. To the aesthete, there is no distinction between moral and immoral acts, only between those that increase or decrease one’s happiness; yet, Dorian Gray refutes this idea, presenting a strong case for the inherent immorality of purely aesthetic lives. Dorian Gray personifies the aesthetic lifestyle in action, pursuing personal gratification with abandon. Yet, while he enjoys these indulgences, his behavior ultimately kills him and others, and he dies unhappier than ever. Rather than an build business advocate for pure aestheticism, then, Dorian Gray is a cautionary tale in which Wilde illustrates the dangers of the aesthetic philosophy when not practiced with prudence. Essay! Aestheticism, argues Wilde, too often aligns itself with immorality, resulting in a precarious philosophy that must be practiced deliberately. Dorian Gray is often read as an explicit proclamation of the worthiness of living life in plan, accordance with aesthetic values. This is due in part to the flourishing Aesthetic Movement of Victorian England at the time of the novel’s publication, as well as Oscar Wilde’s association with the movement itself (Becker 660).

The Aesthetic Movement, which coincided with the Industrial Revolution at the end of the nineteenth century, emphasized the artistic aspect of a man’s work in producing a variety of goods, from pessimistic essay, furniture to machines to literature (Becker 660). Oscar Wilde, however, proposed that the principles of the Aesthetic Movement extend beyond the production of mere commodities. In Joseph Pearce’s biography, The Unmasking of Oscar Wilde , Pearce recalls Wilde’s own perspective on the popular movement. Speaking of aestheticism, Wilde is quoted: It is indeed to drinking become a part of the pessimistic people’s life . . . I mean a man who works with his hands; and not with his hands merely, but with his head and his heart. The evil that machinery is concerning toleration doing is not merely in the consequence of its work but in the fact that it makes men themselves machines also. Pessimistic! Whereas, we wish them to guide papers be artists, that is to say men. (qtd. in Pearce 144) In his exposition of aestheticism, Wilde applies the philosophy in a more universal sense, stressing the positive influences of pessimistic aestheticism in one’s life beyond mere craftsmanship.

Just as the machines that mass-produce materials with the intervention of human thought are labeled “evil,” Wilde similarly condemns men who act as metaphorical machines, programmed to behave in accordance with society’s ideas of style for research propriety rather than allowing themselves to act freely and achieve the greatest amount of happiness. Wilde’s eloquent advocacy of an essay aesthetic lifestyle is paralleled in persuasive essay and driving, his depiction of Lord Henry in Dorian Gray . Pessimistic! Lord Henry lectured to the impressionable Dorian, “We are punished for our refusals. Methodology! Every impulse that we strive to strangle broods in the mind, and poisons us. . Essay! . . Resist it, and your soul grows sick with longing for the things it has forbidden itself” (Wilde 9). Wilde, through Lord Henry, laments the stifling nature of his contemporary Victorian society and how the supposed morality it boasts necessitates self-denial and rejection of life’s most beautiful aspects. Lord Henry warns that without an enthusiastic embrace of aestheticism, one will perpetually anguish with the desire of precisely what he must deny himself, all for the sake of propriety. This philosophy espoused by Wilde and Lord Henry often leads, not surprisingly, to the conclusion that Dorian Gray is a declaration of Wilde’s, promoting the adoption of purely aesthetic lives without qualification. This, however, is too shallow of an lined interpretation. Opponents of pessimistic essay a purely aesthetic lifestyle will certainly cite what they consider an inevitability: one’s desires and impulses, though when acted upon result in a more pleasurable life, will at times be undeniably immoral. It is at these times that the virtues of the wholly aesthetic life become questionable.

The ruination of Dorian Gray, the embodiment of unbridled aestheticism, illustrates the immorality of such a lifestyle and locke an essay concerning toleration, gravely demonstrates its consequences. Wilde uses Dorian Gray not as an advertisement for aestheticism, but rather, he uses Dorian’s life to warn against aestheticism’s hostility toward morality when uncontrolled. Wilde himself admits, in a letter to the St. James’s Gazette, that Dorian Gray “is a story with a moral. And the pessimistic moral is this: All excess, as well as all renunciation, brings its own punishment” (Wilde 248).

Aestheticism does well to marketing for business condemn the renunciation of desires, but it is an excessive obedience to these desires that is essay subversively dangerous. Therefore, in the practice of Wilde’s aestheticism, forethought and constraint are necessities, yet too often lacking, and without them, one is doomed to suffer the same fate as Dorian Gray. The character of Dorian Gray and locke concerning toleration, the story of his profound degeneration provide a case study examining the viability of purely aesthetic lives. Dorian lives according to what Lord Henry professes without hesitation, and what Lord Henry inspires Dorian, through persuasive rhetoric, is an attitude indifferent to consequence and altogether amoral. As Wilde writes, Dorian’s newfound position is “never to accept any theory or system that would involve the sacrifice of pessimistic any mode of passionate experience. Its aim, indeed was to be experience itself, and not the fruits of experience, sweet or bitter as they may be” (Wilde 125). Under Lord Henry’s mentorship, Dorian, once the epitome of locke an essay concerning wide-eyed youth, behaves with no regard for the ramifications of his actions, diligently pursuing instant gratification without thought of its implications, whether they be “sweet or bitter.” Dorian’s relationship with the actress Sibyl Vane plainly illustrates this marked change in personality. Dorian pursues Sibyl from first sights, intent on acquiring her before he ever attempts to truly know her. Indeed, Dorian’s love for Sibyl is overtly superficial, as evidenced by Dorian’s own description of his infatuation with Sibyl: “I loved you because you were marvelous, because you had genius and intellect, because you realized the dreams of great poets and pessimistic, gave shape and substance to the shadows of art” (Wilde 101).

Dorian is not attracted to Sibyl’s character of personality, but rather her acting talent and enthralling performances; this is what enchants the aesthetically inclined Dorian. When Sibyl leaves the business stage, then, she no longer serves a purpose in essay, Dorian’s aesthetic life, and thus, Dorian abandons her unceremoniously. Dorian does not regret informing Sybil that, “Without your art, you are nothing” (Wilde 101). The tragedy of Sybil’s later suicide, brought about by utter despair at her desertion, is lost on Dorian, who instead enjoys the dramatic intrigue of the occasion. For Dorian, whose uncontrolled aestheticism rejects the concept of morality, the locke concerning immorality of his actions goes unrecognized. In fact, Dorian declares excitedly, “It seems to me to pessimistic essay be simply like a wonderful ending to a wonderful play. Essay Over Drinking! It has all the terrible beauty of a Greek tragedy, a tragedy in which I took a great part, but by which I have not been wounded” (Wilde 114). Here, the adverse consequences of aestheticism surface in Dorian’s life. Essay! In his pursuit of his own pleasures, a distinctly narcissistic attitude emerges, and the incompatibility of morality and ap essay lined, unconditional aestheticism becomes all the more apparent. The emergence of narcissism in Dorian and its correlation with his newly adopted aesthetic philosophy is integral to pessimistic Wilde’s novel as it emphasizes the frequent hostility between aestheticism and morality that Wilde cautions against.

Dorian Gray exposes the immorality of self-absorption, as Dorian’s portrait becomes more disfigured with each one of Dorian’s selfish acts. This self-absorption, then, appears to be an inevitable consequence of persuasive essay over aestheticism. Only a more deliberate practice of aestheticism may harness this egotism and avoid the pessimistic essay immorality Dorian embodies. Interestingly, in his essay “Come See About Me: Enchantment of the marketing plan Double in The Picture of Dorian Gray ,” Christopher Craft recognizes a mirroring of the Greek myth of Narcissus in the life of Dorian Gray. According to mythology, Narcissus, upon catching a glimpse of his reflection in a pool, becomes so enraptured by it that he stood and pessimistic, admired it endlessly, unmoving for the rest of his life. As Craft notes, this self-absorption “is a commitment that, like Dorian’s, graduates fully until death” (Craft 113). Narcissus becomes so infatuated with himself that the rest of build business world effectively ceases to exist or affect him and, as Craft argues, “it is into precisely this silent delirium that Dorian unwittingly steps” when he allows Lord Henry’s aesthetic philosophy to so dominate him (Craft 113). Dorian enjoys a life of eternal youth, with only his portrait aging in parallel with Dorian’s immorality; so, as Dorian sinks into the depths of narcissism, he maintains his external beauty, and his portrait degenerates instead. Eventually, as in the myth of pessimistic Narcissus, such egotism has its consequences. Lined! When Dorian, disgusted with the decrepit picture of the supposedly “real” him, destroys it in a fit of anger, Dorian too is destroyed. Wilde writes that after Dorian’s death, “it was not till they had examined the rings that they recognized who it was” (Wilde 220).

In the pessimistic essay end, as a testament to the purely aesthetic life, the essay over only legacy Dorian leaves behind—everything that identifies him as who he was—is his superficial jewelry. There is an argument, then, made by Wilde for a new aestheticism, approached with more constraint than Dorian employs. This argument is based not only in the moral obligation of the individual, but with the pessimistic essay betterment of all of lined paper society in mind. Matthew Arnold, in his essay “Culture and Anarchy,” provides reasoning against the ethos of Lord Henry’s aestheticism and an unconditional application of it. Arnold focuses on its detrimental effects on society and the possibility for societal improvement when aesthetic tendencies are properly controlled. Pessimistic Essay! There appears to be agreement, then, between Wilde and Arnold; Wilde’ novel provides a failed example of the purely aesthetic life, and when scaled to ap essay lined paper a larger society, a similar result is essay understandably expected. As Arnold views his contemporary society, it is marketing plan plan arranged hierarchically, dividing the pessimistic aristocrats, the middle-class, and the working-class, all of which, Arnold laments, are inclined to live hedonistically, pursuing pleasure and only what is comfortable and easy. Dorian Gray embodies just his defect in Arnold’s society.

Arnold argues, however, that “there are born a certain number of natures with a curiosity about plan their best self with a bend for seeing things as they are . Pessimistic! . . for simply concerning themselves with reason and the will of God, and doing their best to plan make these prevail;—for the pursuit, in a word, of essay perfection” (Arnold 277). Arnold is lined paper optimistic that some may pursue beyond the immediately pleasurable and act to perfect themselves both morally and intellectually. This pursuit of perfection, however, is pessimistic essay likely an arduous and uncomfortable task, and over drinking, is therefore incompatible with pure aestheticism. Some concessions must be made for the absolute aesthete, then, for such transcendence occur. Essay! Dorian Gray, for much of Wilde’s novel, fails to embody Arnold’s ideal, as in his hedonistic life he is build business seen “creeping at dawn out of dreadful houses and slinking in disguise in the foulest dens in London,” despite being once too honorable for such debauchery (Wilde 118).

Dorian exemplifies a regression in social intellect from his beginnings rather than the kind of transcendence hoped for by Arnold. Dorian displays no such pursuit of intellectual perfection as he is slowly corrupted and in turn corrupts others, luring them with him into the slums and opium dens of London. Arnold refers to those able to transcend social classes in pessimistic, society as “aliens,” hinting at their rarity to the point of foreignness and to their almost mythical quality (277). Locke An Essay! The mere existence of these aliens, however, provides hope that the utter hedonists of society may learn to harness their damaging tendencies, and in essay, doing so, better the plan intellectual and moral state of humankind. Pessimistic Essay! Wilde, too, recognizes this ability to control the hedonistic temptations associated with aestheticism, as demonstrated by the last stages of Dorian’s life. Mitsuharu Matsuoka, in his essay “Aestheticism and Social Anxiety in The Picture of Dorian Gray ,” notes that, as Dorian’s death approaches, “Dorian ultimately reacts against his lifestyle, choking on ap essay lined his New Hedonism,” at pessimistic which point “a great sense of doom hangs over Dorian” (Matsuoka 78).

Indeed, Dorian appears to realize the consequences of style for research his unbridled aestheticism; however, he is much too far gone to salvage. Dorian reveals his epiphany to essay Lord Henry: “The soul is a terrible reality. It can be bought, and sold, and bartered away. It can be poisoned or made perfect. There is business a soul in each one of us. I know it” (Wilde 211). Unfortunately for Dorian, this realization comes too late to save his soul from essay, its degradation, long-nurtured by a purely aesthetic life, and he is destroyed.

The realization itself, however, is build business indicative of Wilde’s argument woven throughout Dorian Gray . Essay! Despite Wilde’s publicly advocating the persuasive essay principles of aestheticism, Dorian’s demise illustrates Wilde’s recognition that aestheticism needs to pessimistic be properly controlled. While the pursuit of style guide for research beauty and happiness in essay, life is always Wilde’s ideal, he also implies that the consequences of one’s actions must be thought out and plan plan, the impact of one’s decisions, beyond oneself, must also be carefully considered before acting on any impulse. The Aesthetic Movement in fin-de-siecle England, as interpreted by Oscar Wilde, revolved around the pessimistic essay ideal that the utility of one’s actions should be to create the maximal amount of dissertation beauty and pleasure in one’s life, and nothing more. Wilde’s Dorian Gray appears, at pessimistic first glance, to ap essay paper promote this philosophy unequivocally. Indeed, a lifestyle based on this aestheticism is espoused in Wilde’s opening preface as well as throughout Lord Henry’s professorial lectures. Upon closer inspection, however, Wilde’s novel is not as wholly embracing of aestheticism as this implies. Wilde realized and depicted in the life of Dorian Gray, a need for a more controlled and deliberate approach to aestheticism, without which morality will inevitably be elusive. The adoption of unrestrained aestheticism, as exhibited by Dorian, results in a lack of remorse, self-absorption, and intellectual regression.

For the pessimistic sake of preserving morality, a concept proven incompatible with pure aestheticism, more deliberation is necessary from the aesthete in deciding upon action. If, in the pursuit of one’s desires and of the beautiful aspects of life, the condition of others’ or of one’s own intellect is jeopardized, the build business enjoyment garnered must sometimes be sacrificed for the greater good. As Wilde makes clear, it is only through a more restrained philosophy that aestheticism and morality may eventually align. Arnold, Matthew. “Culture and Anarchy.” The Picture of Dorian Gray . Ed. Pessimistic! Andrew Elfenbein. NY: Pearson Longman, 2007.

276–279. Becker-Leckrone, Megan. “Oscar Wilde (1854–1900): Aesthetic and Criticism.” The Continuum Encyclopedia of Modern Criticism and Theory 20 (2002): 658–665. Craft, Christopher. “Come See About Me: Enchantment of the Double in The Picture of Dorian Gray .” Representations 91 (2005): 109–136. Matsuoka, Mitsuharu. “Aestheticism and Social Anxiety in The Picture of Dorian Gray. ” Journal of Aesthetic Education 29 (2003): 77–100. Pearce, Joseph.

The Unmasking of Oscar Wilde . NY: Ignatius Press, 2004. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray . Ed. Essay And Driving! Andrew Elfenbein. NY: Pearson Longman, 2007. Writing Consultants are available for pessimistic, all CAS WR classes. Style Guide! Appointments can be booked online. The Writing Program recently announced its competition for Fall 2018 Graduate Writing Fellowships. The Fall 2017 course catalog is available to view on the Curriculum page.

Boston University Arts Sciences Writing Program.

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Quotes and an essay on pessimism--an obstacle to living life fully

5 Ways to pessimistic Spruce Up Your Resume Right Now. Are you currently searching for employment, or want a new job? Don’t wait for the new year to come. You need to start your search now. Begin by sprucing up your resume and giving it a revamp. There are many resume samples and resume templates you can find on the Internet to give yourself some inspiration and a leg up. However, you can also easily do it yourself by following these 5 steps. 1) Delete meaningless and paper, silly words: Problem: Your resume is filled with words like “passionate,” “driven,” “results-oriented,” “team-player,” etc: It’s tempting to fill up your resume with “confidence inspiring” words, but doing so will only hurt your resume. Even if you have a significant amount of essay, relevant experience, populating your resume with words like “passionate, “driven,” or “results-oriented” will only dissertation proposal, serve to dilute and pessimistic, pollute it. Why? Those words don’t mean anything without context.

Generally speaking, people are using these words to put lipstick on a pig. Your resume should be direct and to the point. Plan For Business Plan. As with all good writing, it’s important to “show, not tell.” If your resume is simply “telling” the hiring manager that you’re passionate, driven, and results-oriented, that literally means nothing to them. Solution: Delete these words wherever you see them, and essay, replace them with actual job duties and accomplishments: Suggestion 1: Instead of guide papers, telling the hiring manager that you’re “passionate,” give them an example of a project that you spearheaded to increase company profits #8212; that kind of information relays your passion much more clearly. Suggestion 2: Instead of telling the hiring manager that you’re “driven,” give an example of how you went above and beyond the call of duty complete a project or support another teammate. Problem: Your resume has no numbers specifying your achievements and pessimistic, the scope of your responsibilities: If you haven’t used numbers to describe your work experiences, you’re still doing too much “telling” and for research, not enough “showing.” Without numbers to essay help define the scope of your abilities and accomplishments, your resume will be vague, unclear, and boring. Even information like the size of the establishment you worked in can provide the hiring manager with valuable insight into your previous work experience, and give your resume a little more character. Solution: Wherever possible, specify your job description bullet points with numbers: Suggestion 1: If you helped increase company sales, write by how much. Plan For Business Plan. Suggestion 2: If you managed employees or trained new employees, write down how many. Suggestion 3: If you saved the pessimistic essay, company money, write down how you did it, and business plan, how much you saved. Suggestion 4: Did you manage a budget?

Write down how big it was. 3) Remove unrelated and old experience: Problem(s): It’s nearly 2015 – your experience from over a decade ago may not be relevant, even if it’s in the same industry. Essay. Meanwhile, if you’re applying for a job that has no relation to your previous work experience, you’ve probably included totally irrelevant information. Hiring managers are looking for relevant resumes – period. As a rule of thumb, your resume should only methodology, be 1-2 pages long. If you’re including experience that is over a decade old, it’s likely that your resume is either really long, or you’ve been out of work and need some information to pad your resume with. If you’re trying to switch careers, writing a resume can be tricky.

Many of the skills and abilities you have won’t be relevant for a different career track, and including unrelated job responsibilities will weaken your resume. You will need to get creative and find places where your knowledge, skills, and abilities overlap in a new career. Solution: Delete experiences older than a decade. Essay. If you are changing careers, delete your irrelevant experience, or modify it to emphasize the transferable skills. Suggestion 1: If you’ve been out of work, use a combination style resume to conceal your work experience gaps while relaying your relevant experience. Suggestion 2: Read the hiring manager’s job description carefully, and consider whether you current skill knowledge and locke an essay, skill set overlaps with their requirements. Pessimistic. Present the best spin possible on your resume – even if you don’t have the skills yet, you may be easily trainable because you have foundational skills (such as software skills, customer service skills, management skills, etc.) 4) Make a new version of your resume for each job: Problem: You wrapped up writing your resume and think you’re finished. Actually, you’ve still got work to do. Your resume needs to be ultra-specific, and ultra-targeted. If the key to buying property is “location, location, location,” then the lined paper, key to getting an interview is “relevance, relevance, relevance.” Crafting your resume so that it adheres as closely as possible to the hiring manager’s expectations is the pessimistic, key to getting their attention and essay and driving, landing an pessimistic interview. Solution: Write multiple versions of your resume, each of which targets a specific company.

Suggestion 1: Find the locke toleration, hiring manager’s job description, and sprinkle their keywords and phrasing into your resume. Essay. NOTE: This does not mean plagiarizing or copying what they’ve written – simply strategically employing important keywords to capture their attention. Suggestion 2: Draft your resume so that the skills and abilities they are calling for over and driving are towards the top of pessimistic, your resume, where they’ll instantly be seen. 5) Add some color and a stylized font: Problem: Your black and an essay, white resume, with Times New Roman font, while acceptable, may not be putting your best foot forward. It’s not a problem per-se, but a black and pessimistic essay, white resume with standard font doesn’t really have a lot of “oomph.” You could increase your chances of locke an essay concerning toleration, getting noticed by essay, styling up your resume a little bit. But don’t go overboard! Solution: Using a different font and adding a splash of color to your black and white resume can be a good way of making it “pop” out from methodology, your competition.

Suggestion 1: Use a binary color scheme – black and another color is good enough. Pessimistic Essay. Use the color on your headings and papers, keep your bullet points black. Suggestion 2: Keep it classy. Pessimistic Essay. Red, blue, and orange with comic sans won’t get you a job, unless you’re applying for a position at papers, a clown college. If you follow these suggestions, your resume will be ready for 2015. Don#8217;t hesitate to pessimistic apply now #8212; get in ap essay lined paper, before everyone else makes their new years resolutions! Author: Mark Slack is essay a resume expert and career adviser consulting for plan the smartest resume template creator, resumegenius.com. Pessimistic Essay. He is an avid hiker and biker, and marketing plan, is fluent in pessimistic essay, Mandarin. You can follow him at @MarkWSlack. This post is ap essay lined paper written by pessimistic, a guest author.

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Quotes and an essay on pessimism--an obstacle to living life fully

con vietnam essay In 20000 BC, before the first history was recorded in writings, there had been already among people the pessimistic legends and lined paper, mythology about the origin of Viet nation from HUNG VUONG. These are stories on essay HONG BANG dynasty, offspring of dragon and methodology dissertation proposal, fairy, bag of hundred eggs, eighteen kings of Hung Vuong dynasty, Son Tinh - Thuy Tinh's conflict, Thanh Giong's victory over essay, An foreign aggressors, folk of betel and areca nuts, banh chung banh day, watermelon . All these legends together can be regarded as a folk history. These historic legends were firstly collected and compiled by the contemporary authors' view. The two symbolic works of this aspect were Viet Dien U Linh by Ly Te Xuyen with a foreword in 1329, and Linh Nam Trich Quai by Tran The Phap in around end of Tran (1226), then edited by Vu Quynh and Kieu Phu in Le era (1428) with prologue in 1492-1493. According to one of the numerous legends concerning the origin of their state, a Vietnamese prince named LAC LONG QUAN came to Northern Viet Nam from his home in the sea. He married a princess from the mountain, AUCO, who is also described as the wife of a Northern Intruder (Chinese?), on the top of Mount Tan Vien, sometimes around 2800 BC Instead of the commonplace results of a union, the princess laid 100 eggs - when they hatched, a son emerged from drinking and driving, each of them. Afterward, the parents separated because he was dragon from the sea, she was lady fair from the mountain. Therefore, the mother led half the progeny across the northern mountains, and became the ancestors of the Muong. While the remaining fifty followed the father to the sea and became ancestors of the Vietnamese. The most valiant of the sons was chosen to essay be the first of the an essay toleration eighteen HUNG VUONG kings.

Lac Long Quan, a prince of the sea, and Au Co, a princess of the mountains, are regarded by the Vietnamese as their primal ancestors. Tai lieu tham khao: Lich su Viet Nam Trials and essay, Tribulations of a Nation. Viet Nam has been successively known as. The new state based on the irrigation system in the region of the three rivers in Upper Tonkin must have produced excess wealth, requiring protection against predatory enemies from the persuasive essay over and driving exposed borders to the North and the South. Therefore the need for extensive use of pessimistic essay, bronze technology for locke various weaponry. By the Dong son period, the kingdom of VAN LANG extended to pessimistic essay Hunan in Southern China. The capital was moved to Vinh Phu where the three rivers - Song Da (Black River), Song Ma (Red River) and Song Chay meet. What led to methodology proposal the fall of the HUNG rulers of VAN LANG, known to us partly through the essay Dong son cultural remains, cannot be established by build business plan, historical evidence. By 300 BC, it seems the people in the region of Kwangtung and Tonkin were divided into AU VIET, namely, Vietnamese of the highlands and LAC VIET, Vietnamese of the essay plains.

AN DUONG VUONG, about whom also not much is known, politically united them into the kingdom of AU LAC. Most scholars by now, accept that the Vietnamese are not descended from build, one single racial group, that they are instead a racial mixture of Austro-Indonesian and Mongolian races. The government is still very simple. Hung Vuong is the essay head of Van Lang. In Hung Vuong title, Vuong (a Chinese word, meaning King) is clearly to for business plan be added by later-time historians because of the concept of the head of a state should be the essay King. In Muong language, there is persuasive essay over drinking term kun in lang kun indicating the eldest son of the first family in line of descent who ruled the Muong. Probably, the word Hung is the Chinese phonetic transcription of an ancient Vietnamese which is synonymous and homonymous with kun, khun, khunzt . to address the chief of tribe, the leader. He was assisted by Lac Hau (civilian chiefs). Van Lang was composed of 15 bo(administrative division), and according to Viet Su Luoc, these bo were originally 15 tribes. Each bo was headed by Lac Tuong (military chiefs), or according to pessimistic essay a number of legend and methodology dissertation proposal, mythological tradition, these functionaries were also named bo chua, bo tuong, phu dao (meaning chief of tribes).

Archaeological findings indicate that the early peoples of the Red River delta area may have been among the first East Asians to practice agriculture, and by the 1st century BC they had achieved a relatively advanced level of Bronze Age civilization. In 221 BC the Ch'in dynasty in China completed its conquest of neighboring states and became the first to rule over a united China. The Ch'in Empire, however, did not long survive the death of its dynamic founder, Shih Huang Ti, and the impact of its collapse was soon felt in Viet Nam. In the wreckage of the empire, the Chinese commander in the south built his own kingdom of Nam Viet (South Viet; Chinese, Nan Yüeh); the young state of Au Lac was included. In 111 BC, Chinese armies conquered Nam Viet and absorbed it into the growing Han Empire.

The Chinese conquest had fateful consequences for the future course of Vietnamese history. Pessimistic Essay. After briefly ruling through local chieftains, Chinese rulers attempted to integrate Viet Nam politically and methodology dissertation, culturally into the Han Empire. Essay. Chinese administrators were imported to replace the local landed nobility. Style For Research Papers. Political institutions patterned after the Chinese model were imposed, and pessimistic essay, Confucianism became the build plan official ideology. The Chinese language was introduced as the essay medium of official and literary expression, and style papers, Chinese ideographs were adopted as the written form for the Vietnamese spoken language.

Chinese art, architecture, and music exercised a powerful impact on their Vietnamese counterparts. 39. TRUNG SISTERS. Vietnamese resistance to rule by the Chinese was fierce but sporadic. The most famous early revolt took place in AD 39, when two widows of pessimistic, local aristocrats, the dissertation Trung sisters, led an essay, uprising against methodology proposal, foreign rule. The revolt was briefly successful, and the older sister, Trung Trac, established herself as ruler of an independent state. Pessimistic. Chinese armies returned to the attack, however, and in AD 43 Viet Nam was reconquered. The Trung sisters' revolt was only the first in a series of intermittent uprisings that took place during a thousand years of Chinese rule in Viet Nam. Finally, in 939, Vietnamese forces under Ngo Quyen took advantage of chaotic conditions in China to ap essay paper defeat local occupation troops and pessimistic essay, set up an marketing plan for business, independent state. Ngo Quyen's death a few years later ushered in a period of pessimistic essay, civil strife, but in the early 11th century the first of the great Vietnamese dynasties was founded.

Under the astute leadership of several dynamic rulers, the Ly dynasty ruled Viet Nam for more than 200 years, from dissertation proposal, 1010 to 1225. Although the rise of the Ly reflected the emergence of a lively sense of Vietnamese nationhood, Ly rulers retained many of the political and social institutions that had been introduced during the period of Chinese rule. Confucianism continued to provide the foundation for the political institutions of the state. The Chinese civil service examination system was retained as the means of selecting government officials, and pessimistic, although at first only members of the nobility were permitted to compete in the examinations, eventually the right was extended to include most males. The educational system also continued to reflect the Chinese model. Young Vietnamese preparing for the examinations were schooled in concerning the Confucian classics and grew up conversant with the great figures and ideas that had shaped Chinese history. Vietnamese society, however, was more than just a pale reflection of China. Beneath the veneer of Chinese fashion and thought, popular mostly among the upper classes, native forms of expression continued to flourish. Young Vietnamese learned to appreciate the great heroes of the Vietnamese past, many of whom had built their reputation on resistance to essay the Chinese conquest. At the village level, social mores reflected native forms more than patterns imported from China.

Although to the superficial eye Viet Nam looked like a smaller dragon, under the tutelage of the great empire to the north it continued to have a separate culture with vibrant traditions of methodology, its own. 1010. LY DYNASTY. Like most of its neighbors, Viet Nam was primarily an agricultural state, its survival based above all on the cultivation of wet rice. As in medieval Europe, much of the pessimistic land was divided among powerful noble families, who often owned thousands of serfs or domestic slaves. Dissertation Proposal. A class of landholding farmers also existed, however, and powerful monarchs frequently attempted to protect this class by limiting the pessimistic essay power of feudal lords and dividing up their large estates.

The Vietnamese economy was not based solely on agriculture. Commerce and manufacturing thrived, and local crafts appeared in regional markets throughout the guide for research area. Pessimistic. Viet Nam never developed into a predominantly commercial nation, however, or became a major participant in methodology regional trade patterns. 1225. TRAN'S TERRITORIAL EXPANSION. Under the rule of the Ly dynasty and pessimistic, its successor, the marketing for business Tran (1225-1400), Viet Nam became a dynamic force in Southeast Asia. China's rulers, however, had not abandoned their historic objective of controlling the Red River delta, and when the essay Mongol dynasty came to power in the 13th century, the armies of style guide for research papers, Kublai Khan attacked Viet Nam in pessimistic an effort to reincorporate it into ap essay lined paper, the Chinese Empire. The Vietnamese resisted with vigor, and after several bitter battles they defeated the invaders and drove them back across the essay border. While the Vietnamese maintained their vigilance toward the north, an methodology dissertation, area of equal and growing concern lay to the south. For centuries, the Vietnamese state had been restricted to its heartland in the Red River valley and pessimistic, adjacent hills. Tension between Viet Nam and the kingdom of proposal, Champa, a seafaring state along the essay central coast, appeared shortly after the restoration of Vietnamese independence.

On several occasions, Cham armies broke through Vietnamese defenses and occupied the capital near Hanoi. More frequently, Vietnamese troops were victorious, and they gradually drove Champa to dissertation proposal the south. Finally, in the 15th century, Vietnamese forces captured the essay Cham capital south of present-day Da Nang and virtually destroyed the kingdom. For the next several generations, Viet Nam continued its historic march to the south, wiping up the remnants of the locke Cham Kingdom and gradually approaching the pessimistic essay marshy flatlands of the Mekong delta. There it confronted a new foe, the Khmer Empire, which had once been the most powerful state in the region.

By the late 16th century, however, it had declined, and it offered little resistance to Vietnamese encroachment. By the end of the business plan 17th century, Viet Nam had occupied the lower Mekong delta and began to advance to the west, threatening to transform the essay disintegrating Khmer state into for business, a mere protectorate. 1428. LE DYNASTY. The Vietnamese advance to the south coincided with new challenges in the north.

In 1407 Viet Nam was again conquered by Chinese troops. For two decades, the Ming dynasty attempted to reintegrate Viet Nam into pessimistic, the empire, but in persuasive essay 1428, resistance forces under the rebel leader Le Loi dealt the Chinese a decisive defeat and restored Vietnamese independence. Le Loi mounted the throne as the first emperor of the pessimistic essay Le dynasty. The new ruling house retained its vigor for more than a hundred years, but in the 16th century it began to decline. Power at court was wielded by two rival aristocratic clans, the locke concerning toleration Trinh and the Nguyen. When the former became dominant, the Nguyen were granted a fiefdom in the south, dividing Viet Nam into two separate zones.

Rivalry was sharpened by essay, the machinations of style for research, European powers newly arrived in essay Southeast Asia in pursuit of wealth and Christian converts. By the late 18th century, the business plan Le dynasty was near collapse. Vast rice lands were controlled by pessimistic, grasping feudal lords. Angry peasantsled by the Tay Son brothersrevolted, and in style papers 1789 Nguyen Hue, the ablest of the brothers, briefly restored Viet Nam to pessimistic united rule. Nguyen Hue died shortly after ascending the throne; a few years later Nguyen Anh, an heir to the Nguyen house in the south, defeated the Tay Son armies. As Emperor Gia Long, he established a new dynasty in 1802. 1830. FRENCH INTERVENTION.

A French missionary, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, had raised a mercenary force to help Nguyen Anh seize the marketing plan plan throne in the hope that the new emperor would provide France with trading and missionary privileges, but his hopes were disappointed. The Nguyen dynasty was suspicious of essay, French influence. Roman Catholic missionaries and their Vietnamese converts were persecuted, and a few were executed during the 1830s. Religious groups in France demanded action from the government in Paris. When similar pressure was exerted by commercial and military interests, Emperor Napoleon III approved the marketing plan for business plan launching of a naval expedition in 1858 to punish the pessimistic Vietnamese and force the court to accept a French protectorate. The first French attack at Da Nang Harbor failed to achieve its objectives, but a second farther south was more successful, and in 1862 the court at Hue agreed to guide papers cede several provinces in the Mekong delta (later called Cochin China) to France. In the 1880s the French returned to the offensive, launching an attack on the north. After severe defeats, the Vietnamese accepted a French protectorate over pessimistic, the remaining territory of Viet Nam. 1854.

COLONIAL RULE RESISTANCE. The imposition of French colonial rule had met with little organized resistance. The national sense of identity, however, had not been crushed, and anticolonial sentiment soon began to emerge. Papers. Poor economic conditions contributed to native hostility to French rule. Although French occupation brought improvements in essay transportation and locke toleration, communications, and contributed to the growth of commerce and manufacturing, colonialism brought little improvement in essay livelihood to the mass of the population. For Business Plan. In the countryside, peasants struggled under heavy taxes and pessimistic, high rents. Style Papers. Workers in pessimistic essay factories, in coal mines, and on concerning toleration rubber plantations labored in abysmal conditions for low wages. By the early 1920s, nationalist parties began to demand reform and independence. In 1930 the revolutionary Ho Chi Minh formed an Indochinese Communist party. Until World War II started in 1939, such groups labored without success.

In 1940, however, Japan demanded and received the essay right to place Viet Nam under military occupation, restricting the local French administration to figurehead authority. Seizing the opportunity, the Communists organized the broad Vietminh Front and prepared to launch an uprising at the war's end. The Vietminh (short for style for research Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh, or League for the Independence of Viet Nam) emphasized moderate reform and essay, national independence rather than specifically Communist aims. When the Japanese surrendered to the Allies in papers August 1945, Vietminh forces arose throughout Viet Nam and pessimistic, declared the establishment of an independent republic in Hanoi. The French, however, were unwilling to concede independence and in October drove the Vietminh and other nationalist groups out build of the south. For more than a year the French and the Vietminh sought a negotiated solution, but the talks, held in France, failed to resolve differences, and pessimistic essay, war broke out in December 1946.

The conflict lasted for nearly eight years. 1954. Methodology Proposal. DIEN BIEN PHU FIRST MASS EXODUS FROM NORTH TO SOUTH. The Vietminh retreated into essay, the hills to build up their forces while the French formed a rival Vietnamese government under Emperor Bao Dai, the last ruler of the Nguyen dynasty, in populated areas along the coast. Vietminh forces lacked the strength to style for research defeat the French and generally restricted their activities to guerrilla warfare. In 1953 and 1954 the French fortified a base at Dien Bien Phu. After months of siege and heavy casualties, the Vietminh overran the fortress in a decisive battle. After Geneva, the Vietminh in Hanoi refrained from armed struggle and began to build a Communist society. In the southern capital, Saigon, Bao Dai soon gave way to a new regime under the staunch anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem. With diplomatic support from the essay United States, Diem refused to hold elections and attempted to methodology proposal destroy Communist influence in pessimistic essay the South.

By 1959, however, Diem was in trouble dealing with domestic opposition that led to rising unrest. The Communists decided it was time to locke toleration resume their revolutionary war. 1975. VIET NAM WAR'S GRUESOME ENDING. In the fall of 1963, Diem was overthrown and killed in a coup launched by his own generals. In the political confusion that followed, the security situation in pessimistic South Viet Nam continued to deteriorate, putting the Communists within reach of victory. In early 1965, to prevent the total collapse of the Saigon regime, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson approved regular intensive bombing of North Viet Nam and the dispatch of U.S. combat troops into the South. The U.S. intervention caused severe problems for methodology the Communists on the battlefield and compelled them to send regular units of the North Vietnamese army into the South. It did not persuade them to pessimistic abandon the struggle, however, and in 1968, after the North's bloody Tet offensive shook South Viet Nam to its foundations, the Johnson administration decided to pursue a negotiated settlement. Ho Chi Minh died in 1969 (?) and was succeeded by for business, another leader of the revolution, Le Duan.

The new U.S. president, Richard Nixon, continued Johnson's policy while gradually withdrawing U.S. troops. In January 1973 the war temporarily came to an end with the signing of a peace agreement in Paris. The settlement provided for the total removal of essay, remaining U.S. troops, while Hanoi tacitly agreed to accept the Thieu regime in persuasive essay over drinking preparation for new national elections. The agreement soon fell apart because in early 1975 the Communists launched a military offensive. In six weeks, the resistance of the pessimistic essay Thieu regime collapsed, and on April 30 the Communists seized power in Saigon. A mass exodus began. An estimated 2 million people set out by style, sea thus the term boat people. For every person made it to the shore 2 others died of starvation, drowing or murdered, raped by pirates.

The escapes continued many years afterward. Following the Fall of Saigon, Reeducation camps were set up by the communist government to imprison over pessimistic essay, 2+ million former military officers and build business plan, government workers as means of revenge and repression. According to pessimistic published academic studies in paper the United States and Europe, 165,000 people died in re-education camps due to tortured or abused. Pessimistic. Prisoners were incarcerated for as long as 17 years, with most terms ranging from 3 to build plan 10 years. 1976. COMMUNIST VIET NAM. In 1976 Vietnam beame a new Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

The conclusion of the war, however, did not end the violence. Border tension with the essay Communist government in papers Cambodia escalated rapidly after the fall of Saigon, and in early 1979 the essay Vietnamese invaded Cambodia and ap essay lined, installed a pro-Vietnamese government. Pessimistic. A few weeks later, Viet Nam was itself attacked by its Communist neighbor and erstwhile benefactor, China. Within Viet Nam, postwar economic and lined paper, social problems were severe, and reconstruction proceeded slowly. Corruption further retarded Viet Nam's recovery. The country signed a peace agreement with Cambodia in 1991 and shortly thereafter restored diplomatic relations with China.

The United States removed a trade embargo in 1994. WHO'S WHO IN VIET NAM HISTORY? Kinh Duong Vuong reigns over the Xich Quy kingdom that spread in the North up to the Blue river; in the South to essay Central Viet Nam; in the West up to Sseutch'ouan; and in the East as far as the sea. The Hong Bang dynasty that reigns over the Van Lang kingdom situated in Tonquin and in the Northern part of Central Viet Nam. The Thuc dynasty. The Trieu dynasty. Chinese general Tch'ao To (Trieu Da) who reigns over the Nan-yue (Nam Viet) kingdom with capital at Fan-yu, subdued the ap essay lined Au Lac kingdom.

He founded the Trieu dynasty that reigns at Fan-yu. In Tonquin (Kiao-tche, Giao Chi), legend of My Chau and pessimistic, Trong Thuy attached to the Co Loa capital (Phuc Yen province). Trung Trac and Trung Nhi. In 39, when two widows of local aristocrats, the Trung sisters, led an locke an essay concerning toleration, uprising against foreign rule. The revolt was briefly successful, and the older sister, Trung Trac, established herself as ruler of an independent state. Chinese armies returned to pessimistic essay the attack, however, and in 43 Viet Nam was reconquered.

M t xin r a s ch n c th , Hai xin em l i nghi m x a h H ng. Ba k o oan c l ng ch ng, B n xin v n v n s công lênh n y! Foremost, I will avenge my country, Second, I will restore the marketing plan for business plan Hung lineage, Third, I will avenge the death of my husband,

Lastly, I vow that these goals will be accomplished. Source: Thien Nam Ngu Luc, 17th century. Trieu Thi Trinh (225-248) aka Trieu Au, fought for Viet Nam's independence against China in 248. Defeated at the age of 23, she committed suicide. Tôi mu n c i c n gi m nh, p lu ng s ng d , ch m c k nh bi n kh i, nh u i quân Ngô, gi nh l i giang s n, c i ch nô l , ch tôi không ch u khom l ng l m t thi p ng i. I want to track storms, ride hazardous waves, hunt sharks in the open sea, expel the Chinese invaders, restore the pessimistic essay country, untie servitude, and never descend to be someone's concubine. Source: Viet Su Thong Giam Cuong Muc. The earlier Ly and Trieu. The Ngo dynasty.

In a protracted war which ended with the celebrated battle of Bach Dang. General Ngo Quyen vanquished the Chinese invaders and founded the marketing for business first National dynasty. Ngo Quyen transfered the capital to Co Loa, the capital of Au Lac Kingdom, thus affirming the continuity of the traditions of the Lac Viet people. Ngo Quyen spent 6 years of his reign fighting the continual revolts of the feudal lords. At his death in 967, the kingdom fell into chaos and became known as the pessimistic essay land of Thap Nhi Su Quan, the 12 feudal principlities constantly fighting each other. The Dinh dynasty. The most powerful of the 12 feudal lords, Dinh Bo Linh rapidly ruled out the methodology proposal others. Pessimistic Essay. He reunified the country and took the imperial title of Dinh Tien Hoang De (The First August Emperor Dinh). Plan. He negotiated a non-aggression treaty in exchange for tributes payable to the Chinese every 3 years. This set the traditions with China which were to last for pessimistic centuries. On the domestic front, Dinh Tien Hoang established a royal court and a hierarchy of civil and military servants.

He instated a rigorous justice system and introduced the marketing death penalty to serve as a deterrent to all who threatened the new order of the new kingdom. He organized a regular army divided into 10 Dao. Pessimistic. Security and order were progressively re-established, inaugurating a new era of Thai Binh (peace). He was assasinated in 979 by a palace guard, who according to the Annals, saw a star falling into his mouth - a celestial omen heralding promotion. Dissertation Proposal. The heir to the throne was only essay, 6 years old. The earlier Le dynasty. Le Hoan dethroned Dinh Bo Linh's heir and proclaimed himself King Le Dai Hanh. He retained the capital in Hoa Luu and locke concerning toleration, succeeded in warding off several Chinese invasions. Pessimistic Essay. With peace assured on locke toleration the northern border, he decided to pacify the South. In 982, Le Dai Hanh launched a military expedition against the Champa kingdom, entered Indrapura (present-day Quang Nam) and essay, burnt the Champa citadel. The conquest of this nothern part of the ap essay lined paper Champa Kingdom brought about a marked Cham influence on Vietnamese culture, particular in the fields of music and dance.

Le Dai Hanh devoted a great deal of energy to developing the road network in order to essay better administer the countrýs different regions. After 24 years of proposal, difficult rule, he died in 1005. Genghis Khan, original name Temujin (1167?-1227), Mongol conqueror, whose nomad armies created a vast empire under his control, from pessimistic, China to Russia. Persuasive Over. He was born near Lake Baikal in Russia, the son of Yesukai, a Mongol chief and ruler of a large region between the Amur River and the Great Wall of China. At the age of 13, Temujin succeeded his father as tribal chief. His early reign was marked by successive revolts of his subject tribes and an intense struggle to retain his leadership, but the pessimistic Mongol ruler soon demonstrated his military genius and conquered not only his intractable subjects but his hostile neighbors as well. By 1206 Temujin was master of almost all of Mongolia.

In that year, a convocation of the build plan subjugated tribes proclaimed him Genghis Khan (Chinese cheng-sze, precious warrior; Turkish khan, lord), leader of the united Mongol and Tatar tribes; the city of essay, Karakorum was designated his capital. The khan then began his conquest of China. By 1208 he had established a foothold inside the Great Wall, and in 1213 he led his armies south and west into the area dominated by the Juchen Chin (or Kin) dynasty (1122-1234), not stopping until he reached the Shantung Peninsula. In 1215 his armies captured Yenking (now Beijing), the last Chin stronghold in northern China, and in 1218 the Korean Peninsula fell to the Mongols. In 1219, in retaliation for the murder of plan plan, some Mongol traders, Genghis Khan turned his armies westward, invading Khoresm, a vast Turkish empire that included modern Iraq, Iran, and part of Western Turkestan.

Looting and massacring, the Mongols swept through Turkestan and sacked the cities of pessimistic essay, Bukhoro and Samarqand. In what are now northern India and Pakistan, the persuasive essay over drinking invaders conquered the cities of Peshawar and Lahore and the surrounding countryside. In 1222 the Mongols marched into Russia and plundered the region between the Volga and Dnepr rivers and from the Persian Gulf almost to the Arctic Ocean. The greatness of the pessimistic essay khan as a military leader was borne out not only by his conquests but by the excellent organization, discipline, and maneuverability of ap essay, his armies. Moreover, the Mongol ruler was an admirable statesman; his empire was so well organized that, so it was claimed, travelers could go from one end of his domain to the other without fear or danger. At his death, on August 18, 1227, the pessimistic essay Mongol Empire was divided among his three sons and gradually dissipated. Style Guide For Research Papers. Four of pessimistic essay, his grandsons, however, became great Mongol leaders in their own right. Genghis Khan's invasions were of essay over drinking, great historical importance long after his death, for the Turks, who fled before him, were driven to their own invasion of pessimistic, Europe. Nam Qu c s n h Nam Ð c. ti t nhiên nh ph n t i thiên th. nh h ngh ch l lai xâm ph m. nh ng h nh khan th b i h.

Over the plan southern mountains and rivers, the Emperor of the South shall reign, This was written down in the Book of Heaven. How dare those barbarians invade our soil? They will surely meet with defeat. Ly Cong Uan was a disciple of a famous monk, Van Hanh, who helped him into power in essay the Hoa Luu Court. Assuming the name Ly Thai To, the new sovereign inaugurated his dynasty with a change of capital. According to the Annals, king Ly Thai To saw the over drinking apparition of an ascending dragon on the site of the future capital and decided to name it Thang Long (Ascending Dragon).

Ly Thanh Tong rechristened the country Dai Viet. Ly Thai Tong, Ly Anh Tong, and Ly Cao Tong led the essay Buddhist sects of essay, Thao Duong and founded some 150 monasteries in the region of Thang Long. The Ly dynasty consolidated the essay monarchy by setting up a centralized government and establishing a tax system, a judiciary system and a professional army. Important public works, including the building of style, dikes and pessimistic, canals, were undertaken inorder to develop argriculture and settle the locke an essay concerning population. Vietnamese art and culture thrived during the pessimistic Ly dynasty. The Tran dynasty. Tran Hung Dao (1213-1300), Vietnamese general.

In 1284, Kublai Khan leads a 500,000-man Chinese army into Viet Nam. Guerrillas organized by Tran Hung Dao virtually destroy the invasion force. Persuasive Over. He is greatly credited with having repelled three major Mongol invasions. He recommended many men of great talents: Da Tuong, Yet Kieu, were credited with killing Generals Omar and Sogetsu of Yuan army. Many other intellects/ pillars of the Tran court were his former subordinates. If the pessimistic essay Mongols are not defeated, we will not retreat. Kublai Khan (1215-94), Mongol military leader, founder and first emperor (1279-94) of the Mongol Yuan dynasty in marketing plan plan China, grandson of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and pessimistic, his best-known successor.

Kublai Khan completed the conquest of locke an essay, China that was begun by his grandfather. From 1252 to 1259 he aided his brother Mangu Khan in the conquest of southern China, penetrating successfully as far as Tibet and Tonkin. Upon the death of Mangu in 1259 he became the khan, or ruler. Between 1260 and 1279 he succeeded in driving the Kin Tatars out of northern China and in essay subduing rebellious factions among the Mongols. In 1264 he founded his capital on the site now occupied by Beijing; it was called Khanbalik, which is build business plan romanized as Cambaluc or Cambalu. Pessimistic Essay. He relinquished all claims to the parts of the Mongol Empire outside China, consolidated his hold on China, and in 1279 established the essay drinking Yuan dynasty as the essay successor to the Southern Sung dynasty. Guide For Research Papers. He undertook foreign wars in attempts to enforce tribute claims on neighboring states, conquering Burma and Korea.

His military expeditions to Java and Japan, however, met with disaster. Essay. His name was known all over Asia and also in Europe. The court at Cambaluc attracted an international group of adventurous men, including the famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo. Kublai Khan did much to encourage the advancement of methodology dissertation, literature and the arts. He was a devout Buddhist and made Buddhism the state religion, but during his reign other religions were also tolerated. Bronze seal as authority emblem of Mongol officers. Princess Huyen Tran, married to the King of Champa in 1307. The marriage extended the national territory southwards with the peaceful annexation of the Hue region and at the same time inaugurated the politics and diplomatic marriage.

Le Qui Ly, founded a dynasty under his ancestral name of Ho. Under Ho, the competitive examination system for administrators was modified to demand more practical knowledge of peasant life, mathematics, history, the Confucian classics and literature. Pessimistic Essay. Legal reforms were undertaken and a medical service established. In 1407, The Ming intervention provoked the ap essay lined fall of the Ho dynasty. During the short period of Chinese occupation that followed, the Vietnamese suffered the most inhuman exploitation. The later Tran dynasty. Le Loi, Vietnamese emperor (1428-1433), established the kingdom of Dai Viet.

He organized a resistance movement from his village and waged a guerrilla war against the China's Ming Empire. By employing a strategy of surprise attacks targeting his adversary's weakest points, Le Loi managed to pessimistic further weaken the enemy and at the same time avoid combat with the superior Chinese forces. His enforcement of ap essay, strict military discipline ensured that no pillaging was carried out by his troops in the regions under his control and this made him a very popular hero. Nguyen Trai, poet and strategist, set down the Vietnamese strategy in an essay which subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it stated: Better to conquer hearts than citadels. Essay. In 1426, Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hano In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Viet Nam's independence, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scale assault against Viet Nam. Binh Ngo Dai Cao. Great Proclamation on the Victory over China, 14th Century.

Le Thai Tong, Vietnamese emperor, son of Le Thai To. His sudden death was followed by a decade of confusion marked by intrigues and lined paper, plots within the Royal Court. Under his 36 year reign the country prospered as never before. Le Thanh Tong revised the fiscal system, encouraged argriculture and placed great emphasis on pessimistic customs and moral principles. A writer himself, he founded the Tao Dan Academy and marketing plan for business, wrote the first volume of pessimistic essay, national history. He reorganized army won an easy victory over the Champa army in locke an essay 1471. His farmer-soldiers excelled not only on the battlefields, but also in the fields where they established militarized argricultural communities wherever they went. In this way the national territory was gradually expanded southwards, until finally the Champa Kingdom was completely absorbed and assimilated in 1673. Alexandre de Rhodes, the misionary who traveled through out Asia in the 17th century. An accomplished linguist, he improvised Portuguese into Quoc Ngu, still in use today, to transcribe the Vietnamese language in Roman letters instead of Chinese ideographs.

The Mac dynasty. Mac Dang Dung, shrewded and scheming adviser at essay the Royal Court, seized control and found the Mac dynasty. The later Le dynasty. The Tay Son brothers. The Tay Son brothers - Nguyen Nhac, Nguyen Lu and business plan, Nguyen Hue - staged an uprising against the leading Le Lords. Quang Trung (1752-1792) was born in Kien Thanh hamlet, Binh Thanh village, Binh Khe district (Binh Dinh province). In 1788, the Qing court decided to send an expeditionary corps to conquer the divided country.

Nguyen Hue proclaimed himself Emperor Quang Trung in Phu Xuan and overran the essay Chinese troops. He pacified the locke an essay Northern part of the country from the Chinese border to the Hai Van pass in the Center and devoted his energies to pessimistic national rehabilitation, administrative reorganization and for research, economic development. Significantly, Quang Trung replaced the Chinese Han with the popular Nôm as the official language. He died not long after 1792. Loi du tuong si (Military persuasion) Ð nh cho n ch ch luân b t ph n. Ð nh cho n phi n gi p b t ho n. Ð nh cho s tri nam qu c anh h ng chi h u ch. Fight, so our hair can grow. Fight, so our teeth can be black*

Fight, so the enemy's moral contradict within. Fight, so the pessimistic enemy has no way out. Fight, because it's our birth-right. The Nguyen dynasty. Gia Long, nicknamed Nguyen Anh, founding emperor of the Nguyen dynasty. In 1778, when the Nguyen Capital of build plan, Gia Dinh (Saigon) was seized by the Tay Son Rebellion, he was the only surviving member of the Nguyen lords. In 1787, he signed a treaty with France to restore the Nguyen in power in pessimistic return for the cession port of Tourane (Da Nang) and ap essay paper, the island of essay, Poulo Condore. The promised assistant from France did not materialize. In 1801, he subdued the Tay Son with helps from the training in modern military techniques and build, Bishop of Adran.

The dynastic name Gia Long, taken from the names of the southern (Gia Dinh) and northern (Thang Long) capitals, symbolized the reunification. The new capital was place at Hue (Phu Xuan), near the essay central coast. Le Van Duyet (1763-1832), regional official in guide for research South Viet Nam during 19th century. In 1799, he led Nguyen forces against the Tay Son at Qui Nhon. Gia Long appointed him regent of South Viet Nam including the authority to pessimistic conduct foreign relations with Europe and business plan, other Southeast Asian nations. Essay. His attempt to ap essay lined prevent Minh Mang's succession to the throne when Gia Long died, earned him the extreme wrath of the monarch. Pessimistic. When he died in 1832, he was post-humously convicted and his grave desecrated, leading his adopted son, Le Van Khoi, to rebel.

The revolt posed a serious threat to Minh Mang because advantage was taken of it by Siam sending its troops to Cochin-China. Minh Mang defeated Siamese troops and crushed the rebellion. Pierre Pigneau de Be'haine, Bishop of Adran, the Catholic missionary who first evoked France's interest in Viet Nam. He befriended a pretender to the Vietnamese throne, Nguyen Anh, who founded the Nguyen dynasty. The Bishop of ap essay, Adran saw an opportunity to expand the church's influence in essay the post Tay Son era and lined paper, negotiated a promise of military aid for Nguyen Anh from the French Government in exchange for territorial and commercial rights. Prince Canh, Gia Long's eldest son, who accompanied Pierre Pigneau de Be'haine to the court of essay, Louis XVI at Versailles, where he caused a sensation. Canh was educated at a missionary school in Malacca and converted to Catholicism which made him the first Viet prince educated by Westerners.

Minh Mang, Nguyen's 2nd emperor, once prince Mien Tong, son of Gia Long, a gentle scholar who French propagandists of the time depicted as a cruel tyrant. The Catholic missions had sped up their evangelization of the people provoked Ming Mang's anti-Catholic policy which ordered the prosecution of Catholic missionaries and their Vietnamese converts. The anti-Catholic policy gave French a pretext to intervene in guide papers Viet Nam. The landing of a French party in the port of Tourane, in August 1858, heralded the beginning of the colonial occupation which was to last almost a century. Phan Thanh Gian (1796-1867).

In 1826, he earned a doctorate in the civil service examaminations and entered the imperial bureaucracy. He served as a deputy chief of a diplomatic mission to China, and later was named province chief in Quang Nam and Binh Dinh provinces. In 1862 he was appointed to negotiate a treaty with Napoleon III following the defeat by French forces at Ky Hoa. When the essay French violated the an essay concerning pact, Phan commited suicide after pledging his sons never to cooperate with France. Thieu Tri, Nguyen's 3rd emperor, became more and more entrenched in his Confucian doctrine, the country experienced an era of stagnancy. The court mandarins were increasingly blinded to the development of the pessimistic essay outside world and worse still, implemented a policy of isolation that forbade any contact with foreigners.

In 1843, When Tri began to imprison the paper missionaries, French government sent a military expedition to Indochina with orders to pessimistic essay protect and defend French interests and build, free the missionaries. Tu Duc, Nguyen's 4th emperor, whose crass persecution of Christians in his realm provided France with a pretext to pursue its colonial encroachment in the region. Pessimistic. The execution of a Spanish bishop in 1857 led to the French capture of Saigon in marketing plan for business plan 1859, and three years later Tu Duc was forced to cede part of Cochin China; by pessimistic, 1867 France had annexed all of it. Tu Duc's later attempt to play the French against intervention by China succeeded only in the French occupation of papers, Tonkin in pessimistic 1882, but he died shortly before the final reduction of his country to a French protectorate in 1883. Ham Nghi, Nguyen's 8th emperor. After establishment of French Protectorate in 1884. Brother of Emperor Kien Phuc, who died after a brief reign in 1884, Ham Nghi rose to the throne at the age of twelve. In July 1845 he fled the capital of Hue with Regent Ton That Thuyet to launch the Can Vuong resistance movement against French occupation. Captured in November 1888, Ham Nghi was sent to live out his life in ap essay paper exile in essay Algeria, and died there in 1947.

Left: 18 years old portrait by M. Vuillier when he started his term as prisoner. Dong Khanh, Nguyen's 9th emperor, selected by the French to rule because of his docility. He reigned three years: 1885-1889. As his uncle, Emperor Tu Duc, had no children, Dong Khanh was adopted and made the Duke of persuasive essay, Kien Giang. Thanh Thai, Nguyen's 10th emperor under the French Protectorate.

A son of Emperor Duc Duc, who reigned for only 3 days. He resented French domination and was deposed on pessimistic essay suspicion of conspiracy in 1907. Exiled to the island of Reunion, he was later returned to Viet Nam. Duy Tan was son of paper, King Thanh Thai became Nguyen's 11th emperor at 7 years old. Pessimistic Essay. He reigned for 9 years: 1907-1916. Plan For Business Plan. After France deposed and essay, exiled King Thanh Thai, they wanted a very young succesor to build business plan easily controlled. Eventually his rebellion against pessimistic, the French led to his exile to an essay concerning toleration Reunion Island in 1916. Right: Duy Tan as a boy.

Filthy hands could be washed, but how do you clean a filthy* country? The answer is simply to get rid of all foreign substances. Pessimistic Essay. (Khi tay ban thi lay nuoc ma rua, khi nuoc ban thi lay chi ma rua? Nuoc ban thi phai tim cach tru khu nhung chat ngoai lai lan vao trong do, hieu khong?) * Filthy= referring to the French colonial rulers. Khai Dinh, Nguyen's 12th emperor. Khai Dinh means auger of peace and stability. He reigned nine years: 1916-1925.

He was the son of marketing plan, Emperor Dong Khanh. Like his father, as French puppet, he was unpopular with the people. His unpopularity reached its peak in 1923 when he authorized the French to raise taxes on the Vietnamese peasants to pay for the building of his palatial tomb. Bao Dai, last emperor of the Nguyen dynasty of Viet Nam. Bao Dai means keeper of greatness. He reigned 19 years: 1926-1945. He ruled under French and during the last days of World War II Japanese protection until forced out by the Viet Minh in 1945.

He returned in 1949 to head the new state of Viet Nam til 1955, set up by France to rival the Communist government of pessimistic, Ho Chi Minh. After Viet Nam's partition in 1954, Bao Dai remained head of marketing for business, state in pessimistic essay South Viet Nam until deposed by Premier Ngo Dinh Diem the following year. Thereafter he lived in essay drinking exile and died in 1997 (83 yo). Truong Cong Dinh, (1820-1864). Military commander of essay, Vietnamese forces resisting the French conquest of South Viet Nam in the early 1860s. Born in Quang Nam Province, he was the son of a career military officer, who was appointed commander of royal troops in Gia Dinh Province, near present-day Saigon. When the an essay concerning threat of French invasion loomed in the late 1850s, he helped organize military settlements (cong dien) and became deputy commander of militia forces in the region. After taking part in pessimistic essay the Battle of Ky Hoa (February 1861), Truong Dinh withdrew his forces south of Saigon, where he launched a prolonged guerrilla resistance against French occupation. Ordered to desist by the imperial court after the Treaty of Saigon (June 1962), he refused and continued the struggle. Wounded in battle in August 1864, he committed suicide. Ton That Thuyet, lanh tu phong trao Can Vuong.

Anti-French resistance leader in 19th century Viet Nam. After the Treaty of Protectorate in 1884 established French control over the Vietnamese Empire, Ton That Thuyet, an influential court official, fled with the young Emperor Ham Nghi in the hope of methodology, launching a nationwide revolt against French rule. Pessimistic Essay. Seeking refuge in style the mountains north of essay, Hue, Ton That Thuyet and Ham Nghi issued an appeal entitled Save the lined paper King (Can Vuong) to the Vietnamese people for support. Phan Dinh Phung (1847-1895), lanh dao cuoc khoi nghia Huong Son, Huong Khe - Ha Tinh. Cung voi Cao Thang chi huy cuoc khoi nghia chong quan Phap trong 10 nam, 1885-1895. Anti-French resistance leader in late 19th-century Viet Nam. Raised in a scholar-official family from Ha Tinh Province, Phan Dinh Phung received a doctorate in essay the civil service examinations given in 1877.

He served in the Imperial Censorate (Do Sat Vien), where he was noted for his integrity and an essay concerning toleration, was briefly imprisoned in 1883 for refusing to sanction a successor to the deceased Emperor Tu Duc not designated by pessimistic essay, the emperor himself. When Emperor Ham Nghi issued his famous Can Vuong (Save the King) appeal in July 1885, Phan Dinh Phung responded and launched a revolt in his native province of Ha Tinh. The movement quickly spread to neighboring provinces and lasted 10 years, despite numerous appeals to Phan Dinh Phung from colleagues who had chosen to collaborate with the French, and despite the desecration of his ancestral plot by the colonial regime. The movement was a nuisance to the French, but the rebels lacked weapons and central direction from the puppet court in persuasive essay and driving Hue, and essay, shortly after Phan Dinh Phung died of dysentery in December 1895 it collapsed. Hoang Hoa Tham (1858-1913), also known as De Tham (colonel Tham), leader of Yen The Imsurrection (lanh dao cuoc khoi nghia nong dan Yen The (Ha Bac)). Holding out against French control for 30 years (da ben bi to chuc chong Phap trong gan 30 nam (1885-1913)). Pirate leader and patriot in French-ruled Viet Nam. Born in a poor peasant family in Hung Yen Province in the mid-19th century, De Tham was raised in Yen The, in style for research the rugged mountains north of the Red River Delta, and as a young man joined the Black Flag bandit organization led by the pirate leader Luu Vinh Phuc. He became a bandit leader, stealing from the rich to help the poor. After vainly attempting to suppress his movement, the French made a truce with De Tham in 1893, but the latter began to cooperate with anticolonial elements and allegedly took part in a plot to poison the pessimistic essay Hanoi military garrison planned by Phan Boi Chau.

The French resumed their efforts to style for research capture him, and pessimistic essay, he was assassinated by an agent of the French in 1913. Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940), lanh tu phong trao Dong Du, 1904-1909. Plan. Founder of the anti-colonial movement in early 20th-century Viet Nam. He earned a second class degree (Pho bang) in the metropolitan examinations in 1900. Pessimistic Essay. In 1903 he formed a revolutionary organization called the style guide for research Restoration Society (Duy Tan Hoi) under the titular leadership of Prince Cuong De.

Two years later he established his headquarters in Japan, where he wrote patriotic tracts designed to stir anti-French sentiments among the general population and essay, encourage young Vietnamese to flee abroad and join his exile organization. Lined. In 1912 he transformed the Modernization Society into essay, a new organization, the Vietnamese Restoration Society (Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi). Several attempted uprisings in Viet Nam failed. An Essay Concerning. Phan Boi Chau himself was briefly imprisoned in China. On his release in 1917, he appeared temporarily discouraged at the prospects of victory, writing a pamphlet entitled France-Vietnamese Harmony (Phap-Viet De Hue) . In 1925 Phan Boi Chau was seized by French agents while passing through the International Settlement in Shanghai. Brought under guard to Hanoi, he was tried and convicted of treason. He spent the remainder of his life in house arrest in Hue and died in 1940. Cuong De (1882-1951), Prince.

Member of the Nguyen royal house who took an active role in anti-colonial activities in French-ruled Viet Nam. A descendent of Prince Canh, the first son of essay, founding Emperor Gia Long. Cuong De is a leader of business plan, Phong Trao Dong Du (On the essay Way to the East movement), led by the revolutionary Phan Boi Chau in support of Indochinese independence from France. The organization was encouraged by the victory of Japan over ap essay paper, Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, and received financial support from China and Japan. Between 1905 and 1910, it sponsored some 200 Vietnamese to pessimistic study in Japan. Luong Van Can (1854-1927), founder of business, Tonkin Free School (sang lap Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc tai Ha Noi, 1907), was a Vietnamese mandarin, independence activist and writer.

His most noted work is Nha Nuoc (The State). The school/ movement aimed to modernize Vietnamese society by abandoning Confucianism and and adopting new ideas from the West and Japan. Essay. In particular, it promoted the quoc ngu script for writing Vietnamese in place of classical Chinese by publishing educational materials and newspapers using this script. In March 1908, a tax revolt and an attempted poisoning of business, French soldiers in essay Hanoi were blamed on the leaders of the school by the French. Subsequently, all the concerning toleration leaders were arrested and the school's publications were suppressed.

Phan Chu Trinh (1872-1926), one of leaders of Duy Tan movement (thu linh cua phong trao Duy Tan), 1906-1908. His alias is pessimistic Tay Ho (West Lake). He sought to end France's colonial occupation and methodology proposal, attaining liberation by peace, appealing to French democratic principles, international support and educating the population. His plan was to raise up the people to abolish the monarchy instead of drive out foreign enemy, restore nation's independence first. He asked the pessimistic French to live up to their civilisasion mission and criticizing them for guide for research their exploitation. Pessimistic. In 1915, as part of over and driving, The Group of Vietnamese Patriots, he co-wrote patriotic articles signed with the name Nguyen Ai Quoc which Ho Chi Minh later stole it. In 1908, he was arrested and sent to Con Dao island. In 1911, he was pardoned and sentenced to house arrest.

He said I would rather return to pessimistic prison than have partial freedom. He wrote 10 characteristics needed to improve the common populace 1. die for your believe 2. own a profession 3. have sense of adventure travel the world 4. Locke Concerning. have the spirit of caring, love and help each other 5. grow financial system through honesty 6. get rid of tradition that bankrupt poor families 7. innovate instead of being stagnant 8. Hard work organize over laziness 9. Self-reliance and avoid superstition 10. Pessimistic. As political leaders, one should put the benefit of the an essay people above all and not for personal gain. Nguyen Thai Hoc (1908-1930), leader of Vietnamese Nationallist Party (lanh tu Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (VNQDD)) sought independence from French colonial rule from 1927 to 1954. The Yen Bai mutiny was a revolt to inspire a wider uprising in an attempt to overthrow the colonial regime and establish independence. However, the French crushed VNQDD severely dammaged by deaths, arrests and executions. Hoc was executed along with 11 VNQDD members on June 17, 1930.

Right picture: Pho Duc Chinh, the pessimistic essay 23 years old members of VNQDD. Before he stepped up to ap essay lined paper the guillotine, he requested to face the blade. Pessimistic Essay. He proudly screamed Viet Nam van tue (Viet Nam forever). Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963). First president of South Vietnam: Oct 1955-Nov 2, 1963.

Single, roman catholic and staunch anti-communist. His domestic oppositions have been infiltrated by the communist and led to rising unrest. He was overthrown in persuasive drinking a US-backed military coup and executed along with his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu by ARVN officer Nguyen Van Nhung, inside Cha Tam church; After the pessimistic victory of Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu, the Viet Minh and China Communist gain control over entire North Viet Nam. The Viet Minh has great supports from essay drinking, Soviet and China: Over 3000 Chinese advisors were participated in pessimistic Dien Bien Phu; French withdrawal from Indochina resulted in the 1954 Geneva Accords. Diem didn't sign the accord because he didn't agree to the terms that the country will be divided into North and South. Diem denied the ability to build vote for unification of Viet Nam, he believed Ho Chi Minh and the communist could not win the election, so they will sabotage it. Never regret a non-existed general election. In his 8 years term, South Viet Nam growth tremendously in all aspects: economic, political, educational, social development which was respected internationally. THOI KY DAU TRANH GIANH DOC LOC DAN TOC.

Trai hon 1,000 nam, cac tap doan phong kien phuong bac, tu Ch'in, Han, Sui, Tang, Sung, Yuan, Ming, Manchu den China, da thay phien nhau thuoc hien muu do xam luoc va dong hoa dan toc ta. Bang nhung chinh sac ap buc boc lot namg ne, chinh sach dong hoa tham doc. Pessimistic. Chung muon xoa bo nen van hoa lau doi cua dan toc ta, bien dat nuoc ta thanh quyen huyen cua chung. Ap Essay. Mac du voi am muu dong hoa triet de cua ke thu xam luoc tron suot hon 1,000 nam, nhung tinh hoa van hoa, tieng noi dan toc ta van duoc bao ton va phat trien. Voi tinh than doc lap dan toc, quyet khong chiu cam tam lam no le.

Nhan dan ta da lien tuc vung day chong lai ke thu. Tieu bieu la cuoc khoi nghia do Trung Sisters, ly bi lanh dao. Dac biet, nam 938 nhan dan ta duoi su lanh dao cua Ngo Quyen danh tan quan Tang (China) tren Bach Dang River, mo ra mot ky nguyen moi - thoi ky doc lap lau dai cua dan toc. COPYRIGHT NOTICE: ALL MATERIAL AT THIS SITE IS COPYRIGHT BY VIETTOUCH, AND MAY NOT BE REPRINTED IN WHOLE OR IN PART, OR STORED, OR TRANSMITTED BY ANY MEANS, INCLUDING ELECTRONIC, WITHOUT THE PRIOR CONSENT OF THE OWNER, EXCEPT FOR THE INDIVIDUAL OR EDUCATIONAL USES. ALL COMMERCIAL USE TRANSMISSION AND REPRODUCTION OF THIS SITE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED.