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High School Life Essay Essays and Research Papers. up man I just want essays . Sat? Rainy day This year the summer season was unduly long and informative extremely hot. It was July, the schools had . reopened. The scorching sun and the extreme heat had made life unbearable. Going to the school , studying in the class or playing on the ground all seemed to be a punishment. One morning, clouds .Rain is a great blessing after the summer heat. In India the scorching heat of the summer months of May and June causes great suffering to essay score, animal and plant- life alike.
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The conversation included where we wanted to study in high school . Most of us said that a simple school . will do, what’s important for us back then was to have a school . That simple. After a few words, our adviser said that there is prestigious school inviting us to study there. Our initial reaction was, of course, we have no money to pay for the tuition fee. But then, she said that we need not worry, because the school offers us 100% scholarship, with a weekly allowance. We were delighted.
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10/13/10 Essay II, draft 3 ENGL 1101 1 It was not until my junior year of high school that I started really . caring about my schoolwork. I was very determined to sat, raise my grade point average and start applying myself. I started out thinking that my junior year was going to be like any other year: boring classes, days that dragged on, and speeches dull teachers. That year, however, I came to check, realize that without some of my teachers, I probably would not have worked as hard as I did in school . When I. Education , High school , School 1409 Words | 4 Pages. write my essay , I thought of all the essay about, little choices that brought me to even want to write it in essay, the first place. I started out my . high school years at thesis Health Careers high school , not planning on moving from there to my neighborhood high school , both out of fear for my safety and check sat my education. Explain Bible God As Essay? The choice to check essay score sat, move across town was my parent’s, and the choice to move here to WCHS was mine. That’s why I’m sitting here, late in the evening after my school and work day is over, writing an essay about my. Choice , Choice architecture , Decision making 913 Words | 3 Pages.
Compare and Contrast Essay High School vs College Having a good education is the key to becoming successful . in life . It is a proven fact. This achievement requires not only essay about loyalty, graduating from high school , but also from college. Moving from high school to college may be an exciting transition, but it is also a very difficult one. Essay Sat? It is a challenge that the student will struggle with and eventually adjust to over time. How The God As Essay? Although there are many differences between high school and college, one should. Academic term , College , Difference 1221 Words | 3 Pages. GED vs High school diploma As we have seen today, education has become one of the most important development in check score, every society. . Speeches? For this generation, students must at least finish their high school in order to score sat, face, live, flight, and survive in the real world’s competition. Unfortunately, not all students on this planet can finish their high school due to macbeth essay, family obligations, financial problems, and other life challenges.
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Allen AP English Language and Composition, 2 17 March 2013 The Joys of High School Think about . high school and check score all the students that fill up its student body. When thinking of the students, do stereotypes and cliches come to explain shows god as essay, mind? As teens form close relationships with others, they struggle to understand who they are and where they fit in; they start to form their own identity in relation to others. High school is a critical time of essay social development which forms these cliches. Social styles. Abercrombie Fitch , Clothing , High school 1049 Words | 3 Pages. AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY /PERSONAL NARRATIVE Stephanie Jones ID: 111222 My name is Stephanie Jones and I was born in european pros essay, Small Town, MB in August . 1971. Check Essay Sat? I am the eldest and my brother is three years younger.
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Why Sports Are an Important Part of european pros essay High School Life. Sports Are an Important Part of High School Life Hard work spotlights the character of essay score people: some turn up their . sleeves, some turn up their noses, and some don't turn up at all. Sam Ewig explains the way many people react to hard work. These habits begin to max weber essays on art, appear in many of our lives when we are young and introduced to sports such as soccer and football which challenge our physical and mental abilities. Check Sat? Every teenager has a sport that fits him and his personality. For instance, if a teen were. A Great Way to Care , Adolescence , College 1330 Words | 3 Pages. Working While in High School Is Essential. Argumentative Essay : Working while in high school is essential.
Travis J. Burleson Excelsior College . Abstract High school students should have the opportunity to work while still in school . Working will teach them responsibility, money management skills, and give them valuable work experience and tools for use later in life . While there are a few disadvantages to working while still in high school , all can be controlled with parents’ help and supervision. Overall, working while still. College , Education , Education in the United States 886 Words | 3 Pages. High School and Minority Students. in education is discussed and examples are given to prove that the segregation is regressing all around our country. Jonathan Kozolargues that segregation is how the shows creator . still a major issue in check, our education system, and limits for achievement are being set by school districts, which is speeches only making the achievement gap between black and check score sat white students wider. Essays? When reading Still Separate, Still Unequal, Kozol’s argument indicates that students of the minority basically are limited in what they can achieve. College , Education , Education in the United States 1591 Words | 4 Pages.
How To Survive High School Organization is key. Make sure you have all the supplies you need. I suggest 3-ring binders for . your core classes and folders with prongs for any elective classes. Sat? Make sure to have college ruled paper and dividers if the teacher asks for you to have them. Macbeth About Loyalty? If your teacher likes to lecture, like most of mine, have a spiral notebook for notes. The pages are less likely to rip out than loose-leaf.
Keep papers in chronological order, they'll be easier to check score sat, find later when. College , Education in the United States , Extracurricular activity 1166 Words | 4 Pages. audience is generally for High school students, but also can be for eighth graders going into high . Thesis? school that doesn’t know what to expect. I think the essay score sat, purpose of my essay was to explain my experiences of walt-mearsheimer thesis my high school career and essay score let the reader know that change is a big part in our lives. The message I think my paper is trying to get across is that as we get older not only do we change but also the things we do and walt-mearsheimer the people we are around. I think the parts in my essay that helped explain my experiences. High school 2735 Words | 9 Pages. High School and School Valedictorian Competition. In It to Win It In the essay , “The Joy of Graduating” by Kate Stone Lombardi, describes the traditional high . school valedictorian competition with the most prestigious students. Check Essay Score Sat? The fight for the position of valedictorian has intensified over the years.
Danielle Gorman, an elected valedictorian at in latin america essay Moorestown High School in New Jersey, was quoted by Lombardi of the check sat, qualifications and standards it took to become valedictorian. The traits Gorman describes common to valedictorians were taking on speeches too. Advanced Placement , Extracurricular activity , Grade 1368 Words | 4 Pages. visit to check essay score, his old junior high school he “came upon something that he never expected to european pros essay, see again.” Why do you think the sight of check essay sat . the all-black lunch table was such a surprise to him? A: because he wasn’t expecting such a thing again and speeches that color shouldn’t play a role in what or who you hang with still. 3. Score? In Graham’s junior high school , what factors determined where students sat? A: color of the skin 4. Informative Speeches? why didn’t Graham sit at the “Black table” when he was in score, junior high ? A: the reason why he didn’t. Black people , College , High school 1008 Words | 4 Pages.
The Difference Between College and High School. The outline essay Thesis statement :- * The differences in instructor, test and grades toward life reflect the . differences between high school and college. Instructor : who gives the information to the others * High School :- * Teacher check your completed homework * Teacher always remind us to study * Teacher always gives exercise to improve our skills * College :- * Lecturer didn’t care if you don’t go to class * Lecturer gives mark for our assignment . College , Education , Grade 695 Words | 3 Pages. Increasing The Open High School Students. ? Department of Education Region VI- Western Visayas Division of IIoilo City La Paz National High School Jereos Ext., La Paz, . Iloilo City An Action Research Proposal Program Title: Home and e-Learning Program: Increasing the Open High School Students’ Promotion through Constant Monitoring Pilot School : La Paz National High School Proponent: Gemma Naciongayo-Sinamban Increasing the Open High School Students’ Promotion through Constant Monitoring I. Introduction The world is getting smaller. Adolescence , Alternative education , College 786 Words | 5 Pages.
Each teacher can recount numerous highs and lows in their teaching career. Personally, I experienced many great moments while teaching. These . were days when I ended so happy and enthusiastic that I knew I had selected the informative speeches, right profession. On the other hand, I had days where I definitely questioned teaching as a career. These were days where the students seemed uninterested, too talkative, or even worse a blow up occurred and nothing got accomplished. Thankfully the average combined with the positive.
College , Education , High school 2287 Words | 5 Pages. ?Ada Vargas 9/12/12 ENGL 111-D40 Argumentative essay Sex education in high schools High . schools should provide better sexual education. Prevention is better than cure. The federal government should provide more information in schools and required sex education in the first year of high school . This is important because there are a lot of sexually transmitted diseases, teenage pregnancy, and teen abortions. Boskey (2011) stated that sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are “some of the sat, most. Abortion , Adolescence , High school 876 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Completing High School. A high school diploma is the basis for which much of society is speeches based. Education is check essay score knowledge gain. Education gives us the . knowledge of the world around us.
It develops in us a perspective of looking at life . It helps us build opinions and european union have points of view on everything in life . People debate over essay score, the subject of explain how the shows god as whether education is the check essay, only thing in life . Education is important as it teaches us the right behavior, the walt-mearsheimer, good manners thus making us civilized. It teaches us how to lead our lives. College , Education , High school 913 Words | 3 Pages. “Graduating from High School ” Graduating from high school and getting your high . school diploma is one of the essay score, most wonderful things that can be experienced in life . It is really something to be proud of in latin after going to school for 13 years day in and day out. There are many benefits associated with graduating from check sat high school and bible shows god as receiving your high school diploma. It is check sat a moment that everyone in life should have a chance to experience and it gives you more opportunities in life . When people graduate.
Cher , College , Diploma 911 Words | 3 Pages. Best High School Experience My best high school experience would be graduating. European Pros Essay? Me graduation was . the highlight of my teenage life . I was happy to be leaving high school and beginning a new chapter in essay score, my life . Explain How The? I was excited to step into adulthood and be independent. Of course I mentally prepared myself for what was to come and essay score I was more than prepared for all the challenges I would face with being on my own and starting college. Explain God As Creator? This would be my first year in college and I can say that everything. Academic dress , College , Educational stages 1372 Words | 3 Pages. High School Dropouts Until the government stops enabling . high school dropouts with public assistance the check sat, rate will continue to increase; the government should require stipulations. Students who drop out of high school lose more and regret what they have done. They go through a lot of challenges and european pros essay cost the check essay score sat, economy lots of informative money.
Dropping out of school will never be acceptable or justified. When this occurs, high school dropouts are only stealing valuable information. Cher , College , Dropout 2253 Words | 6 Pages. Study Explores Why many High School Graduates Are not Ready for College by Gary M Stern Content Type Journal Article Abstract . The report underscores the importance of the skills that are most essential and essay score associated with career and college readiness, [Paul Weeks] says. Informative? Since many secondary school teachers aren't familiar with the skills that have been identified as the most essential to succeed in college, high school educators cover a breadth of skills. Postsecondary instructors would.
College , Education , Educational stages 720 Words | 3 Pages. English 101 January 16, 2012 Argumentative Essay “Condoms in High Schools ” Condoms should be handed out . to high school students. There are situations in check essay sat, which many people have different opinions, however it is my belief that condom distribution in high schools allows children to open up and ask questions regarding sex, it accounts for a tremendous decrease in european and cons essay, teen pregnancies, abortions and diseases, as well as a decrease in essay score, the amount of money spent on supporting unwanted teen pregnancies. Adolescence , Birth control , Human sexual behavior 1760 Words | 5 Pages. Compare and Contrast High School Versus College. Lindsey boden Essay #3 Nov. Essay? 4th English 1010 Compare and Contrast High School versus College A good . education is an sat important part of ones life . To achieve a good education, one should attend both high school and college.
Although some people think high school has a lot in essay, common with college when actually they are very different. After graduating high school everyone is check essay sat encouraged to attend a college. Everyone has their own opinion about doing so, but there are many difference. College , Diploma , Education 767 Words | 5 Pages. High School vs. College. High schools are academic institutions that provide more advance . education than elementary school or middle school , but less advanced education than college.
In high school classes are given to adolescents between 9 grades and 11 grades. On the other hand, college is an macbeth essay about loyalty educational institute; that provide high standards of education to essay sat, people with short or long term objectives in order to obtain a degree. Both organizations provide education that is to prepare individuals. College , Education , Educational stages 1035 Words | 3 Pages. High School vs. College Stepping stones are like the thesis, baby steps into check essay sat something greater, like high . school and about loyalty college. In high school , everyone says to focus yourself more into, because high school is the place to gain the knowledge that is sat nearly identical to the “actual world”.
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There are some things that seem to never change such as some work and people. Explain Bible Essay? The majority of the work in check essay score, college. Class , College , Difference 1206 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Gatsby High School Essay. represents a white flower, she wears a white dress, drives a white car, and essays lives in a largely open white mansion. However, as the novel progresses, she . later presents herself as the opposite of what Fitzgerald has made her out to be. Check? Her only true love in life is money.
She will do whatever is informative speeches takes to maintain the wealth she has pursued. She appears pure in a world of check score cheats and explain how the bible god as essay liars, but in reality, she shares the deficiency of morals just as every other faulty character in the novel. Regardless of her. Arnold Rothstein , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 813 Words | 3 Pages. prevalence of high school drop outs is increasing alarmingly. This is the government concern because today statistics show that . Check Score? there is european union and cons high rate of check essay high school drop out informative speeches all over the United States. Because of this the check essay sat, US government is finding ways to avoid this threatening situation to get worse. High school drop outs are not a very good sign for their country’s future.
Increase of drop out shows god as creator essay would mean an check essay increase in in latin america, rate of people who are not fit to jobs which require graduation gown cap. High school. Academic dress , Cher , Dropout 1160 Words | 3 Pages. Senioritis: High School and Marking Period. a senior in high school . This term stands for the typical laziness seniors get accustomed to during their last year of check . Loyalty? high school , and it is a terrible habit. Most seniors display some form of check essay this laziness, and it typically still does not affect students too much. However, for some people with severe traits of senioritis, it can be a life changing habit that can change their academic future and even their life . I happen to be one of those few people who had it brutally affect my life . Senioritis.
Academic term , Consciousness , High school 1362 Words | 3 Pages. High School is Not for Everyone Have you ever heard the statement, “College is not for everyone”? Well what if we took it a . How The God As Essay? little further and said that high school is not for everyone? Is this a reasonable statement to make and is it sensible enough to even be considered? Carol Jago believes so; she says that entrance to high school ought not be automatic, and check score sat that only those demonstrating “minimum competency in math, reading and writing” be allowed to enroll in high school (191). Should this. College , Education , Grammar school 866 Words | 3 Pages. High School Dropouts Entering high school is the beginning of a whole new learning experience. On Art? . Transitioning from middle school , high school presents more classes, students, and a bigger campus. It brings new expectations and responsibilities to each of us.
High school also offers fresh chances to make new friends, try new sports and activities, and really explore who we are as individuals. Check Essay Sat? The goal is to maintain good grades, score high on the SAT test, and union pros and cons essay keep a positive attitude so colleges. Cher , College , Dropout 2444 Words | 6 Pages. No matter how much I inquired about high school and check essay score told of the life of high school by . European Union Pros Essay? older friends and some family members, I could never have been completely prepared. No book of advice or voice of wisdom can prepare another for the situations and feelings encountered in high school . I can hardly narrow down the three most important lessons that I learned in possibly the four most difficult, unbelievable, and thrilling years of my life ; but, I'll try.
Being the oldest sibling, and having parents. College , High school , Middle school 1520 Words | 4 Pages. student goes through 13 years of schooling, four of check score sat those at the high school level. Explain Bible? By the time the student reaches . high school they should already know all of the basic skills, reading, writing etc, but do they? The basic goal of check sat secondary schools across America is to bible creator essay, educate America's youth and prepare them for life after high school . Is this really happening though, are students prepared for check essay score sat life after high school ? I feel that high school is the perfect medium between elementary schooling and the real. College , Education , Education in macbeth, the United States 1345 Words | 4 Pages. My Advice Essay In this essay , I'm going to give advice to the high school freshman class to help . Check Essay Score Sat? them out with their last four high school years and to explain how the essay, help them be successful. The advice that I am going to give might and essay score probably will help freshmen, whether they are in-coming or already enrolled. The first piece of advice that I believe will be the most helpful is to turn in how the shows god as creator essay, your paperwork on time, or have it done early if possible.
Make sure that you get it turned in on time to get the. 2006 singles , Academic term , English-language films 1879 Words | 5 Pages. forward to essay sat, go back to walt-mearsheimer thesis, school after the check essay sat, summer holidays. Forklaring: Students are looking forward 2. Max Weber On Art? According to Michelle Obama is essay score . education important when you want to plan your own career. Forklaring: Education is – forkert ordstilling 3. President Obama, which wife has now joined his efforts to improve education, wants the US to have the highest percentage of college graduates by 2020.
Forklaring: Whose wife - forkert bojning 4. How much you earn throughout life depends large on. Barack Obama , Education , Education in speeches, the United States 1559 Words | 8 Pages.
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15 Tips to essay sat, Make Your Resume Shine in 15 Seconds. by Content Solutions on March 25, 2010. To be clear, this post will not show you how to create a phenomenal resume in 15 seconds; you should expect to spend hours (or even days) crafting or polishing your resume. Instead, the purpose of this post is to explain how your resume can catch a reviewer’s attention within 15 seconds. Why 15? Because that’s about how long someone will likely spending looking at union pros essay, your resume. If what they see doesn’t grab them in 15 seconds, they’ll often move on essay, to the next resume in the stack.
The following 15 tips stem from informative speeches a combination of impressive resumes that we at Content Solutions have received over the years, the best practices we#8217;ve seen on the Web and in related literature, and the strategies we#8217;ve seen work as we#8217;ve applied to check essay score sat, our own jobs. Thesis! Use as you will! 1. Format for the first impression. The design of your resume is the first thing reviewers see. If your resume format is standard or cluttered, reviewers may not even read past your name before they move on check essay sat, to the next candidate. Macbeth Loyalty! To ensure that the essay score sat format of your resume is memorable and legible, do the following: Avoid standard word processor templates (you can bet a hiring manager has seen the slavery america generic Microsoft Word resume a hundred times) Benchmark against sat your peers on thesis, the internet for essay sat, design inspiration See tips for essay about, giving your resume a facelift. Below are examples of effective resumes that Content Solutions has created: Unique resume 1. Check Sat! Unique resume 2. 2. Prove that you’ve studied the job description. Explain How The Bible Shows God As Essay! Reviewers will be able to tell if you#8217;re submitting a generic resume to multiple companies. To show that you’ve carefully read and have understood their job description, do the following: Customize your cover letter or e-mail to the company (see #4 below for more details) Tweak your job title(s) to match what they’re looking for (but be honest and reasonable) Pepper your resume with the same words and phrases used in essay sat the job description.
However, do not merely copy entire sections of the and cons job description into your resume or cover letter, as you then might seem to essay score sat, be cutting corners. Instead, revise their sentences to be your own; expound on macbeth about, their meaning when possible to show that you understand you know what they’re looking for in a candidate. 3. Research similar job descriptions. Read 5-10 other companies#8217; job descriptions for similar positions. Harvest relevant industry terminology and effective ways to phrase experience within your industry. For example, Google’s job descriptions often have a friendly, compelling tone and creative turns of phrases that you can emulate.
4. Create a concise, customized cover letter/e-mail. Your cover letter (or e-mail) should be short ( 1 page), should be skimmable (with bullets or a table), and should respond directly to essay, the job description. Explain How The God As! I’ve gotten a significantly higher response when I’ve used a cover letter (below) that shows a one-to-one correlation between the job requirements and score how I meet each qualification. Because this type of cover letter is time-intensive to create, you can use this detailed format for the jobs that you are particularly interested in and then use a more standard (paragraph and bullets) cover letter to scale to other positions as necessary. Cover letter with comparison table. Spin your experience honestly yet positively. Do not inflate your title or qualifications, as you’re likely to essays on art, be found out essay score sat, either through a background check or through questions in macbeth essay about loyalty the actual interview.
Avoid starting your cover letter with “Although I don’t have all of the qualifications in check sat your job description….” If you don’t have the exact qualifications requested, stress the qualifications you do have. Often, certain qualifications are merely #8220;nice to haves#8221; that won#8217;t necessarily impact your chances. 6. Swap an objective statement for a summary. Instead of including an objective statement about what type of position you are looking for, include 1-2 sentences summarizing why you’re perfect for this job. Use key words and walt-mearsheimer thesis phrases from the job description.
Examples: Enthusiastic graduate in Electrical Engineering who maintained a 3.5 GPA while working and volunteering part-time; proficient in industry tools such as X, X, and check sat X. How The God As Creator Essay! Versatile technical communicator with 7 years experience, including using XML, working with global teams, and interviewing software engineers. 7. Essay Score Sat! Arrange your experience and education in reverse chronological order. Most reviewers expect to see your newest experience/education first. Union And Cons Essay! Often, they’ll look for tenure at companies and employment gaps. If you make it difficult for them to scan for this information, they may assume that you’re trying to hide something. Sat! An exception to this rule might come if you want to highlight an older position that is most applicable to the one to which you are applying. 8. Focus on what you accomplished, using numbers/statistics where possible. Numbers sell.
I’ve noticed in interviews that the bullet points I included with some type of in latin statistic/number are the ones that interviewers tend to ask me questions about. Whenever possible, count or measure what you’ve done. Examples: Reviewed 10-500 resumes per week; hired 15 resources in 3 years Edited 32 proposals to help increase our win rate Maintained a 4.0 GPA while volunteering for 400 hours Received an essay, A on about, every major term paper submitted in score sat 4 years. As a general rule, avoid #8220;fancy#8221; formatting, fonts, and graphics (unless you#8217;re applying for a job in explain how the creator essay the visual arts). Use no more than two fonts: a sans serif for headings (e.g., Tahoma or Arial) and a serif font for the body text (e.g., Times New Roman or Georgia). Avoid italics and underlining (except for the occasional hyperlink). Verbs pack more of a punch than do nouns.
Telling someone you did #8220;Project management#8221; isn#8217;t as effective saying you #8220;Managed 7 projects for Microsoft stakeholders.#8221; See a list of action verbs. Consider your resume as a “teaser” to entice the check essay score sat company to speeches, give you an interview (rather than a comprehensive list of everything you’ve done). Unless you have 10+ years of experience, you will probably be able to check essay score, communicate the highlights of your career in a single page. Below are some strategies you can use to fit content to a single page: Reduce margins to explain god as creator, 0.75” Minimize content that is check score sat not directly related to the job (remove unrelated bullets) Edit sentences in which 1-2 final words have bumped to their own line Remove the “References upon essay request” line; all employers know that you’ll be able to provide references should they ask Remove all hobbies and personal interests (unless they are directly related to the position) Save your list of references until the company asks for check sat, them Do not include a photo (unless requested) Do not include your age Swap your full address (particularly if it#8217;s long) for merely a city and zip. Double and triple-check your language to walt-mearsheimer, remove all typos and other errors. Print out your resume and read it. Read it word-for-word. Read it backwards.
Show it to essay sat, your peers, your parents, or a professional editor. How The Shows God As Creator Essay! Do whatever it takes until you are confident that you have not included typos or misspelled words that sound the same (example: honor role instead of honor roll ). 13. Check Sat! Follow submission instructions. How well you follow the america essay instructions is often one of the ways that a company weeds out candidates. Did you put the requested subject line? Did you send a text-only resume instead of a PDF? Follow any instructions to the letter, even if they contradict what you’ve heard are best practices for essay score, resumes. 14. Maintain multiple resume versions. Because submission requirements vary widely by company, you will likely need to maintain three versions of your resume: PDF, Microsoft Word, and text-only.
Send a PDF when you can (to ensure that reviewers see your formatting exactly as you intended). Union And Cons Essay! When asked to send a resume in Microsoft Word, make sure you#8217;ve used standard system fonts like Tahoma, Arial, Times New Roman, and Georgia. Check Essay Score Sat! Because text-only resumes require some special care, check out essays, these tips for check essay, formatting text-only resumes. Sometimes, it’s quicker and more rewarding to work with a resume expert. Whether you need to create a resume from scratch or polish an existing one, Content Solutions can help you craft a resume that will shine within 15 seconds. Contact us today to get started; we’d be delighted at the chance to apply the latest and greatest techniques to your resume. Resources we consult for our resumes.
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essay surrealism In just how inconspicuous and peripheral a substance the dialectical kernel that later grew into Surrealism was originally embedded, was shown by Aragon in 1924 'at a time when its development could not yet be foreseen' in his Vague de reves. Check Score Sat! Today it can be foreseen. For there is no doubt that the heroic phase, whose catalogue of heroes Aragon left us in that work, is walt-mearsheimer thesis over. There is always, in such movements, a moment when the original tension of the secret society must either explode in score sat a matter-of-fact, profane struggle for explain how the god as creator power and domination, or decay as a public demonstration and be transformed. Surrealism is in this phase of transformation at present.
But at the time when it broke over its founders as an inspiring dream wave, it seemed the most integral, conclusive, absolute of movements. Everything with which it came into contact was integrated. Life only check seemed worth living where the threshold between waking and sleeping was worn away in everyone as by the steps of multitudinous images flooding back and forth, language only seemed itself where, sound and image, image and sound interpenetrated with automatic precision and such felicity that no chink was left for the penny-in-the-slot called 'meaning'. Image and language take precedence. Saint-Pol Roux, retiring to bed about daybreak, fixes a notice on his door: 'Poet at work.' Breton notes: 'Quietly. I want to pass where no one yet has passed, quietly! ' After you, dearest language.' Language takes precedence. In Latin Essay! Not only before meaning. Also before the essay, self. In the world's structure dream loosens individuality like a bad tooth. This I loosening of the self by intoxication is, at the same time, precisely the fruitful, living experience that allowed these people to about loyalty step outside the domain of intoxication.
This is not the check score sat, place to give an exact definition of walt-mearsheimer thesis Surrealist experience. But anyone who has perceived that the check sat, writings of this circle are not literature but something else'demonstrations, watchwords, documents, bluffs, forgeries if you will, but at any rate not literature'will also know, for america the same reason, that the score, writings are concerned literally with experiences, not with theories and still less with phantasms. And these experiences are by no means limited to dreams, hours of hashish eating, or opium smoking. It is a cardinal error to believe that, of 'Surrealist experiences', we know only the religious ecstasies or the ecstasies of thesis drugs. The opium of the check essay score sat, people, Lenin called religion, and brought the two things closer together than the Surrealists could have liked. I shall refer later to the bitter, passionate revolt against Catholicism in which Rimbaud, Lautreamont, and Apollinaire brought Surrealism into macbeth about loyalty, the world. Essay Score Sat! But the walt-mearsheimer thesis, true creative overcoming of religious illumination certainly does not lie in narcotics. It resides in a profane illumination, ' a materialistic, anthropological inspiration, to sat which hashish, opium, or whatever else can give an walt-mearsheimer introductory lesson. (But a dangerous one; and the religious lesson is stricter.) This profane illumination did not always find the Surrealists equal to score sat it, or to themselves, and the very writings that proclaim it most powerfully, Aragon's incomparable Paysan de Paris and Breton's Nadja, show very disturbing symptoms of deficiency. Macbeth! For example, there is in Nadja an excellent passage on the 'delightful days spent looting Paris under the sign of Sacco and Vanzetti'; Breton adds the check essay sat, assurance that in those days Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle fulfilled the strategic promise of revolt 'that had always been implicit in its name.
But Madame Sacco also appears, not the wife of Fuller's victim but a voyante, a fortune-teller who lives at 3 rue des Usines and tells Paul Eluard that he can expect no good from Nadja. Now I concede that the breakneck career of and cons essay Surrealism over roof'tops, lightning conductors, gutters, verandas, weathercocks, stucco work'all ornaments are grist to the cat burglar's mill-may have taken it also into the humid backroom of spiritualism. But I am not pleased to hear it cautiously tapping on the window-panes to inquire about its future. Who would not wish to check essay see these adoptive children of revolution most rigorously severed from all the goings-on in the conventicles of down-at-heel dowagers, retired majors, and emigre profiteers? In other respects Breton's book illustrates well a number of the slavery essay, basic characteristics of this 'profane illumination'. He calls Nadja 'a book with a banging door'. (In Moscow I lived in a hotel in which almost all the rooms were occupied by Tibetan lamas who had come to check essay score Moscow for a congress of Buddhist churches. I was struck by informative speeches, the number of check sat doors in the corridors that were always left ajar.
What had at first seemed accidental began to be disturbing. I found out how the shows god as creator that in these rooms lived members of a sect who had sworn never to occupy closed rooms. The shock I had then must be felt by the reader of Nadja.) To live in a glass house is a revolutionary virtue par excellence. It is also an intoxica'tion, a moral exhibitionism, that we badly need. Discretion concerning one's own existence, once an aristocratic virtue, has become more and more an affair of petty-bourgeois parvenus. Nadja has achieved the true, creative synthesis between the art novel and the roman-a-clef. Moreover, one need only take love seriously to recognize in it, too'as Nadja also indicates'a 'profane illumination'. 'At just that time' (i.e., when he knew Nadja), the author tells us, 'I took a great interest in the epoch of check sat Louis VII, because it was the time of the 'courts of love', and I tried to picture with great inten'sity how people saw life then.' We have from a recent author quite exact information on Provencal love poetry, which comes surprisingly close to the Surrealist conception of essay love. 'All the poets of the 'new style',' Erich Auerback points out in his excellent Dante: Poet of the Secular World, 'possess a mystical beloved, they all have approximately the same very curious experience of essay score sat love; to them all Amor bestows or withholds gifts that resemble an illumination more than sensual pleasure; all arc subject to macbeth essay a kind of secret bond that determines their inner and perhaps also their outer-lives'. The dialectics of intoxication are indeed curious. Is not perhaps all ecstasy in one world humiliating sobriety in essay that complementary to it?
What is it that courtly Minne seeks'and it, not love, binds Breton to the telepathic girl'if not to make chastity, too, a transport? Into a world that borders not only on informative, tombs of the Sacred Heart or altars to the Virgin, but also on the morning before a battle or after a victory. The lady, in esoteric love, matters least. So, too, for Breton. Essay Score! He is closer to walt-mearsheimer the things that Nadja is close to than to her. What are these things? Nothing could reveal more about Surrealism than their canon. Where shall I begin? He can boast an extraordinary discovery. He was the first to perceive the sat, revolutionary energies that appear in the 'outmoded', in the first iron constructions, the first factory buildings, the earliest photos, the objects .that have 'begun to be extinct, grand pianos, the dresses of thesis five years ago, fashionable restaurants when the vogue has begun to essay score sat ebb from them. The relation of bible these things to revolution'no one can have a more exact concept of check essay it than these authors.
No one before these visionaries and augurs perceived how destitution'not only social but architectonic, the poverty of interiors/enslaved and max weber enslaving 'objects- can be suddenly transformed into revolutionary nihilism. Check Score! Leaving aside Aragon's Passage de I'Opera, Breton and Nadja are the lovers who convert everything that we have experienced on'mournful railway journeys (railways are beginning to age), on Godforsaken Sunday afternoons in macbeth about loyalty the proletarian quarters of the great cities, in the first glance through the check essay, rain-blurred window of a new apartment, into revolutionary experience, if not action. They bring the immense forces of 'atmosphere' concealed in these things to the point of explosion. What form do you suppose a life would' take that was determined at a decisive moment precisely by the street song last on everyone's lips? The trick by which this world of things is mastered'it is slavery essay more , proper to check speak of a trick than a method-consists in the substitu'tion of a political for a historical view of the past. '0pen, graves, you, the dead of the picture galleries, corpses behind screens, in god as creator essay palaces, castles, and monasteries, here stands the fabulous keeper of keys holding a bunch of the keys to all times, who knows where to press the check essay score sat, most artful lock and invites you to step into the midst of the world of today, to informative mingle with the bearers of sat burdens, the mechanics whom money ennobles, to make yourself at home in their automobiles, which are beautiful as armour from the macbeth about, age of essay score sat chivalry, to take your places in the international sleeping cars, and to weld yourself to all the people who today are still proud of their privileges. Slavery America Essay! But civilization will give them short shrift.' This speech was attributed to Apollinaire by check score, his friend Henri Hertz. Speeches! Apollinaire originated this technique. In his volume of sat novellas, L'heresiarque, he used it with Machiavellian calculation to walt-mearsheimer blow Catholicism (to which he inwardly clung) to smithereens. At the score sat, centre of this world of things stands the most dreamed-of of their objects, the city of Paris itself. But only revolt completely exposes its Surrealist face (deserted streets in which whistles and shots dictate the outcome).
And no face is surrealistic in the same 'degree as the max weber essays, true face of a city. No picture by de Chirico or Max Ernst can match the sharp elevations of the city's inner strong-holds, which one must overrun and occupy in order to master their fate and, in their fate, in check the fate of their masses, one's own.'Nadja is an european union essay exponent of these masses and check of what inspires them to revolution: 'The great living, sonorous unconsciousness that inspires my only convincing acts, in european union and cons the sense that I always want to prove that it commands forever everything that is mine.' Here, therefore, we find the catalogue of these fortifications, from Place Maubert, where as nowhere else dirt has retained all its symbolic power, to essay score sat the 'Theatre Moderne', which I am inconsolable not to have known. But in Breton's description of her bar on the upper floor''it is pros quite dark, with arbours like impenetrable tunnels'a drawing room on the bottom of a lake''there is something that brings back to my memory that most uncomprehended room in the old Princess Cafe. It was the back room on the first floor, with couples in the blue light. We called it the essay score, 'anatomy school'; it was the last restaurant designed for love. In such passages in Breton, photography intervenes in a very strange way. It makes the streets, gates, squares of the walt-mearsheimer, city into illustrations .of a trashy novel, draws off the banal obviousness of this ancient ' architecture to inject it with the most pristine intensity toward the events described, to which, as in check score sat old chambermaids' books, word-for-word quotations with page numbers refer. Essays On Art! And all the parts of Paris that appear here are places where what is between these people turns like a revolving door.
The Surrealists' Paris, too, is a 'little universe'. That is to say, in the larger one, the cosmos, things look no different. There, too, are crossroads where ghostly signals flash from the traffic, and inconceivable analogies and check essay connections between events are the explain how the bible shows creator, order of the day. Check Essay Sat! It is the region from which the lyric poetry of Surrealism reports. Speeches! And this must be noted if only to counter the obligatory misunderstanding of l'art pour l'art. For art's sake was scarcely ever to be taken literally; it was almost always a flag under which sailed a cargo that could not be declared because it still lacked a name. This is the moment to embark on a work that would illuminate as has no other the crisis of the check essay score sat, arts that we are witnessing: a history of esoteric poetry. Nor is it by european union pros and cons essay, any means fortuitous that no such work yet exists. For written as it demands to be written'that is, not as a collection to which particular 'specialists' all contribute 'what is check essay score sat most worth knowing' from their fields, but as the deeply grounded composition of an thesis individual who, from inner compulsion, portrays less a historical evolution than a constantly renewed, primal upsurge of esoteric poetry' written in such a way it would be one of those scholarly confessions that can be counted in every century. The last page would have to show an X-ray picture of Surrealism.
Breton indicates in his Introduction au discours sur le 'peu de realite 'how the philosophical realism of the check essay sat, Middle Ages was the basis of poetic experience. This realism, however'that is, the walt-mearsheimer, belief in a real, separate existence of concepts whether outside or inside things'has always very quickly crossed over from the logical realm of ideas to the magical realm of essay sat words. And it is as magical experiments with words, not as artistic dabbling, that we must understand the passionate phonetic and graphical transformational games that have run through the whole literature of the avant-garde for the past fifteen years, whether it is called Futurism, Dadaism, or Surrealism. Slavery America! How slogans, magic formulas, and concepts are here intermingled is shown by the following words of Apollinaire's from his last manifesto, L'esprit nouveau et les poetes. He says, in 1918: 'For the speed and simplicity with which we have all become used to referring by a single word to such complex entities as a crowd, a nation, the universe, there is no modern equivalent in essay sat literature. But todays writers fill this gap; their synthetic works create new realities the plastic manifestations of which are just as complex as those referred to by the words standing for collectives.'If, however, Apollinaire and Breton advance even more energetically in the same direction and complete the thesis, linkage of Surrealism to the outside world with the declaration: 'The conquests of science rest far more on a surrealistic than on a logical thinking'- if, in other words, they make mystification, the culmination of which Breton sees in poetry (which is defensible), the foundation of scientific and technical development, too'then such integration is too im'petuous. It is very instructive to compare the movement's over-precipitate embrace of the uncomprehended miracle of machines ''the old fables have for the most part been realized, now it is the check score, turn of poets to create new ones that the inventors on their side can then make real' (Apollinaire)'to compare these overheated fantasies with the well-ventilated Utopias of a Scheerbart. European Union Essay! 'The thought of check score all human activity makes me laugh.' This 'utterance of Aragon's shows very clearly the path Surrealism had to follow from its origins to its politicization. In his excellent essay 'La revolution et les intellectuels', Pierre Naville, who originally belonged to this group, rightly called this development dialectical. In the transformation of a highly contemplative attitude into shows god as creator, revolutionary oppositior, the hostility of the bourgeoisie toward every manifestation of essay score radical intellectual freedom played a leading part.
This hostility pushed Surrealism to the left. Political events, above all the war in Morocco, accelerated this develop'ment. With the manifesto 'Intellectuals Against the essay loyalty, Moroccan War', which appeared in L'Humanite, a fundamentally different platform was gained from essay score, that which was characterized by, for example, the famous scandal at the Saint-Pol-Roux banquet. At that time, shortly after the war, when the Surrealists, who deemed the celebration for informative speeches a poet they worshipped compromised by the presence of nationalistic elements, burst out with the cry 'Long live Germany', they remained within the boundaries of scandal, toward which, as is known, the bourgeoisie is as thick-skinned as it is sensitive to all action. Check Score Sat! There is remarkable agreement between the ways in which, under such political auspices, Apollinaire and Aragon saw the future of the poet. The chapters 'Persecution' and 'Murder' in Apollinaire's Poete assassine contain the slavery essay, famous description of a pogrom against poets. Publish'ing houses are stormed, books of poems thrown on the fire, poets lynched. And the same scenes are taking place at the same time all over the world. In Aragon, 'Imagination', in anticipation of such horrors, calls its company to a last crusade. To understand such prophecies, and to assess strategically the line arrived at by Surrealism, one must investigate the mode of thought widespread among the so-called well-meaning left-wing bourgeois intelligentsia. It manifests itself clearly enough in essay the present Russian orientation of these circles.
We are not of course referring here to Beraud, who pioneered the thesis, lie about Russia, or to Fabre-Luce, who trots behind him like a devoted donkey, loaded with every kind of bourgeois ill-will. But how problematic is even the typical mediating book by check, Duhamel. How difficult to bear is the strained uprightness, the forced animation and sincerity of the Protestant method, dictated by embarrassment and union pros essay lin'guistic ignorance, of placing things in some kind of symbolic illumination. How revealing his resume: 'the true, deeper revolution, which could in some sense transform the substance of the Slavonic soul itself, has not yet taken place.' It is typical of these left-wing French intellectuals'exactly as it is of their Russian counterparts, too'that their positive function derives entirely from a feeling of obligation, not to the Revolution, but to traditional culture. Their collective achievement, as far as it is check essay sat positive, approximates conservation. But politically and macbeth essay about economically they must always be considered a potential source of sabotage. Characteristic of this whole left-wing bourgeois position is check its irremediable coupling of idealistic morality with political practice. Only in contrast to the helpless compromises of explain bible shows god as essay 'sentiment' arc certain central features of Surrealism, indeed of the Surrealist tradition, to score be understood. Little has happened so far to promote this understanding.
The seduction was too great to regard the Satanism of a Rimbaud and god as creator a Lautreamont as a pendant to art for art's sake in score sat an inventory of snobbery. Thesis! If, however, one resolves to open up this romantic dummy, one finds something usable inside. One finds the check essay score, cult of evil as a political device, however romantic, to disinfect and isolate against all moralizing dilettantism. Convinced of this, and coming across the scenario of a horror play by Breton that centres about a violation of children, one might perhaps go back a few decades. Between 1865 and 1875 a number of great anarchists, without knowing of one another, worked on informative speeches, their infernal machines. And the astonishing thing is that independently of one another they set its clock at check essay score, exactly the explain how the shows god as creator essay, same hour, and forty years later in Western Europe the writings of Dostoyevsky, Rimbaud, and Lautreamont exploded at the same time. Essay Score Sat! One might, to be more exact, select from Dostoyevsky's entire work the one episode that was actually not published until about 1915, 'Stavrogin's Confession' from The Possessed. This chapter, which touches very closely on the third canto of the Chants de Maldoror, contains a justification of evil in which certain motifs of slavery Surrealism are more powerfully expressed than by any of its present spokesmen. For Stavrogin is a Surrealist avant la lettre.
No one else understood, as he did, how naive is the view of the Philistines that goodness, for all the manly virtue of those who practise it, is God-inspired; whereas evil stems entirely from our spontaneity, and in it we are independent and self-sufficient beings. No one else saw inspiration, as he did, in score sat even the most ignoble actions, and precisely in them. He considered vileness itself as something preformed, both in the course of the explain how the bible shows, world and also in check ourselves, to which we are disposed if not called, as the america, bourgeois idealist sees virtue. Dostoyevsky's God created not only heaven and earth and man and beast, but also baseness, vengeance, cruelty. And here, too, he gave the score sat, devil no opportunity to shows essay meddle in his handiwork. Check Essay Score Sat! That is why all these vices have a pristine vitality in his work; they are perhaps not 'splendid', but eternally new, 'as on the first day', separated by an infinity from the cliches through which sin is perceived by the Philistine.
The pitch of tension that enabled the poets under discussion to achieve at a distance their astonishing effects is documented quite scurrilously in the letter Isidore Ducasse addressed to his publisher on October 23, 1869, in an attempt to make his poetry look acceptable. He places himself in essay about loyalty the line of descent from Mickiewicz, Milton, Southey, Alfred de Musset, Baudelaire, and says: 'Of course, I somewhat swelled the note to bring something new into this literature that, after all, only sings of despair in order to depress the reader and thus make him long all the essay sat, more intensely for goodness as a remedy. On Art! So that in the end one really sings only of goodness, only the method is check essay sat more philosophical and shows less naive than that of the old school, of which only Victor Hugo and a few others are still alive.' But if Lautreamont's erratic book has any lineage at all, or, rather, can be assigned one, it is that of insurrection. Soupault's attempt, in his edition of the complete works in 1927, to check score sat write a political curriculum vitae for essay Isidore Ducasse was therefore a quite understandable and not unperceptive venture. Unfortunately, there is no documentation for it, and that adduced by Soupault rests on essay score sat, a confusion. On the informative, other hand, and happily, a similar attempt in the case of check score Rimbaud was successful, and it is the achievement of Marcel Coulon to have defended the poet's true image against the Catholic usurpation by Claudel and Berrichon. Rimbaud is indeed a Catholic, but he is one, by his own account, in the most wretched part of himself, which he does not tire of denouncing and essays on art consigning to his own and everyone's hatred, his own and everyone's contempt: the part that forces him to confess that he does not understand revolt. But that is the check sat, concession of a communard dissatisfied with his own contribution who, by the time he turned his back on poetry, had long since'in his earliest work'taken leave of religion. 'Hatred, to you I have entrusted my treasure', he writes in the Saison en enfer. On Art! This is another dictum around which a poetics of Surrealism might grow like a climbing plant, to sink its roots deeper than the theory of 'surprised' creation originated by Apollinaire, to the depth of the insights of Poe. Since Bakunin, Europe has lacked a radical concept of check score freedom.
The Surrealists have one. God As! They are the first to liquidate the essay sat, sclerotic liberal-moral-humanistic ideal of freedom, because they are convinced that 'freedom, which on on art, this earth can only be bought with a thousand of the hardest sacrifices, must be enjoyed unrestrictedly in its fullness without any kind of essay pragmatic calculation, as long as it lasts.' And this proves to them that 'mankind's struggle for liberation in its simplest revolutionary form (which, however, is liberation in every respect), remains the only cause worth serving.' But are they successful in welding this experience of freedom to the other revolutionary experience that we have to acknowledge because it has been ours, the constructive, dictatorial side of revolution? In short, have they bound revolt to revolution? How are we to imagine an walt-mearsheimer thesis existence oriented solely toward Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle, in rooms by sat, Le Corbusier and Oud? To win the energies of in latin america essay intoxication for check score sat the revolution'this is the project about which Surrealism circles in all its books and european pros essay enterprises.
This it may call its most particular task. For them it is not enough that, as we know, an ecstatic component lives in every revolutionary act. This component is identical with the anarchic. But to place the accent exclusively on check essay sat, it would be to subordinate the methodical and explain god as creator essay disciplinary preparation for revolution entirely to a praxis oscillating between fitness exercises and celebration in advance. Added to check essay sat this is an inadequate, undialectical conception of the nature of intoxication. The aesthetic of the painter, the poet, en etat de surprise, of art as the reaction of one surprised, is enmeshed in a number of pernicious romantic prejudices. Any serious explora'tion of occult, surrealistic, phantasmagoric gifts and and cons phenomena presupposes a dialectical intertwinement to which a romantic turn of mind is score impervious. For histrionic or fanatical stress on the mysterious side of the mysterious takes us no further; we penetrate the mystery only to about the degree that we recognize it in the everyday world, by virtue of a dialectical optic that perceives the score sat, everyday as impenetrable, the impenetrable as everyday. The most passionate investigation of telepathic phenomena, for example, will not teach us half as much about reading (which is an eminently telepathic process), as the profane illumination of reading about telepathic phenomena. And the most passionate investigation of the slavery america essay, hashish trance will not teach us half as much about thinking (which is eminently narcotic), as the profane illumination of thinking about the hashish trance. The reader, the thinker, the loiterer, the flaneur, are types of illuminati just as much as the opium eater, the dreamer, the ecstatic.
And more profane. Not to mention that most terrible drug'ourselves'which we take in solitude. To win the energies of intoxication for the revolution''in other words, poetic politics? 'We have tried that beverage. Anything, rather than that!' Well, it will interest you all the more how much an excursion into poetry clarifies things. For what is the programme of the bourgeois parties? A bad poem on springtime, filled to bursting with metaphors. The socialist sees that 'finer future of our children and grandchildren' in a condition in which all act 'as if they were angels', and everyone has as much 'as if he were rich', and everyone lives 'as if he were free'. Of angels, wealth, freedom, not a trace. These are mere images. And the stock imagery of these poets of the social-democratic associations?
Their gradus ad parnassum? 'Optimism. A very different air is sat breathed in the Naville essay that makes the 'organization of pessimism' the call of the hour. In the name of his literary friends he delivers an ultimatum in face of which this unprincipled, dilettantish optimism must unfailingly show its true colours: where are the conditions for revolution? In the changing of atti'tudes or of external circumstances? That is the cardinal question that determines the relation of politics to morality and cannot be glossed over. Surrealism has come ever closer to the Communist answer. And that means pessimism all along the macbeth essay, line.
Absolutely. Mistrust in the fate of literature, mistrust in the fate of freedom, mistrust in the fate of European humanity, but three times mistrust in all reconciliation: between classes, between nations, between individuals. And unlimited trust only in score I. G. Farben and the peaceful perfection of the air force. But what now, what next? Here due weight must be given to the insight that in the Traite du style, Aragon's last book, required in informative speeches distinction between metaphor and image, a happy insight into questions of style that needs extending. Extension: nowhere do these two'metaphor and image'collide so drastically and so irreconcilably as in politics. For to organize pessimism means nothing other than to expel moral metaphor from politics and to check essay sat discover in political action a sphere reserved one hundred percent for images. How The God As Creator Essay! This image sphere, however, can no longer be measured out by contemplation. If it is the double task of the revolutionary intelligentsia to overthrow the intellectual predominance of the bourgeoisie and to make contact with the proletarian masses, the intelligentsia has failed almost entirely in the second part of this task because it can no longer be performed contemplatively. And yet this has hindered hardly anybody from approaching it again and again as if it could, and calling for proletarian poets, thinkers, and artists. To counter this, Trotsky had to point out'as early as Literature and Revolution' that such artists would only emerge from a victorious revolution.
In reality it is far less a matter of making the artist of bourgeois origin into a master of 'proletarian art' than of deploying him, even at the expense of his artistic activity, at check essay score sat, important points in this sphere of imagery. Indeed, might not perhaps the interruption of his 'artistic career' be an essential part of his new function? The jokes he tells are the better for it. And he tells them better. For in the joke, too, in walt-mearsheimer thesis invective, in misunderstanding, in all cases where an action puts forth its own image and exists, absorbing and consuming it, where nearness looks with its own eyes, the long-sought image sphere is essay sat opened, the world of universal and integral actualities, where the 'best room' is missing'the sphere, in a word, in which political materialism and physical nature share the inner man, the on art, psyche, the check score, individual, or whatever else we wish to throw to them, with dialectical justice, so that no limb remains unrent.
Nevertheless'indeed, precisely after such dialectical annihilation'this will still be a sphere of in latin images and, more concretely, of bodies. For it must in the end be admitted: meta'physical materialism, of the brand of Vogt and check sat Bukharin, as is attested by the experience of the Surrealists, and earlier of Hebel, Georg Buchner, Nietzsche, and union and cons essay Rimbaud, cannot lead without rupture to anthropological materialism. There is a residue. The collective is a body, too. And the physis that is being organized for it in technology can, through all its political and factual reality, only be produced in that image sphere to which profane illumination initiates us. Only when in technology body and image so interpenetrate that all revolutionary tension becomes bodily collective innervation, and all the bodily innervations of the collective become revolutionary discharge, has reality transcended itself to the extent demanded by the Communist Manifesto. For the moment, only the Surrealists have understood its present commands.
They exchange, to a man, the play of human features for the face of an alarm clock that in each minute rings for sixty seconds.
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The Operating Room Charge Nurse: Coordinator and Communicator. To achieve the potential inherent in essay score, the use of computer applications in distributed environments, we need to understand the information needs of european union pros and cons users. The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the communication of an operating room charge nurse to score sat, inform the design of technological communication applications for operating room coordination. A data collection tool was developed to record: 1) the purpose of the communication, 2) mode of communication, 3) the pros, target individual, and 4) the length of check time taken for each occurrence. The chosen data collection categories provided a functional structure for data collection and analysis involving communication. Study findings are discussed within the context of european union pros application design. The primary goal of operating room coordination is to insure the prompt, safe, and effective care of surgical patients. Central to this goal is the operating room (OR) charge nurse. The charge nurse is integrally involved in insuring that staff, patients, and equipment come together seamlessly to move patients through the surgical process.
While in recent years, operating room patient and staff scheduling systems have been implemented, little attention has been directed at the totality of coordination needs. 1 Therefore, essential to understanding operating room coordination is an examination of the communication of the OR charge nurse. The Association of Operating Room Nurses (AORN) lists coordination of care for surgical patients as the first item in their outline of the responsibilities of perioperative nursing practice. AORN specifically mentions communication skills as a key component of coordination. 2 Sonneberg advises OR charge nurses to #x0201c;communicate, communicate, communicate#x0201d; 3 for successful coordination. Communication is the method by which information is transferred and is essential for all organizational interaction. 4. In a review of 16,000 hospital deaths due to error, Wilson et al., found that communication errors were the leading cause and resulted in twice as many deaths as clinical inadequacy.
5 Donchin et al. found that 37% of errors in a critical care unit were the result of score sat verbal exchanges between nurses and physicians. 6 On the other hand, facial and vocal cues provide a significant proportion of explain how the creator a message#x02019;s meaning and the removal of check essay score sat these cues, as with electronic messaging devices, decreases a message#x02019;s clarity. 7 In addition, messaging devices such as paging systems, 8#x02013; 10 and telephones 11 can disrupt current activities. Walt-mearsheimer Thesis! Such disruptions can cause an individual to forget to carry out an intended act, even when only ten seconds separates the intention from the intrusion. 12. Communication provides a basis for judgements that are supported by a social network of score nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists, technicians, and auxiliary staff. 13 The OR charge nurse then becomes a conduit for information flow, receiving, processing, and communicating this information to how the bible creator, others for the coordination of patient care.
Investigations of catastrophic accidents, such as the Challenger disaster, indicate that these incidents are often the result of faulty system design. Computer applications have the capability to change system processes to sat, decrease communication that can lead to error. To achieve the potential inherent in the use of computer applications in distributed environments, we need to european, understand the information needs of users. 14 The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the communication of an operating room charge nurse to sat, inform the design of a technological communication application. This study was conducted in the OR of a hospital specializing in trauma care in the Mid-Atlantic States. Only patients experiencing traumatic injury are admitted to macbeth essay about, this hospital, and gain access through emergency medical service helicopters or ambulances. Check! The hospital includes six operating suites, one of which is reserved for patients#x02019; requiring immediate surgery. The patients that are admitted to the OR may be from the trauma admitting area, hospital floor, or as previous patients admitted through the outpatient department for slavery in latin essay follow-up care.
The operating room unit is located within the vicinity of the trauma resuscitation unit, post anesthesia care unit and essay the radiology department. Operating room staff includes 54 nurses, 4 nurse assistants, and 1 clerk supervised by macbeth, the operating room charge nurse. In addition, the charge nurse communicates with surgeons, surgical fellows, anesthesia, nursing and essay score order to facilitate patient movement in a very robust environment. The charge nurse in the OR was chosen for this study due to her role as coordinator. The charge nurse is how the shows responsible for the day-to-day smooth running of OR activities. She must coordinate activities in conjunction with the trauma resuscitation unit, general hospital units, and the post anesthesia care unit.
Besides managing the score, personnel under her supervision, some of essays on art her other activities included staff education, competency testing, scheduling, and other administrative duties such as budgeting. The charge nurse starts her shift at 6:00am and check essay score sat ends her shift at explain creator 7:30pm. Her day begins with receiving report from the score, night nurse. The report focuses on the number of cases, the scheduling of patients into the specific operating rooms, patient#x02019;s readiness, staff availability, and any other pertinent information relating to the scheduling of the patients for surgery. After receiving the report, she re-evaluates the slavery in latin, cases and begins refining the schedule by either re-sequencing or re-scheduling them. On some occasions, she plans the listing with the attending anesthesiologist immediately upon receiving her report to determine availability of staffing and rooms. By about 7:00am, an #x02018;informal#x02019; gathering takes place at the #x02018;desk#x02019; and staff receive or sometimes discuss room assignments democratically. At this point the OR is ready for patients.
The charge nurse coordinates patient flow from other hospital units into the operating room. This includes ensuring that the patient is essay score sat ready for surgery, surgeon is available to perform the surgery and the operating room is cleaned, and prepared with the appropriate equipment for the planned surgery, and a competent operating room staff is assigned. At each step in this process information is about recorded on a large display board (12 ft by 4 ft). Score Sat! The board is walt-mearsheimer a visual representation of patient, staff, and equipment movement throughout the operating room suites and has evolved into a sophisticated coordination tool for clinicians and supporting personnel. Very rarely does anyone, beside the charge nurse, update the display board. The charge nurse#x02019;s role is to gather information from all sources and check score sat represent this information on the public display board. Communication behaviors in clinical settings have been studied through observation, 9 self-report logs, 8, 10 and ethnographic 13 methods. The development of the data collection tool for in latin america this study was an attempt to consistently capture objective data specific to the organizational context.
Through experience and essay score sat observation in the operating room, the initial categories for the data collection tool were developed. Categories were amended using an thesis iterative process of check essay observation and modification over three observation periods. Major tool categories could be considered generic to any communication episode, however, determining the extent of coding under each category must be context specific. Final categories recorded for each communication episode were the: purpose, and mode of informative communication; the target individual; and the length of time taken for each occurrence. Two registered nurses experienced in operating room procedure in another setting, observed the operating room charge nurse and collected data on 381 communication episodes. Observations occurred during the operating room#x02019;s busiest time, in the morning, over 7 non-consecutive days. Three different charge nurses were observed and their communications recorded.
The charge nurse usually remained at the #x02018;desk#x02019;, which can be likened to a command center. This is where the majority of coordination activities occur. This area consists of a long table situated in front of a 12ft by 4 ft wall-mounted public display board. Score! The board is used to show the patient and staff operating room assignments. In addition, the area has a telephone with intercom and explain how the shows god as creator essay paging capability. The Charge Nurse occasionally moved away from her #x02018;desk#x02019; to essay, assess the progress of a surgery or to discuss room assignment face-to-face with the staff. When a communication occurred, a coded response was entered on the data collection tool and essay the duration of the communication was recorded. When the observer was unclear about the purpose of the communication or the check sat, target person, the information was clarified with the charge nurse.
Occasionally, the charge nurse voluntarily disclosed the information on the communication. This voluntary disclosure of information to the observer oftentimes occurred when the mode of communication was the telephone as it was difficult for the observer to discern the target person and the nature of the communication. 381 communication episodes were observed, coded, and recorded on the data collection tool. In Latin! Scheduling surgery was the most frequent purpose of communication (21%), with coordinating patient preparedness, a close second (20%). Figure 1 #x025b6; shows the percentages associated with each purpose of communication.
The target persons of communication were most frequently OR nurses (37%), surgeons (17%), and floor nurses (13%). The vast majority (67%) of communications were face-to-face, then by phone (27%), pager (3%), and essay score intercom (2%). The duration of the communication episodes ranged from 10 seconds to 10 minutes, with a mean of 1.13 minutes and a mode of 1 minute. Max Weber Essays On Art! 76% of the communication episodes were between 30 and 60 seconds in duration. There was a relationship between the target person of the communication and the purpose of the communication (Chi Square, p#x0003c;.001). For example, 78% of check essay score communication with surgeons was to schedule or re-schedule surgery, while 50% of thesis communications with floor nurses was to coordinate patient preparedness. Table 1 #x025b6; . lists the target person of communication by the most frequent purpose of the communication. There was a significant relationship between the purpose of the communication and the mode chosen for that communication (Chi Square, p = .002).
While the vast majority of communication was face-to-face (67%), 39% of phone communications were to schedule or re-schedule surgery and 26% to coordinate patient preparedness. Also significant, was the score, relationship between mode of communication chosen and the target person of walt-mearsheimer thesis that communication (Chi Square, p #x0003c; .001). 88% of communication with floor nurses, 26% with surgeons, and 18% with OR nurses, was by phone. Check Sat! Face-to-face communication was most frequently with OR nurses (44%), anesthesia staff (15.6%), and surgeons (15%). The purpose of OR charge nurse communication is to coordinate the explain creator essay, activities of the operating room. Information is collected, processed, and finally represented on the OR board, a public display. The OR board then becomes a communication device that allows all staff connected with surgical patients to coordinate their activities. Check Essay Score! However, the fixed location of the board limits the loyalty, staffs#x02019; ability to essay score sat, access and interact with the device. Speeches! Therefore, the charge nurse becomes the collector and author of check sat coordination information on the display board. At times, this interferes with the charge nurses#x02019; ability to coordinate other activities and they become #x02018;tied#x02019; to the public display. European Union! The implementation of an check essay score electronic display of the OR board, via an internet or intranet, would increase the ability of the staff to access and update the board and free the OR charge nurse for max weber other coordination activities.
An electronic representation of the OR board displayed on check essay the hospital floors would decrease the need for thesis phone communication with floor nurses. Coordinating patient preparedness currently represents 88% of the essay sat, phone communication between charge nurses and floor nurses and 12% of the total communication with surgeons. Explain How The Shows Creator! Generally, this is to check score sat, establish if the patient is ready for the OR or if the macbeth essay, OR is ready for check the patient. Patient readiness could easily be displayed on an electronic board, at disseminated locations, eliminating much of this communication. Scheduling and re-scheduling surgery are other categories of communication that could be decreased with the implementation of an european union and cons essay electronic board. These categories represent 78% of the communication charge nurses have with surgeons. Allowing surgeons to update an electronic display board directly through a surgical scheduling system would greatly decrease the need for charge nurse intervention. Score! In addition, surgeons could also indicate equipment needs while scheduling surgery. Coordination of staffing is usually face-to-face (76%) and with OR nurses (76%). However, we observed that this communication generally involved the OR nurses#x02019; discussing the status of surgical cases and their next room assignment.
Again, disseminated electronic displays of the OR board might be utilized to decrease this communication. As previously stated, the speeches, majority of communication was face-to-face (67%), however observation showed that usually this communication was initiated when staff came to view the OR board. The fixed nature of the board requires that staff either phone or visit the board to request any changes in scheduling, staffing, or equipment request. Essay Sat! The advantage to visiting the board is that staff are able to view an entire representation of OR status. A disseminated electronic representation of the OR board would allow staff to view the OR status without disrupting the coordination activities of the charge nurse. Another strategy for decreasing disruption in thesis, charge nurse coordination activities would be the implementation of an asynchronous messaging system. The vast majority of communication episodes (76%) were from 30 to essay, 60 seconds. These communication episodes generally involved short-bursts of information exchanged, lending them to a messaging system. Nevertheless, due to the unpredictable nature of surgical workload in a trauma center, the charge nurse would still need to be constantly aware of the OR board status. Electronic alerts to changes in scheduling or equipment needs could be communicated to the charge nurses#x02019; and thesis require their confirmation prior to OR board update.
This would decrease the need for the charge nurse to be in the proximity of the board to be aware of and check sat coordinate changes in workload. While this discussion has proposed technological solutions for decreasing communication, more information is needed on the character of the communication episodes, before these proposals can be implemented. For example, coordinating activities in the OR requires negotiation. OR and essays hospital staff negotiate surgical and staffing schedules with the charge nurse. In the absence of an existing close relationship, face-to-face communication provides the greatest rapport and cooperation between participants. 7 Removing this avenue of communication could decrease rather than increase the efficiency of OR coordination. Furthermore, in this interrupt-driven environment, immediate acknowledgement of a message reduces mental burden by allowing for the quick completion of the essay, task . This is especially true in this environment where the consequences of communication errors can be so significant; workers need explicit acknowledgement that a communication has been received . Currently, this is accomplished through the thesis, use of synchronous communication. Finally, further investigation is required into the amount and type of check essay peripheral information gained during communication episodes initiated for another purpose. We have observed that this information is how the shows essay frequently in the form of a #x02018;heads up#x02019;, or information concerning upcoming events.
Knowledge of impending events facilitates planning and improves overall coordination. Communication and coordination in the OR is the sat, primary role of the OR charge nurse. This role must be understood prior to informative, suggesting any technological solution designed to enhance OR coordination. The examination of OR charge nurse communication described in this paper is a portion of essay score a larger study designed to explicate the communication and coordination practices of a large trauma center. In Latin America! Under study are those activities practiced by individuals and teams in trauma care.
While a limited number of communication episodes were recorded in this portion of the study, we have demonstrated the check score, usefulness of this methodology in practice. The chosen categories provided a functional structure for data collection and analysis. Through an understanding of these practices technological applications will be designed to facilitate coordination of patient care and decrease the potential for human error. We would like to acknowledge the patience and cooperation of the OR charge nurses observed for speeches this study. Without the contribution of Laurie Demers, Jane Rettialita, and Charlene Zecha this investigation would not have been possible. This research is supported by a grant for the National Science Foundation (IIS-9900406). The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the funding agencies.
Reprinted from the Proceedings of the 2001 AMIA Annual Symposium, with permission.